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1.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 324, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To initiate fecal and oral collections in prospective cohort studies for microbial analyses, it is essential to understand how field conditions and geographic differences may impact microbial communities. This study aimed to investigate the impact of fecal and oral sample collection methods and room temperature storage on collection samples for studies of the human microbiota. RESULTS: We collected fecal and oral samples from participants in two Iranian cohorts located in rural Yazd (n = 46) and urban Gonbad (n = 38) and investigated room temperature stability over 4 days of fecal (RNAlater and fecal occult blood test [FOBT] cards) and comparability of fecal and oral (OMNIgene ORAL kits and Scope mouthwash) collection methods. We calculated interclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) based on 3 alpha and 4 beta diversity metrics and the relative abundance of 3 phyla. After 4 days at room temperature, fecal stability ICCs and ICCs for Scope mouthwash were generally high for all microbial metrics. Similarly, the fecal comparability ICCs for RNAlater and FOBT cards were high, ranging from 0.63 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.75) for the relative abundance of Firmicutes to 0.93 (95% CI: 0.89, 0.96) for unweighted Unifrac. Comparability ICCs for OMNIgene ORAL and Scope mouthwash were lower than fecal ICCs, ranging from 0.55 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.70) for the Shannon index to 0.79 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.86) for Bray-Curtis. Overall, RNAlater, FOBT cards and Scope mouthwash were stable up to 4 days at room temperature. Samples collected using FOBT cards were generally comparable to RNAlater while the OMNIgene ORAL were less similar to Scope mouthwash. CONCLUSIONS: As microbiome measures for feces samples collected using RNAlater, FOBT cards and oral samples collected using Scope mouthwash were stable over four days at room temperature, these would be most appropriate for microbial analyses in these populations. However, one collection method should be consistently since each method may induce some differences.

2.
J Clin Invest ; 131(21)2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720087

RESUMO

Inflammatory disorders of the skin are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). To explore mechanisms by which these organs communicate, we performed single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on fibroblasts from humans and mice with IBD. This analysis revealed that intestinal inflammation promoted differentiation of a subset of intestinal stromal fibroblasts into preadipocytes with innate antimicrobial host defense activity. Furthermore, this process of reactive adipogenesis was exacerbated if mouse skin was inflamed as a result of skin wounding or infection. Since hyaluronan (HA) catabolism is activated during skin injury and fibroblast-to-adipocyte differentiation is dependent on HA, we tested the hypothesis that HA fragments could alter colon fibroblast function by targeted expression of human hyaluronidase-1 in basal keratinocytes from mouse skin. Hyaluronidase expression in the skin activated intestinal stromal fibroblasts, altered the fecal microbiome, and promoted excessive reactive adipogenesis and increased inflammation in the colon after challenge with dextran sodium sulfate. The response to digested HA was dependent on expression of TLR4 by preadipocytes. Collectively, these results suggest that the association between skin inflammation and IBD may be due to recognition by mesenchymal fibroblasts in the colon of HA released during inflammation of the skin.

3.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 1885-1892, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789871

RESUMO

The particularly interdisciplinary nature of human microbiome research makes the organization and reporting of results spanning epidemiology, biology, bioinformatics, translational medicine and statistics a challenge. Commonly used reporting guidelines for observational or genetic epidemiology studies lack key features specific to microbiome studies. Therefore, a multidisciplinary group of microbiome epidemiology researchers adapted guidelines for observational and genetic studies to culture-independent human microbiome studies, and also developed new reporting elements for laboratory, bioinformatics and statistical analyses tailored to microbiome studies. The resulting tool, called 'Strengthening The Organization and Reporting of Microbiome Studies' (STORMS), is composed of a 17-item checklist organized into six sections that correspond to the typical sections of a scientific publication, presented as an editable table for inclusion in supplementary materials. The STORMS checklist provides guidance for concise and complete reporting of microbiome studies that will facilitate manuscript preparation, peer review, and reader comprehension of publications and comparative analysis of published results.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747479

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The interrelationships among the gut microbiome, the MedDiet and a clinical endpoint of diabetes is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To identify gut microbial features of a MedDiet and examine whether the association between MedDiet and diabetes varies across individuals with different gut microbial profiles. METHODS: This study included 543 diabetes, 805 prediabetes and 394 normoglycemic participants from a cohort study of US Hispanic/Latino men and women. Fecal samples were profiled using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Adherence to MedDiet was evaluated by an index based on two 24-hour dietary recalls. RESULTS: A greater MedDiet adherence was associated with higher abundances of major dietary fiber metabolizers (e.g., Faecalibacterium Prausnitzii, FDR-adjusted p [q] =0.01), and lower abundances of biochemical specialists (e.g., Parabacteroides, q =0.04). The gut microbiomes of participants with greater MedDiet adherence were enriched for functions involved in dietary fiber degradation but depleted for those related to sulfur reduction and lactose and galactose degradation. The associations between MedDiet adherence and diabetes prevalence were significantly stronger among participants with depleted abundance of Prevotella (p  interaction =0.03 for diabetes, 0.02 for prediabetes/diabetes, and 0.02 for prediabetes). A one-standard deviation increment in the MedDiet index was associated with 24% [odds ratio (OR) =0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-0.98] and 7% (OR =0.93; 95% CI, 0.72-1.20) lower odds of diabetes in Prevotella non-carriers and carriers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to MedDiet is associated with diverse gut microorganisms and microbial functions. The inverse association between the MedDiet and diabetes prevalence varies significantly depending on gut microbial composition.

5.
mSystems ; : e0113621, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726486

RESUMO

Environmental monitoring in public spaces can be used to identify surfaces contaminated by persons with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and inform appropriate infection mitigation responses. Research groups have reported detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on surfaces days or weeks after the virus has been deposited, making it difficult to estimate when an infected individual may have shed virus onto a SARS-CoV-2-positive surface, which in turn complicates the process of establishing effective quarantine measures. In this study, we determined that reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) detection of viral RNA from heat-inactivated particles experiences minimal decay over 7 days of monitoring on eight out of nine surfaces tested. The properties of the studied surfaces result in RT-qPCR signatures that can be segregated into two material categories, rough and smooth, where smooth surfaces have a lower limit of detection. RT-qPCR signal intensity (average quantification cycle [Cq]) can be correlated with surface viral load using only one linear regression model per material category. The same experiment was performed with untreated viral particles on one surface from each category, with essentially identical results. The stability of RT-qPCR viral signal demonstrates the need to clean monitored surfaces after sampling to establish temporal resolution. Additionally, these findings can be used to minimize the number of materials and time points tested and allow for the use of heat-inactivated viral particles when optimizing environmental monitoring methods. IMPORTANCE Environmental monitoring is an important tool for public health surveillance, particularly in settings with low rates of diagnostic testing. Time between sampling public environments, such as hospitals or schools, and notifying stakeholders of the results should be minimal, allowing decisions to be made toward containing outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The Safer At School Early Alert program (SASEA) (https://saseasystem.org/), a large-scale environmental monitoring effort in elementary school and child care settings, has processed >13,000 surface samples for SARS-CoV-2, detecting viral signals from 574 samples. However, consecutive detection events necessitated the present study to establish appropriate response practices around persistent viral signals on classroom surfaces. Other research groups and clinical labs developing environmental monitoring methods may need to establish their own correlation between RT-qPCR results and viral load, but this work provides evidence justifying simplified experimental designs, like reduced testing materials and the use of heat-inactivated viral particles.

6.
Microorganisms ; 9(10)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683324

RESUMO

Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) claims the lives of half of patients within the first year of diagnosis, and its incidence has rapidly increased since the 1970s despite extensive research into etiological factors. The changes in the microbiome within the distal esophagus in modern populations may help explain the growth in cases that other common EAC risk factors together cannot fully explain. The precursor to EAC is Barrett's esophagus (BE), a metaplasia adapted to a reflux-mediated microenvironment that can be challenging to diagnose in patients who do not undergo endoscopic screening. Non-invasive procedures to detect microbial communities in saliva, oral swabs and brushings from the distal esophagus allow us to characterize taxonomic differences in bacterial population abundances within patients with BE versus controls, and may provide an alternative means of BE detection. Unique microbial communities have been identified across healthy esophagus, BE, and various stages of progression to EAC, but studies determining dynamic changes in these communities, including migration from proximal stomach and oral cavity niches, and their potential causal role in cancer formation are lacking. Helicobacter pylori is negatively associated with EAC, and the absence of this species has been implicated in the evolution of chromosomal instability, a main driver of EAC, but joint analyses of microbiome and host genomes are needed. Acknowledging technical challenges, future studies on the prediction of microbial dynamics and evolution within BE and the progression to EAC will require larger esophageal microbiome datasets, improved bioinformatics pipelines, and specialized mathematical models for analysis.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(21): e021934, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713713

RESUMO

Background Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a small molecule derived from the metabolism of dietary nutrients by gut microbes and contributes to cardiovascular disease. Plasma TMAO increases following consumption of red meat. This metabolic change is thought to be partly because of the expansion of gut microbes able to use nutrients abundant in red meat. Methods and Results We used data from a randomized crossover study to estimate the degree to which TMAO can be estimated from fecal microbial composition. Healthy participants received a series of 3 diets that differed in protein source (red meat, white meat, and non-meat), and fecal, plasma, and urine samples were collected following 4 weeks of exposure to each diet. TMAO was quantitated in plasma and urine, while shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed on fecal DNA. While the cai gene cluster was weakly correlated with plasma TMAO (rho=0.17, P=0.0007), elastic net models of TMAO were not improved by abundances of bacterial genes known to contribute to TMAO synthesis. A global analysis of all taxonomic groups, genes, and gene families found no meaningful predictors of TMAO. We postulated that abundances of known genes related to TMAO production do not predict bacterial metabolism, and we measured choline- and carnitine-trimethylamine lyase activity during fecal culture. Trimethylamine lyase genes were only weakly correlated with the activity of the enzymes they encode. Conclusions Fecal microbiome composition does not predict systemic TMAO because, in this case, gene copy number does not predict bacterial metabolic activity. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01427855.

8.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individual diet components and specific dietary regimens have been shown to impact the gut microbiome. OBJECTIVE: Here, we explored the contribution of long-term diet by searching for dietary patterns that would best associate with the gut microbiome in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Using a priori and a posteriori approaches, we constructed dietary patterns from a food frequency questionnaire completed by 1800 adults in the American Gut Project. Dietary patterns were defined as groups of participants or combinations of food variables (factors) driven by criteria ranging from individual nutrients to overall diet. We associated these patterns with 16S rRNA-based gut microbiome data for a subset of 744 participants. RESULTS: Compared to individual features (e.g., fiber and protein), or to factors representing reduced number of dietary features, five a posteriori dietary patterns based on food groups, were best associated with gut microbiome beta-diversity (P ≤ 0.0002). Two patterns followed Prudent-like diets from plant-based to flexitarian and exhibited the highest Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) scores. Two other patterns presented Western-like diets with a gradient in HEI-2010 scores. A fifth pattern consisted mostly of participants following an exclusion diet (e.g., low-carbohydrate). Notably, gut microbiome alpha-diversity was significantly lower in the most Western pattern compared to the flexitarian pattern (P ≤ 0.009), and the exclusion diet was associated with low relative abundance of Bifidobacterium (P ≤ 1.2 × 10-7), which was better explained by diet than health status. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that global-diet a posteriori patterns were more associated with gut microbiome variations than individual dietary features among adults in the United States. These results confirm that evaluating diet as a whole is important when studying the gut microbiome. It will also facilitate the design of more personalized dietary strategies in general populations.

9.
Adv Nutr ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612492

RESUMO

Vitamin B-12 deficiency is a major public health problem affecting individuals across the lifespan, with known hematological, neurological, and obstetric consequences. Emerging evidence suggests that vitamin B-12 may have an important role in other aspects of human health, including the composition and function of the gastrointestinal (gut) microbiome. Vitamin B-12 is synthesized and utilized by bacteria in the human gut microbiome and is required for over a dozen enzymes in bacteria, compared to only two in humans. However, the impact of vitamin B-12 on the gut microbiome has not been established. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence that links vitamin B-12 and the gut microbiome. A structured search strategy was used to identify in vitro, animal, and human studies that assessed vitamin B-12 status, dietary intake, or supplementation, and the gut microbiome using culture-independent techniques. A total of 22 studies (3 in vitro, 8 animal, 11 human observational studies) were included. Nineteen studies reported vitamin B-12 intake, status, or supplementation was associated with gut microbiome outcomes, including beta-diversity, alpha-diversity, relative abundance of bacteria, functional capacity, or short chain fatty acid production. Evidence suggests vitamin B-12 may be associated with changes in bacterial abundance. While results from in vitro studies suggest vitamin B-12 may increase alpha-diversity and shift gut microbiome composition (beta-diversity), findings from animal studies and observational human studies were heterogeneous. Based on evidence from in vitro and animal studies, microbiome outcomes may differ by cobalamin form and co-intervention. To date, few prospective observational studies and no randomized trials have been conducted to examine the effects of vitamin B-12 on the human gut microbiome. The impact of vitamin B-12 on the gut microbiome needs to be elucidated to inform screening and public health interventions. Statement of significance: Vitamin B-12 is synthesized and utilized by bacteria in the human gut microbiome and is required by over a dozen enzymes in bacteria. However, to date, no systematic reviews have been conducted to evaluate the impact of vitamin B-12 on the gut microbiome, or its implications for human health.

10.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696320

RESUMO

People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PWH) have reduced gut barrier integrity ("leaky gut") that permits diffusion of microbial antigens (microbial translocation) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the circulation, stimulating inflammation. A potential source of this disturbance, in addition to gut lymphoid tissue CD4+ T-cell depletion, is the interaction between the gut barrier and gut microbes themselves. We evaluated the relationship of gut barrier integrity, as indexed by plasma occludin levels (higher levels corresponding to greater loss of occludin from the gut barrier), to gut microbial diversity. PWH and people without HIV (PWoH) participants were recruited from community sources and provided stool, and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to characterize the gut microbiome. Microbial diversity was indexed by Faith's phylogenetic diversity (PD). Participants were 50 PWH and 52 PWoH individuals, mean ± SD age 45.6 ± 14.5 years, 28 (27.5%) women, 50 (49.0%) non-white race/ethnicity. PWH had higher gut microbial diversity (Faith's PD 14.2 ± 4.06 versus 11.7 ± 3.27; p = 0.0007), but occludin levels were not different (1.84 ± 0.311 versus 1.85 ± 0.274; p = 0.843). Lower gut microbial diversity was associated with higher plasma occludin levels in PWH (r = -0.251; p = 0.0111), but not in PWoH. A multivariable model demonstrated an interaction (p = 0.0459) such that the correlation between Faith's PD and plasma occludin held only for PWH (r = -0.434; p = 0.0017), but not for PWoH individuals (r = -0.0227; p = 0.873). The pattern was similar for Shannon alpha diversity. Antiretroviral treatment and viral suppression status were not associated with gut microbial diversity (ps > 0.10). Plasma occludin levels were not significantly related to age, sex or ethnicity, nor to current or nadir CD4 or plasma viral load. Higher occludin levels were associated with higher plasma sCD14 and LPS, both markers of microbial translocation. Together, the findings suggest that damage to the gut epithelial barrier is an important mediator of microbial translocation and inflammation in PWH, and that reduced gut microbiome diversity may have an important role.

11.
medRxiv ; 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704096

RESUMO

Schools are high-risk settings for SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but necessary for children’s educational and social-emotional wellbeing. While wastewater monitoring has been implemented to mitigate outbreak risk in universities and residential settings, its effectiveness in community K-12 sites is unknown. We implemented a wastewater and surface monitoring system to detect SARS-CoV-2 in nine elementary schools in San Diego County. Ninety-three percent of identified cases were associated with either a positive wastewater or surface sample; 67% were associated with a positive wastewater sample, and 40% were associated with a positive surface sample. The techniques we utilized allowed for near-complete genomic sequencing of wastewater and surface samples. Passive environmental surveillance can complement approaches that require individual consent, particularly in communities with limited access and/or high rates of testing hesitancy. One sentence summary: Passive wastewater and surface environmental surveillance can identify up to 93% of on-campus COVID-19 cases in public elementary schools; positive samples can be sequenced to monitor for variants of concerns with neighborhood level resolution.

12.
mSystems ; 6(5): e0069121, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609167

RESUMO

Microbiome data are sparse and high dimensional, so effective visualization of these data requires dimensionality reduction. To date, the most commonly used method for dimensionality reduction in the microbiome is calculation of between-sample microbial differences (beta diversity), followed by principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA). Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP) is an alternative method that can reduce the dimensionality of beta diversity distance matrices. Here, we demonstrate the benefits and limitations of using UMAP for dimensionality reduction on microbiome data. Using real data, we demonstrate that UMAP can improve the representation of clusters, especially when the clusters are composed of multiple subgroups. Additionally, we show that UMAP provides improved correlation of biological variation along a gradient with a reduced number of coordinates of the resulting embedding. Finally, we provide parameter recommendations that emphasize the preservation of global geometry. We therefore conclude that UMAP should be routinely used as a complementary visualization method for microbiome beta diversity studies. IMPORTANCE UMAP provides an additional method to visualize microbiome data. The method is extensible to any beta diversity metric used with PCoA, and our results demonstrate that UMAP can indeed improve visualization quality and correspondence with biological and technical variables of interest. The software to perform this analysis is available under an open-source license and can be obtained at https://github.com/knightlab-analyses/umap-microbiome-benchmarking; additionally, we have provided a QIIME 2 plugin for UMAP at https://github.com/biocore/q2-umap.

13.
ACS Sens ; 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714054

RESUMO

The development of an extensive toolkit for potential point-of-care diagnostics that is expeditiously adaptable to new emerging pathogens is of critical public health importance. Recently, a number of novel CRISPR-based diagnostics have been developed to detect SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we outline the development of an alternative CRISPR nucleic acid diagnostic utilizing a Cas13d ribonuclease derived from Ruminococcus flavefaciens XPD3002 (CasRx) to detect SARS-CoV-2, an approach we term SENSR (sensitive enzymatic nucleic acid sequence reporter) that can detect attomolar concentrations of SARS-CoV-2. We demonstrate 100% sensitivity in patient-derived samples by lateral flow and fluorescence readout with a detection limit of 45 copy/µL. This technology expands the available nucleic acid diagnostic toolkit, which can be adapted to combat future pandemics.

14.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 15: 100271, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34589776

RESUMO

Background: Substance use disorder emerges from a complex interaction between genetic predisposition, life experiences, exposure, and subsequent adaptation of biological systems to the repeated use of drugs. Recently, investigators have proposed that the human microbiota may play a role in brain health and disease. In particular, the human oral microbiome is a distinct and diverse ecological niche with its composition influenced by external factors such as lifestyle, diet, and oral hygiene. This investigation examined whether individuals with substance use disorder (SU) show a different oral microbiome pattern and whether this pattern is sufficient to delineate the SU group from healthy comparison (HC) subjects. Methods: Participants were a sub-sample (N â€‹= â€‹177) of the Tulsa 1000 (T-1000) project. We analyzed 123 SU and 54 HC subjects using 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing to characterize the oral microbiome. Results: The groups differed significantly based on the UniFrac distance, a phylogenetic-based measure of beta diversity, but did not differ in alpha diversity. Using a machine learning approach, microbiome features combined with socio-demographic variables successfully categorized group membership with 87%-92% accuracy, even after controlling for external factors such as smoking or alcohol consumption. SU individuals with relatively lower diversity also reported higher levels of negative reinforcement experiences associated with their primary substance of abuse. Conclusions: Oral microbiome features are useful to sufficiently differentiate SU from HC subjects. There is some evidence that subjects whose drug use is driven by negative reinforcement show an impoverished oral microbiome. Taken together, the oral microbiome may help to understand the dysfunctional biological processes that promote substance use or may be pragmatically useful as a risk or severity biological marker.

15.
Cell ; 184(19): 4939-4952.e15, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508652

RESUMO

The emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States (U.S.) went largely undetected due to inadequate testing. New Orleans experienced one of the earliest and fastest accelerating outbreaks, coinciding with Mardi Gras. To gain insight into the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the U.S. and how large-scale events accelerate transmission, we sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes during the first wave of the COVID-19 epidemic in Louisiana. We show that SARS-CoV-2 in Louisiana had limited diversity compared to other U.S. states and that one introduction of SARS-CoV-2 led to almost all of the early transmission in Louisiana. By analyzing mobility and genomic data, we show that SARS-CoV-2 was already present in New Orleans before Mardi Gras, and the festival dramatically accelerated transmission. Our study provides an understanding of how superspreading during large-scale events played a key role during the early outbreak in the U.S. and can greatly accelerate epidemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Epidemias , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Bases de Dados como Assunto , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , Texas , Viagem , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Genome Res ; 31(11): 2131-2137, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479875

RESUMO

The number of publicly available microbiome samples is continually growing. As data set size increases, bottlenecks arise in standard analytical pipelines. Faith's phylogenetic diversity (Faith's PD) is a highly utilized phylogenetic alpha diversity metric that has thus far failed to effectively scale to trees with millions of vertices. Stacked Faith's phylogenetic diversity (SFPhD) enables calculation of this widely adopted diversity metric at a much larger scale by implementing a computationally efficient algorithm. The algorithm reduces the amount of computational resources required, resulting in more accessible software with a reduced carbon footprint, as compared to previous approaches. The new algorithm produces identical results to the previous method. We further demonstrate that the phylogenetic aspect of Faith's PD provides increased power in detecting diversity differences between younger and older populations in the FINRISK study's metagenomic data.

17.
J Pain ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Gut dysbiosis, defined as pathogenic alterations in the distribution and abundance of different microbial species, is associated with neuropathic pain in a variety of clinical conditions, but this has not been explored in the context of neuropathy in people with HIV (PWH). METHODS: We assessed gut microbial diversity and dysbiosis in PWH and people without HIV (PWoH), some of whom reported distal neuropathic pain (DNP). DNP was graded on a standardized, validated severity scale. The gut microbiome was characterized using 16S rRNA sequencing and diversity was assessed using phylogenetic tree construction. Songbird analysis (https://github.com/mortonjt/songbird) was used to produce a multinomial regression model predicting counts of specific microbial taxa through metadata covariate columns. RESULTS: Participants were 226 PWH and 101 PWoH, mean (SD) age 52.0 (13.5), 21.1% female, 54.7% men who have sex with men, 44.7% non-white. Among PWH, median (interquartile range, IQR) nadir and current CD4 were 174 (21, 302) and 618 (448, 822), respectively; 90% were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. PWH and PWoH did not differ with respect to microbiome diversity as indexed by Faith's phylogenetic diversity (PD). More severe DNP was associated with lower alpha diversity as indexed by Faith's phylogenetic diversity in PWH (Spearman's ρ = .224, P = 0.0007), but not in PWoH (Spearman's ρ = .032, P = .748). These relationships were not confounded by demographics or disease factors. In addition, the log-ratio of features identified at the genus level as Blautia to Lachnospira was statistically significantly higher in PWH with DNP than in PWH without DNP (t-test, P = 1.01e-3). Furthermore, the log-ratio of Clostridium features to Lachnospira features also was higher in PWH with DNP than in those without (t-test, P = 6.24e-5). CONCLUSIONS: Our results, in combination with previous findings in other neuropathic pain conditions, suggest that gut dysbiosis, particularly reductions in diversity and relative increases in the ratios of Blautia and Clostridium to Lachnospira, may contribute to prevalent DNP in PWH. Two candidate pathways for these associations, involving microbial pro-inflammatory components and microbially-produced anti-inflammatory short chain fatty acids, are discussed. Future studies might test interventions to re-establish a healthy gut microbiota and determine if this prevents or improves DNP. PERSPECTIVE: The association of neuropathic pain in people with HIV with reduced gut microbial diversity and dysbiosis raises the possibility that re-establishing a healthy gut microbiota might ameliorate neuropathic pain in HIV by reducing proinflammatory and increasing anti-inflammatory microbial products.

18.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1961203, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424832

RESUMO

We aimed to determine if the newborn gut microbiota is an underlying determinant of early life growth trajectories. 132 Hispanic infants were recruited at 1-month postpartum. The infant gut microbiome was characterized using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Rapid infant growth was defined as a weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) change greater than 0.67 between birth and 12-months of age. Measures of infant growth included change in WAZ, weight-for-length z-score (WLZ), and body mass index (BMI) z-scores from birth to 12-months and infant anthropometrics at 12-months (weight, skinfold thickness). Of the 132 infants, 40% had rapid growth in the first year of life. Multiple metrics of alpha-diversity predicted rapid infant growth, including a higher Shannon diversity (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.07-3.29; p = .03), Faith's phylogenic diversity (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.05-1.94; p = .03), and richness (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01-1.08; p = .02). Many of these alpha-diversity metrics were also positively associated with increases in WAZ, WLZ, and BMI z-scores from birth to 12-months (pall<0.05). Importantly, we identified subsets of microbial consortia whose abundance were correlated with these same measures of infant growth. We also found that rapid growers were enriched in multiple taxa belonging to genera such as Acinetobacter, Collinsella, Enterococcus, Neisseria, and Parabacteroides. Moreover, measures of the newborn gut microbiota explained up to an additional 5% of the variance in rapid growth beyond known clinical predictors (R2 = 0.37 vs. 0.32, p < .01). These findings indicate that a more mature gut microbiota, characterized by increased alpha-diversity, at as early as 1-month of age, may influence infant growth trajectories in the first year of life.

19.
mSystems ; 6(4): e0079321, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374562

RESUMO

Wastewater-based surveillance has gained prominence and come to the forefront as a leading indicator of forecasting COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) infection dynamics owing to its cost-effectiveness and its ability to inform early public health interventions. A university campus could especially benefit from wastewater surveillance, as universities are characterized by largely asymptomatic populations and are potential hot spots for transmission that necessitate frequent diagnostic testing. In this study, we employed a large-scale GIS (geographic information systems)-enabled building-level wastewater monitoring system associated with the on-campus residences of 7,614 individuals. Sixty-eight automated wastewater samplers were deployed to monitor 239 campus buildings with a focus on residential buildings. Time-weighted composite samples were collected on a daily basis and analyzed on the same day. Sample processing was streamlined significantly through automation, reducing the turnaround time by 20-fold and exceeding the scale of similar surveillance programs by 10- to 100-fold, thereby overcoming one of the biggest bottlenecks in wastewater surveillance. An automated wastewater notification system was developed to alert residents to a positive wastewater sample associated with their residence and to encourage uptake of campus-provided asymptomatic testing at no charge. This system, integrated with the rest of the "Return to Learn" program at the University of California (UC) San Diego-led to the early diagnosis of nearly 85% of all COVID-19 cases on campus. COVID-19 testing rates increased by 1.9 to 13× following wastewater notifications. Our study shows the potential for a robust, efficient wastewater surveillance system to greatly reduce infection risk as college campuses and other high-risk environments reopen. IMPORTANCE Wastewater-based epidemiology can be particularly valuable at university campuses where high-resolution spatial sampling in a well-controlled context could not only provide insight into what affects campus community as well as how those inferences can be extended to a broader city/county context. In the present study, a large-scale wastewater surveillance was successfully implemented on a large university campus enabling early detection of 85% of COVID-19 cases thereby averting potential outbreaks. The highly automated sample processing to reporting system enabled dramatic reduction in the turnaround time to 5 h (sample to result time) for 96 samples. Furthermore, miniaturization of the sample processing pipeline brought down the processing cost significantly ($13/sample). Taken together, these results show that such a system could greatly ameliorate long-term surveillance on such communities as they look to reopen.

20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2327: 87-92, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410641

RESUMO

Host DNA makes up the majority of DNA in a saliva sample. Therefore, shotgun metagenomics can be an inefficient way to evaluate the microbial populations of saliva since often <10% of the sequencing reads are microbial. In this chapter, we describe a method to deplete human DNA from fresh or frozen saliva samples, allowing for more efficient shotgun metagenomic sequencing of the salivary microbial community.

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