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1.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleurodesis is done as an in-patient procedure to control symptomatic recurrent malignant pleural effusion (MPE) and has a success rate of 75-80%. Thoracic ultrasonography has been shown in a small study to predict pleurodesis success early by demonstrating cessation of lung sliding (a normal sign seen in healthy patients, lung sliding indicates normal movement of the lung inside the thorax). We aimed to investigate whether the use of thoracic ultrasonography in pleurodesis pathways could shorten hospital stay in patients with MPE undergoing pleurodesis. METHODS: The Efficacy of Sonographic and Biological Pleurodesis Indicators of Malignant Pleural Effusion (SIMPLE) trial was an open-label, randomised controlled trial done in ten respiratory centres in the UK and one respiratory centre in the Netherlands. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with confirmed MPE who required talc pleurodesis via either a chest tube or as poudrage during medical thorascopy were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to thoracic ultrasonography-guided care or standard care via an online platform using a minimisation algorithm. In the intervention group, daily thoracic ultrasonography examination for lung sliding in nine regions was done to derive an adherence score: present (1 point), questionable (2 points), or absent (3 points), with a lowest possible score of 9 (preserved sliding) and a highest possible score of 27 (complete absence of sliding); the chest tube was removed if the score was more than 20. In the standard care group, tube removal was based on daily output volume (per British Thoracic Society Guidelines). The primary outcome was length of hospital stay, and secondary outcomes were pleurodesis failure at 3 months, time to tube removal, all-cause mortality, symptoms and quality-of-life scores, and cost-effectiveness of thoracic ultrasonography-guided care. All outcomes were assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population (patients with missing data excluded), and a non-inferiority analysis of pleurodesis failure was done in the per-protocol population. This trial was registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN16441661. FINDINGS: Between Dec 31, 2015, and Dec 17, 2019, 778 patients were assessed for eligibility and 313 participants (165 [53%] male) were recruited and randomly assigned to thoracic ultrasonography-guided care (n=159) or standard care (n=154). In the modified intention-to-treat population, the median length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the intervention group (2 days [IQR 2-4]) than in the standard care group (3 days [2-5]; difference 1 day [95% CI 1-1]; p<0·0001). In the per-protocol analysis, thoracic ultrasonography-guided care was non-inferior to standard care in terms of pleurodesis failure at 3 months, which occurred in 27 (29·7%) of 91 patients in the intervention group versus 34 (31·2%) of 109 patients in the standard care group (risk difference -1·5% [95% CI -10·2% to 7·2%]; non-inferiority margin 15%). Mean time to chest tube removal in the intervention group was 2·4 days (SD 2·5) versus 3·1 days (2·0) in the standard care group (mean difference -0·72 days [95% CI -1·22 to -0·21]; p=0·0057). There were no significant between-group differences in all-cause mortality, symptom scores, or quality-of-life scores, except on the EQ-5D visual analogue scale, which was significantly lower in the standard care group at 3 months. Although costs were similar between the groups, thoracic ultrasonography-guided care was cost-effective compared with standard care. INTERPRETATION: Thoracic ultrasonography-guided care for pleurodesis in patients with MPE results in shorter hospital stay (compared with the British Thoracic Society recommendation for pleurodesis) without reducing the success rate of the procedure at 3 months. The data support consideration of standard use of thoracic ultrasonography in patients undergoing MPE-related pleurodesis. FUNDING: Marie Curie Cancer Care Committee.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e052598, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a home-based rehabilitation programme for people assessed as being at risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty offers superior outcomes to traditional outpatient physiotherapy. DESIGN: A prospective, single-blind, two-arm randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: 14 National Health Service physiotherapy departments in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 621 participants identified at high risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty using a bespoke screening tool. INTERVENTIONS: A multicomponent home-based rehabilitation programme delivered by rehabilitation assistants with supervision from qualified therapists versus usual care outpatient physiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (LLFDI) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the Oxford Knee Score (a disease-specific measure of function), Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Quality of Life subscale, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, 5 dimension, 5 level version of Euroqol (EQ-5D-5L) and physical function assessed using the Figure of 8 Walk test, 30 s Chair Stand Test and Single Leg Stance. RESULTS: 621 participants were randomised between March 2015 and January 2018. 309 were assigned to CORKA (Community Rehabilitation after Knee Arthroplasty) home-based rehabilitation, receiving a median five treatment sessions (IQR 4-7). 312 were assigned to usual care, receiving a median 4 sessions (IQR 2-6). The primary outcome, LLFDI function total score at 12 months, was collected for 279 participants (89%) in the home-based CORKA group and 287 participants (92%) in the usual care group. No clinically or statistically significant difference was found between the groups (intention-to-treat adjusted difference=0.49 points; 95% CI -0.89 to 1.88; p=0.48). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups on any of the patient-reported or physical secondary outcome measures at 6 or 12 months.There were 18 participants in the intervention group reporting a serious adverse event (5.8%), only one directly related to the intervention, all other adverse events recorded throughout the trial related to underlying chronic medical conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The CORKA intervention was not superior to usual care. The trial detected no significant differences, clinical or statistical, between the two groups on either primary or secondary outcomes. CORKA offers an evaluation of an intervention utilising a different service delivery model for this patient group. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN13517704.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Método Simples-Cego , Medicina Estatal
3.
Mol Cell ; 81(16): 3246-3261.e11, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352208

RESUMO

The Wnt/ß-catenin pathway is a highly conserved, frequently mutated developmental and cancer pathway. Its output is defined mainly by ß-catenin's phosphorylation- and ubiquitylation-dependent proteasomal degradation, initiated by the multi-protein ß-catenin destruction complex. The precise mechanisms underlying destruction complex function have remained unknown, largely because of the lack of suitable in vitro systems. Here we describe the in vitro reconstitution of an active human ß-catenin destruction complex from purified components, recapitulating complex assembly, ß-catenin modification, and degradation. We reveal that AXIN1 polymerization and APC promote ß-catenin capture, phosphorylation, and ubiquitylation. APC facilitates ß-catenin's flux through the complex by limiting ubiquitylation processivity and directly interacts with the SCFß-TrCP E3 ligase complex in a ß-TrCP-dependent manner. Oncogenic APC truncation variants, although part of the complex, are functionally impaired. Nonetheless, even the most severely truncated APC variant promotes ß-catenin recruitment. These findings exemplify the power of biochemical reconstitution to interrogate the molecular mechanisms of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling.


Assuntos
Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Proteína Axina/genética , beta Catenina/genética , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/ultraestrutura , Proteína Axina/química , Proteína Axina/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Complexos Multiproteicos/genética , Complexos Multiproteicos/ultraestrutura , Fosforilação/genética , Multimerização Proteica/genética , Proteólise , Ubiquitinação/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(10): 1130-1140, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties of azithromycin suggest therapeutic potential against COVID-19. Randomised data in mild-to-moderate disease are not available. We assessed whether azithromycin is effective in reducing hospital admission in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective, open-label, randomised superiority trial was done at 19 hospitals in the UK. We enrolled adults aged at least 18 years presenting to hospitals with clinically diagnosed, highly probable or confirmed COVID-19 infection, with fewer than 14 days of symptoms, who were considered suitable for initial ambulatory management. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to azithromycin (500 mg once daily orally for 14 days) plus standard care or to standard care alone. The primary outcome was death or hospital admission from any cause over the 28 days from randomisation. The primary and safety outcomes were assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381962) and recruitment is closed. FINDINGS: 298 participants were enrolled from June 3, 2020, to Jan 29, 2021. Three participants withdrew consent and requested removal of all data, and three further participants withdrew consent after randomisation, thus, the primary outcome was assessed in 292 participants (145 in the azithromycin group and 147 in the standard care group). The mean age of the participants was 45·9 years (SD 14·9). 15 (10%) participants in the azithromycin group and 17 (12%) in the standard care group were admitted to hospital or died during the study (adjusted OR 0·91 [95% CI 0·43-1·92], p=0·80). No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 managed without hospital admission, adding azithromycin to standard care treatment did not reduce the risk of subsequent hospital admission or death. Our findings do not support the use of azithromycin in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford and Pfizer.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Padrão de Cuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 346, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to three quarters of surgical patients receive inadequate pain relief, with 40% of patients reporting severe pain following knee replacement, which may indicate the current pain relief strategies using opiate-based analgesia cannot achieve patient satisfaction. Liposomal bupivacaine is liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine which has been reported to be effective for up to 72 h. The study of Peri-Articular Anaesthetic for Replacement of the Knee (SPAARK) trial has been designed to assess the effectiveness of peri-articular liposomal bupivacaine and bupivacaine hydrochloride compared with peri-articular bupivacaine hydrochloride alone in the management of post-operative pain following knee replacement. METHODS/DESIGN: The SPAARK trial is a multi-centre, patient-blinded, randomised controlled trial. The co-primary outcomes are post-operative recovery assessed by global QoR-40 scores at 72 h and cumulative pain VAS score from 6 to 72 h following surgery. Longer-term measures of the co-primary outcomes are collected at 6 weeks and 6 and 12 months post randomisation, together with secondary outcomes, i.e. the Oxford Knee Score, and the American Knee Society Score. Cumulative opiate use and fitness for discharge are measured up to 72 h post-surgery. The analysis approaches for the primary and secondary outcomes are described here, as are the descriptive statistics which will be reported. The full SPAARK protocol has already been published. RESULTS: The co-primary outcomes will be analysed using multivariate linear regression adjusting for stratification factors and other important prognostic variables, including baseline scores in the case of the QoR-40. The adjusted mean difference between the two groups together with 97.5% confidence intervals will be reported for each of the primary outcomes. Other continuous variables will be assessed using the same method. Binary outcomes will be assessed using chi-squared tests. DISCUSSION: The paper provides details of the planned statistical analyses for the SPAARK trial and aims to reduce the risk of outcome reporting bias from prior data knowledge. Any changes or deviations from this statistical analysis plan will be described and justified in the final study report. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN54191675 . Registered on 13 November 2017.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Bupivacaína , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Bupivacaína/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia
7.
J Arthroplasty ; 36(8): 2887-2895.e7, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate changes in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) after revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). METHODS: A total of 10,727 patients undergoing elective rTKA were recruited from the UK National Health Service PROMs data set from 2013 to 2019. PROMs were collected at baseline and six months to assess joint function (Oxford Knee Score, OKS) and quality of life (EQ-5D). Associations with a change in the OKS (COKS) were investigated through multiple linear regression. RESULTS: The mean COKS was 12.4 (standard deviation 10.7) points. A total of 6776 of 10,329 (65.6%) patients demonstrated increase in the OKS above the minimal important change of 7.5 points. The median change in the EQ-5D utility was 0.227 (interquartile range 0.000 to 0.554). A total of 4917 of 9279 (53.0%) patients achieved a composite endpoint of improvement greater than the minimal important change for joint function and 'better' QoL as per the Paretian analysis. A total of 7477 of 10,727 (69.7%) patients reported satisfaction with rTKA. A total of 7947 of 10,727 (74.1%) patients felt surgery was a success. A total of 4888 of 10,632 (46.0%) patients reported one or more adverse events. A higher preoperative OKS was associated with a lower COKS (coefficient -0.63 [95% confidence interval -0.67 to -0.60]). Other factors associated with a lower COKS were postoperative complication(s), age under 60 years, longer duration of knee problems, patients who identified as disabled, problems in EQ-5D dimensions of anxiety/depression and self-care, comorbid conditions (circulatory problems, diabetes, and depression), and earlier year of procedure in the data set. CONCLUSION: Two-thirds of patients experienced a meaningful improvement in joint function after rTKA. However, there was a high frequency of patient-reported complications. These findings may enable better informed discussion of the risks and benefits of discretionary rTKA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Qualidade de Vida , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação Pessoal , Medicina Estatal
8.
Bone Joint J ; 103-B(6): 1047-1054, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902306

RESUMO

AIMS: To identify the prevalence of neuropathic pain after lower limb fracture surgery, assess associations with pain severity, quality of life and disability, and determine baseline predictors of chronic neuropathic pain at three and at six months post-injury. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a UK multicentre randomized controlled trial (Wound Healing in Surgery for Trauma; WHiST) dataset including adults aged 16 years or over following surgery for lower limb major trauma. The trial recruited 1,547 participants from 24 trauma centres. Neuropathic pain was measured at three and six months using the Doleur Neuropathique Questionnaire (DN4); 701 participants provided a DN4 score at three months and 781 at six months. Overall, 933 participants provided DN4 for at least one time point. Physical disability (Disability Rating Index (DRI) 0 to 100) and health-related quality-of-life (EuroQol five-dimension five-level; EQ-5D-5L) were measured. Candidate predictors of neuropathic pain included sex, age, BMI, injury mechanism, concurrent injury, diabetes, smoking, alcohol, analgaesia use pre-injury, index surgery location, fixation type, Injury Severity Score, open injury, and wound care. RESULTS: The median age of the participants was 51 years (interquartile range 35 to 64). At three and six months post-injury respectively, 32% (222/702) and 30% (234/787) had neuropathic pain, 56% (396/702) and 53% (413/787) had chronic pain without neuropathic characteristics, and the remainder were pain-free. Pain severity was higher among those with neuropathic pain. Linear regression analyses found that those with neuropathic pain at six months post-injury had more physical disability (DRI adjusted mean difference 11.49 (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.84 to 15.14; p < 0.001) and poorer quality of life (EQ-5D utility -0.15 (95% CI -0.19 to -0.11); p < 0.001) compared to those without neuropathic characteristics. Logistic regression identified that prognostic factors of younger age, current smoker, below knee fracture, concurrent injuries, and regular analgaesia pre-injury were associated with higher odds of post-injury neuropathic pain. CONCLUSION: Pain with neuropathic characteristics is common after lower limb fracture surgery and persists to six months post-injury. Persistent neuropathic pain is associated with substantially poorer recovery. Further attention to identify neuropathic pain post-lower limb injury, predicting patients at risk, and targeting interventions, is indicated. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2021;103-B(6):1047-1054.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Traumatismos da Perna/cirurgia , Neuralgia/epidemiologia , Neuralgia/etiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1469-1474, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135454

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe a new objective classification for open fractures of the lower limb and to correlate the classification with patient-centred outcomes. METHODS: The proposed classification was investigated within a cohort of adults with open fractures of the lower limb who were recruited as part of two large clinical trials within the UK Major Trauma Network. The classification was correlated with patient-reported Disability Rating Index (DRI) and EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) health-related quality of life in the year after injury, and with deep infection at 30 days, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of a deep surgical site infection. RESULTS: A total of 748 participants were included in the analysis. Of these, 288 (38.5%) had a simple open fracture and 460 (61.5%) had a complex fracture as defined by the new classification system. At 12 months, the mean DRI in the simple fracture group was 32.5 (SD 26.8) versus 43.9 (SD 26.1) in the complex fracture group (odds ratio (OR) 8.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.69 to 12.69). At 12 months the mean health-related quality of life (EQ-5D utility) in the simple fracture group was 0.59 (SD 0.29) versus 0.56 (SD 0.32) in the complex fracture group (OR -0.03; 95% CI -0.09 to 0.02). The differences in the rate of deep infection at 30 days was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The Orthopaedic Trauma Society open fracture classification is based upon objective descriptors of the injury and correlates with patient-centred outcomes in a large cohort of open fractures of the lower limb. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1469-1474.


Assuntos
Fraturas Expostas/classificação , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Fraturas Expostas/etiologia , Fraturas Expostas/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ortopedia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Sociedades Médicas , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica
11.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(65): 1-116, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33250068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over 100,000 primary knee arthroplasty operations are undertaken annually in the UK. Around 15-30% of patients do not report a good outcome. Better rehabilitation strategies may improve patient-reported outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To compare the outcomes from a traditional outpatient physiotherapy model with those from a home-based rehabilitation programme for people assessed as being at risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty. DESIGN: An individually randomised, two-arm controlled trial with a blinded outcome assessment, a parallel health economic evaluation and a nested qualitative study. SETTING: The trial took place in 14 NHS physiotherapy departments. PARTICIPANTS: People identified as being at high risk of a poor outcome after knee arthroplasty. INTERVENTIONS: A multicomponent home-based rehabilitation package delivered by rehabilitation assistants with supervision from qualified therapists compared with usual-care outpatient physiotherapy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the Oxford Knee Score (a disease-specific measure of function); Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; Quality of Life subscale; Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly; EuroQol-5 Dimensions, five-level version; and physical function assessed using the Figure-of-8 Walk Test, 30-Second Chair Stand Test and Single Leg Stance. Data on the use of health-care services, time off work and informal care were collected using participant diaries. RESULTS: In total, 621 participants were randomised. A total of 309 participants were assigned to the COmmunity based Rehabilitation after Knee Arthroplasty (CORKA) home-based rehabilitation programme, receiving a median of five treatment sessions (interquartile range 4-7 sessions). A total of 312 participants were assigned to usual care, receiving a median of four sessions (interquartile range 2-6 sessions). The primary outcome, Late Life Function and Disability Instrument function total score at 12 months, was collected for 279 participants (89%) in the home-based CORKA group and 287 participants (92%) in the usual-care group. No clinically or statistically significant difference was found between the groups (intention-to-treat adjusted difference 0.49 points, 95% confidence interval -0.89 to 1.88 points; p = 0.48). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in any of the patient-reported or physical secondary outcome measures at 6 or 12 months post randomisation. The health economic analysis found that the CORKA intervention was cheaper to provide than usual care (£66 less per participant). Total societal costs (combining health-care costs and other costs) were lower for the CORKA intervention than usual care (£316 less per participant). Adopting a societal perspective, CORKA had a 75% probability of being cost-effective at a threshold of £30,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Adopting the narrower health and social care perspective, CORKA had a 43% probability of being cost-effective at the same threshold. LIMITATIONS: The interventions were of short duration and were set within current commissioning guidance for UK physiotherapy. Participants and treating therapists could not be blinded. CONCLUSIONS: This randomised controlled trial found no important differences in outcomes when post-arthroplasty rehabilitation was delivered using a home-based, rehabilitation assistant-delivered rehabilitation package or a traditional outpatient model. However, the health economic evaluation found that when adopting a societal perspective, the CORKA home-based intervention was cost-saving and more effective than, and thus dominant over, usual care, owing to reduced time away from paid employment for this group. Further research could look at identifying the risk of poor outcome and further evaluation of a cost-effective treatment, including the workforce model to deliver it. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN13517704. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 65. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

12.
Bone Jt Open ; 1(6): 205-213, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225291

RESUMO

Aims: Torus fractures of the distal radius are the most common fractures in children. The NICE non-complex fracture guidelines recently concluded that bandaging was probably the optimal treatment for these injuries. However, across the UK current treatment varies widely due to a lack of evidence underpinning the guidelines. The Forearm Fracture Recovery in Children Evaluation (FORCE) trial evaluates the effect of a soft bandage and immediate discharge compared with rigid immobilization. Methods: FORCE is a multicentre, parallel group randomized controlled equivalence trial. The primary outcome is the Wong-Baker FACES pain score at three days after randomization and the primary analysis of this outcome will use a multivariate linear regression model to compare the two groups. Secondary outcomes are measured at one and seven days, and three and six-weeks post-randomization and include the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) upper extremity limb score, EuroQoL EQ-5D-Y, analgesia use, school absence, complications, and healthcare resource use. The planned statistical and health economic analyses for this trial are described here. The FORCE trial protocol has been published separately. Conclusion: This paper provides details of the planned analyses for this trial, and will reduce the risks of outcome reporting bias and data driven results.Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2020;1-6:205-213.

13.
Bone Jt Open ; 1(6): 214-221, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225292

RESUMO

Aims: Torus fractures are the most common childhood fracture, accounting for 500,000 UK emergency attendances per year. UK treatment varies widely due to lack of scientific evidence. This is the protocol for a randomized controlled equivalence trial of 'the offer of a soft bandage and immediate discharge' versus 'rigid immobilization and follow-up as per the protocol of the treating centre' in the treatment of torus fractures . Methods: Children aged four to 15-years-old inclusive who have sustained a torus/buckle fracture of the distal radius with/without an injury to the ulna are eligible to take part. Baseline pain as measured by the Wong Baker FACES pain scale, function using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) upper limb, and quality of life (QoL) assessed with the EuroQol EQ-5D-Y will be collected. Each patient will be randomly allocated (1:1, stratified by centre and age group (four to seven years and ≥ eight years) to either a regimen of the offer of a soft bandage and immediate discharge or rigid immobilization and follow-up as per the protocol of the treating centre. Results: At day one, three, and seven, data on pain, function, QoL, immobilization, and analgesia will be collected. Three and six weeks after injury, the main outcomes plus data on complications, resource use, and school absence will be collected. The primary outcome is the Wong-Baker FACES pain scale at three days post-randomization. All data will be obtained through electronic questionnaires completed by the participants and/or parents/guardian.Cite this article: Bone Joint Open 2020;1-6:214-221.

14.
Health Technol Assess ; 24(38): 1-86, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major trauma is the leading cause of death in people aged < 45 years. Patients with major trauma usually have lower-limb fractures. Surgery to fix the fractures is complicated and the risk of infection may be as high as 27%. The type of dressing applied after surgery could potentially reduce the risk of infection. OBJECTIVES: To assess the deep surgical site infection rate, disability, quality of life, patient assessment of the surgical scar and resource use in patients with surgical incisions associated with fractures following major trauma to the lower limbs treated with incisional negative-pressure wound therapy versus standard dressings. DESIGN: A pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Twenty-four specialist trauma hospitals representing the UK Major Trauma Network. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1548 adult patients were randomised from September 2016 to April 2018. Exclusion criteria included presentation > 72 hours after injury and inability to complete questionnaires. INTERVENTIONS: Incisional negative-pressure wound therapy (n = 785), in which a non-adherent absorbent dressing covered with a semipermeable membrane is connected to a pump to create a partial vacuum over the wound, versus standard dressings not involving negative pressure (n = 763). Trial participants and the treating surgeon could not be blinded to treatment allocation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deep surgical site infection at 30 days was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes were deep infection at 90 days, the results of the Disability Rating Index, health-related quality of life, the results of the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale and resource use collected at 3 and 6 months post surgery. RESULTS: A total of 98% of participants provided primary outcome data. There was no evidence of a difference in the rate of deep surgical site infection at 30 days. The infection rate was 6.7% (50/749) in the standard dressing group and 5.8% (45/770) in the incisional negative-pressure wound therapy group (intention-to-treat odds ratio 0.87; 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 1.33; p = 0.52). There was no difference in the deep surgical site infection rate at 90 days: 13.2% in the standard dressing group and 11.4% in the incisional negative-pressure wound therapy group (odds ratio 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 1.19; p = 0.32). There was no difference between the two groups in disability, quality of life or scar appearance at 3 or 6 months. Incisional negative-pressure wound therapy did not reduce the cost of treatment and was associated with a low probability of cost-effectiveness. LIMITATIONS: Owing to the emergency nature of the surgery, we anticipated that some patients who were randomised would subsequently be unable or unwilling to participate. However, the majority of the patients (85%) agreed to participate. Therefore, participants were representative of the population with lower-limb fractures associated with major trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study do not support the use of negative-pressure wound therapy in patients having surgery for major trauma to the lower limbs. FUTURE WORK: Our work suggests that the use of incisional negative-pressure wound therapy dressings in other at-risk surgical wounds requires further investigation. Future research may also investigate different approaches to reduce postoperative infections, for example the use of topical antibiotic preparations in surgical wounds and the role of orthopaedic implants with antimicrobial coatings when fixing the associated fracture. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN12702354 and UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio ID20416. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 24, No. 38. See the NIHR Journals Library for further project information.

15.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 147, 2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) need to be reported so that their results can be unambiguously and robustly interpreted. Binary outcomes yield unique challenges, as different analytical approaches may produce relative, absolute, or no treatment effects, and results may be particularly sensitive to the assumptions made about missing data. This review of recently published RCTs aimed to identify the methods used to analyse binary primary outcomes, how missing data were handled, and how the results were reported. METHODS: Systematic review of reports of RCTs published in January 2019 that included a binary primary outcome measure. We identified potentially eligible English language papers on PubMed, without restricting by journal or medical research area. Papers reporting the results from individually randomised, parallel-group RCTs were included. RESULTS: Two hundred reports of RCTs were included in this review. We found that 64% of the 200 reports used a chi-squared-style test as their primary analytical method. Fifty-five per cent (95% confidence interval 48% to 62%) reported at least one treatment effect measure, and 38% presented only a p value without any treatment effect measure. Missing data were not always adequately described and were most commonly handled using available case analysis (69%) in the 140 studies that reported missing data. Imputation and best/worst-case scenarios were used in 21% of studies. Twelve per cent of articles reported an appropriate sensitivity analysis for missing data. CONCLUSIONS: The statistical analysis and reporting of treatment effects in reports of randomised trials with a binary primary endpoint requires substantial improvement. Only around half of the studied reports presented a treatment effect measure, hindering the understanding and dissemination of the findings. We also found that published trials often did not clearly describe missing data or sensitivity analyses for these missing data. Practice for secondary endpoints or observational studies may differ.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
JAMA ; 323(6): 519-526, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044942

RESUMO

Importance: Following surgery to treat major trauma-related fractures, deep wound infection rates are high. It is not known if negative pressure wound therapy can reduce infection rates in this setting. Objective: To assess outcomes in patients who have incisions resulting from surgery for lower limb fractures related to major trauma and were treated with either incisional negative pressure wound therapy or standard wound dressing. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial conducted at 24 trauma hospitals representing the UK Major Trauma Network that included 1548 patients aged 16 years or older who underwent surgery for a lower limb fracture caused by major trauma from July 7, 2016, through April 17, 2018, with follow-up to December 11, 2018. Interventions: Incisional negative pressure wound therapy (n = 785), which involved a specialized dressing used to create negative pressure over the wound, vs standard wound dressing not involving negative pressure (n = 763). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome measure was deep surgical site infection at 30 days diagnosed according to the criteria from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A preplanned secondary analysis of the primary outcome was performed at 90 days. The secondary outcomes were patient-reported disability (Disability Rating Index), health-related quality of life (EuroQol 5-level EQ-5D), surgical scar assessment (Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale), and chronic pain (Douleur Neuropathique Questionnaire) at 3 and 6 months, as well as other local wound healing complications at 30 days. Results: Among 1548 participants who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 49.8 [20.3] years; 561 [36%] were aged ≤40 years; 583 [38%] women; and 881 [57%] had multiple injuries), 1519 (98%) had data available for the primary outcome. At 30 days, deep surgical site infection occurred in 5.84% (45 of 770 patients) of the incisional negative pressure wound therapy group and in 6.68% (50 of 749 patients) of the standard wound dressing group (odds ratio, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.57 to 1.33]; absolute risk difference, -0.77% [95% CI, -3.19% to 1.66%]; P = .52). There was no significant difference in the deep surgical site infection rate at 90 days (11.4% [72 of 629 patients] in the incisional negative pressure wound therapy group vs 13.2% [78 of 590 patients] in the standard wound dressing group; odds ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.59 to 1.19]; absolute risk difference, -1.76% [95% CI, -5.41% to 1.90%]; P = .32). For the 5 prespecified secondary outcomes reported, there were no significant differences at any time point. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients who underwent surgery for major trauma-related lower limb fractures, use of incisional negative pressure wound therapy, compared with standard wound dressing, resulted in no significant difference in the rate of deep surgical site infection. The findings do not support the use of incisional negative pressure wound therapy in this setting, although the event rate at 30 days was lower than expected. Trial Registration: isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN12702354.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fraturas Expostas/cirurgia , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia
17.
Trials ; 20(1): 732, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Optimising the management of peri-operative pain and recovery following knee replacement has been identified as a patient priority. Current pain relief strategies use opiate-based analgesia; however, up to 50% of patients experience significant side effects. Local anaesthetic incisional infiltration is one alternative. The length of the duration of action is a major limiting factor of current local anaesthetic techniques. Liposomal bupivacaine has been reported to be effective for up to 72 h. This randomised controlled trial will evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of liposomal bupivacaine. METHODS: SPAARK is a patient-blinded, multi-centre, active comparator, superiority, two-arm, parallel-group randomised controlled trial. Five hundred patients undergoing knee replacement will be recruited and randomised to liposomal bupivacaine plus bupivacaine hydrochloride or bupivacaine hydrochloride alone. The co-primary outcomes are the Quality of Recovery 40 measured at 72 h post-surgery and also cumulative pain measured daily using a 0-10 visual analogue scale for the first 3 days following surgery. Secondary outcomes include cumulative opioid consumption, fitness for discharge, functional outcomes assessed using the Oxford Knee Score and American Knee Society Score, the EuroQol five dimensions instrument and complications. A cost utility analysis is also planned. DISCUSSION: The clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of liposomal bupivacaine have yet to be evaluated in the National Health Service, making this trial appropriate and timely. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN registry, ISRCTN54191675. Registered on 14 November 2017.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Anestésicos Locais/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Locais/economia , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/economia , Bupivacaína/efeitos adversos , Bupivacaína/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Medicamentos , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Humanos , Lipossomos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Pós-Operatória/economia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
18.
Behav Brain Res ; 372: 112063, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255673

RESUMO

Neuroimaging research has independently implicated the extrastriate body area (EBA) in distinguishing between different visual perspectives and morphologies of bodies within visual processing. However, the combined processing of these physical attributes towards neural EBA response remains unclear, and may be crucial in influencing higher-order, aesthetic evaluation of bodies. Indeed, EBA alterations amongst eating disorder patients have been associated with disturbances in body image, and disruption to EBA activity amongst healthy individuals has been shown to influence aesthetic evaluations made towards bodies. Therefore, the present study used images of slim and large female bodies viewed from egocentric and allocentric perspectives, to investigate neural EBA response amongst healthy females (N = 30). In addition, participants provided behavioural aesthetic and weight evaluations of all model stimuli. Results revealed an interaction, bilaterally, between visual perspective and body size towards EBA activity, with multi-voxel pattern analysis revealing distinct neural patterns between the four conditions. However, EBA activity did not relate to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology. No direct relationship was found between EBA activity and behavioural evaluations of model stimuli; however, a whole brain analysis revealed that higher-order, prefrontal regions were associated with cognitive evaluations of large bodies. Taken together, our results suggest that the EBA is an integral core region in discriminating between multiple physical attributes of the body, which is likely to provide important information to higher-order brain regions which make aesthetic evaluations towards bodies.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Tamanho Corporal , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estética , Feminino , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Med Chem ; 62(12): 5863-5884, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070916

RESUMO

Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a secreted copper-dependent amine oxidase that cross-links collagens and elastin in the extracellular matrix and is a critical mediator of tumor growth and metastatic spread. LOX is a target for cancer therapy, and thus the search for therapeutic agents against LOX has been widely sought. We report herein the medicinal chemistry discovery of a series of LOX inhibitors bearing an aminomethylenethiophene (AMT) scaffold. High-throughput screening provided the initial hits. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to the discovery of AMT inhibitors with sub-micromolar half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in a LOX enzyme activity assay. Further SAR optimization yielded the orally bioavailable LOX inhibitor CCT365623 with good anti-LOX potency, selectivity, pharmacokinetic properties, as well as anti-metastatic efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteína-Lisina 6-Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Disponibilidade Biológica , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Camundongos , Metástase Neoplásica/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiofenos/química , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico
20.
Trials ; 20(1): 186, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of major trauma, the rate of wound infection in surgical incisions created during fracture fixation amongst patients with closed high-energy injuries is high. One of the factors which may reduce the risk of surgical site infection is the type of dressing applied over the closed incision. The WHIST trial evaluates the effects of negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) compared with standard dressings. METHODS/DESIGN: The WHIST trial is a multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. The primary outcome is the rate of deep surgical site infection at 30 days after major trauma. Secondary outcomes are measured at 3 and 6 months post-randomisation and include the Disability Rating Index, the EuroQoL EQ-5D-5 L, the Doleur Neuropathique Questionnaire, a patient-reported scar assessment, and record of complications. The analysis approaches for the primary and secondary outcomes are described here, as are the descriptive statistics which will be reported. The full WHIST protocol has already been published. DISCUSSION: This paper provides details of the planned statistical analyses for this trial and will reduce the risks of outcome reporting bias and data driven results. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials database, ISRCTN12702354 . Registered on 9 December 2015.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Cicatrização , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/diagnóstico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
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