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2.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(9): e17-e32, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469310

RESUMO

Background: Pulmonary complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) are diverse and encompass acute and chronic disease. The understanding of the natural history of pulmonary complications of SCD is limited, no specific therapies exist, and these complications are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality.Methods: We gathered a multidisciplinary group of pediatric and adult hematologists, pulmonologists, and emergency medicine physicians with expertise in SCD-related lung disease along with an SCD patient advocate for an American Thoracic Society-sponsored workshop to review the literature and identify key unanswered clinical and research questions. Participants were divided into four subcommittees on the basis of expertise: 1) acute chest syndrome, 2) lower airways disease and pulmonary function, 3) sleep-disordered breathing and hypoxia, and 4) pulmonary vascular complications of SCD. Before the workshop, a comprehensive literature review of each subtopic was conducted. Clinically important questions were developed after literature review and were finalized by group discussion and consensus.Results: Current knowledge is based on small, predominantly observational studies, few multicenter longitudinal studies, and even fewer high-quality interventional trials specifically targeting the pulmonary complications of SCD. Each subcommittee identified the three or four most important unanswered questions in their topic area for researchers to direct the next steps of clinical investigation.Conclusions: Important and clinically relevant questions regarding sickle cell lung disease remain unanswered. High-quality, multicenter, longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials designed and implemented by teams of multidisciplinary clinician-investigators are needed to improve the care of individuals with SCD.

3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 84, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223375

RESUMO

Introduction: Sickle cell disease can result in visually threatening eye disease (proliferative sickle cell retinopathy). This can be prevented with timely eye screening. It is important for patients to understand their role. Our research is to determine the knowledge, beliefs and practices (KBP) regarding eye disease of Sickle Cell patients and the impact of genotype, demographic and socio-economic status. Methods: Cross-sectional study at the Sickle Cell Unit, Jamaica during May 2016. Consecutive non-pregnant adults (>18 years of age) attendees, who were not acutely unwell, were invited to participate. A 26-item single interviewer administered questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data, highest level of education completed, employment status, sickle cell genotype, if known, frequency of clinic attendance and patients' knowledge, beliefs and practices. Ten of these were yes/no questions, whereas eight required that they choose correct answers from four choices. Results: One hundred subjects were recruited, 72% had homozygous SS disease. Their ages ranged from 18-63 years (mean 34.1 years, SD11.3). Fifty six percent were female. Most (75%) had achieved at least secondary education. The majority (62%) were unemployed. The mean belief score was 3.6/6(60%) and the mean knowledge and practice scores were 3.3/7(47%) and 2.2/5(44%) respectively. Milder genotypes had higher knowledge scores vs the more severe genotypes (4.0 vs 3.2, P=0.013). Only 28% had regular eye examinations; less than 50% had seen an ophthalmologist in the past year. Practice scores were higher in employed than in unemployed patients (2.6 vs 1.9, (P=0.04)). Employed patients were more likely than the unemployed to see their eye doctor for regular eye "examinations" (42.1% vs 19.4%, χ2=6.0, P=0.02). The practice and knowledge scores correlated (r2=0.363, P<0.001) and belief score (r2=0.304, P =0.002), except where 98% believed they should see an ophthalmologist annually, but only 42% did, and 21% had never. Conclusion: Knowledge scores were fair, however, the practice was not always in keeping with knowledge.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Doenças Retinianas/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Doenças Retinianas/genética , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 880, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787307

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease with striking disparities across racial and ethnic groups. Despite its relatively high burden, representation of individuals of African ancestry in asthma genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been inadequate, and true associations in these underrepresented minority groups have been inconclusive. We report the results of a genome-wide meta-analysis from the Consortium on Asthma among African Ancestry Populations (CAAPA; 7009 asthma cases, 7645 controls). We find strong evidence for association at four previously reported asthma loci whose discovery was driven largely by non-African populations, including the chromosome 17q12-q21 locus and the chr12q13 region, a novel (and not previously replicated) asthma locus recently identified by the Trans-National Asthma Genetic Consortium (TAGC). An additional seven loci reported by TAGC show marginal evidence for association in CAAPA. We also identify two novel loci (8p23 and 8q24) that may be specific to asthma risk in African ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Asma/epidemiologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455414

RESUMO

We used a deeply sequenced dataset of 910 individuals, all of African descent, to construct a set of DNA sequences that is present in these individuals but missing from the reference human genome. We aligned 1.19 trillion reads from the 910 individuals to the reference genome (GRCh38), collected all reads that failed to align, and assembled these reads into contiguous sequences (contigs). We then compared all contigs to one another to identify a set of unique sequences representing regions of the African pan-genome missing from the reference genome. Our analysis revealed 296,485,284 bp in 125,715 distinct contigs present in the populations of African descent, demonstrating that the African pan-genome contains ~10% more DNA than the current human reference genome. Although the functional significance of nearly all of this sequence is unknown, 387 of the novel contigs fall within 315 distinct protein-coding genes, and the rest appear to be intergenic.

7.
Am J Hematol ; 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295335

RESUMO

The cell adhesion molecule P-selectin plays a key role in the pathogenesis of a vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). In the double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 SUSTAIN study, crizanlizumab (humanized, anti-P-selectin monoclonal antibody) 5 mg/kg significantly lowered the rate of VOC in patients with SCD by 45% vs placebo. In SUSTAIN, patients with SCD were randomized to crizanlizumab 2.5 mg/kg, crizanlizumab 5 mg/kg, or placebo intravenously 14 times over 52 weeks. The primary endpoint was the annual rate of VOC with crizanlizumab vs placebo. This post hoc descriptive analysis evaluated the proportion of patients who did not experience a VOC during the study in the following subgroups: VOCs in the year prior to study entry (2-4/5-10), SCD genotype (HbSS/non-HbSS), and concomitant hydroxyurea use (yes/no). More patients were VOC event-free in the crizanlizumab 5 mg/kg arm than in the placebo arm, including those with more frequent prior VOCs (ie, 5-10; 28.0% vs 4.2%), the HbSS genotype (31.9% vs 17.0%) and/or using concomitant hydroxyurea (33.3% vs 17.5%). Further analyses of secondary endpoints demonstrated that crizanlizumab treatment significantly increased time-to-first VOC vs placebo in these subgroups. The rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were similar between treatment arms across all subgroups. This post hoc analysis of SUSTAIN shows that in patients with a high number of prior VOCs, on concomitant hydroxyurea and/or with the HbSS genotype, crizanlizumab treatment increases the likelihood of patients being VOC event-free and delays time-to-first VOC.

8.
Br J Haematol ; 181(2): 242-251, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29504121

RESUMO

This study investigated the association of nutritional and haematological variables with maximum time-averaged mean velocity (TAMV) measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity and the agreement of classification between two protocols. TCD categories included: normal (<170 cm/s), conditional (170-199 cm/s) and abnormal (≥200 cm/s) based on TAMV in distal internal carotid artery (dICA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), internal carotid bifurcation, anterior and posterior cerebral arteries. Of 358 children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) examined, the mean age (±standard deviation) was 7·4 ± 2·7 years; 13·1% and 6·7% had conditional and abnormal velocities, respectively. Children with abnormal TCD velocities had higher prevalence of prior stroke (P = 0·006). Increased TAMV was associated with younger age (P = 0·001), lower weight (P = 0·001), height (P = 0·007) and oxygen saturation (P = 0·005). There was no association of TAMV with height-age or body mass index (BMI) z-scores. Adjusting for gender, BMI z-score, age, previous stroke and oxygen saturation, mean corpuscular volume (P = 0·005) and reticulocyte count (P = 0·013) were positively associated with TAMV, while haemoglobin concentration (P = 0·009) was negatively associated. There was good agreement [99%; weighted Kappa 0·98 (95% confidence interval 0·89-1), P = 0·0001] in TCD classification using data from five vessels versus two vessels (dICA and MCA). Haematological variables, rather than nutritional status, may be useful markers that identify high-risk children with SCA.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(3): e0192710, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29494636

RESUMO

Globally, the majority of persons born with sickle cell disease do not have access to hydroxyurea or more expensive interventions. The objectives were to estimate the survival in homozygous sickle cell disease, unbiased by symptomatic selection and to ascertain the causes of death in a pre-hydroxyurea population. The utility of early life biomarkers and genetically determined phenotypes to predict survival was assessed. A cohort study based on neonatal diagnosis was undertaken at the Sickle Cell Unit, a specialist clinic delivering care to persons with sickle cell disease in Jamaica. Screening of 100,000 deliveries detected 315 babies with homozygous sickle cell disease of whom 311 have been followed from birth for periods up to 43 years. Pneumococcal prophylaxis and teaching mothers splenic palpation were important, inexpensive interventions. Anticipatory guidance, routine care and out-patient acute care were provided. Each participant was classified as alive, dead, or defaulted (usually emigration). Causes of death were ascertained from clinical records and/or post-mortem reports. Survival was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier function. Sex-adjusted Cox semi-parametric proportional hazards and Weibull modelling were used to assess the effects on survival of biomarkers. Survival to 40 years was 55.5% (95% CI 48.7% to 61.7%). Acute Chest Syndrome (n = 31) and septicemia (n = 14) were significant causes of death at all ages. Acute splenic sequestration (n = 12) was the most common cause of early deaths. Survival was significantly shorter in those with lower hemoglobin at 1 year, high total nucleated count at 1 year, and a history of dactylitis ever. In these hydroxyurea naïve patients, survival into midlife was common. Causes of death were often age specific and some may be preventable. Early life biomarkers predictive of decreased survival in SS disease identify a patient group likely to benefit from close clinical supervision and potentially high risk therapies.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Torácica Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
10.
PeerJ ; 6: e4385, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29456896

RESUMO

Background: Although several studies have identified risk factors for high blood pressure (BP), data from Afro-Caribbean populations are limited. Additionally, less is known about how putative risk factors operate in young adults and how social factors influence the risk of high BP. In this study, we estimated the relative risk for elevated BP or hypertension (EBP/HTN), defined as BP ≥ 120/80 mmHg, among young adults with putative cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Jamaica and evaluated whether relative risks differed by sex. Methods: Data from 898 young adults, 18-20 years old, were analysed. BP was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer after participants had been seated for 5 min. Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and glucose, lipids and insulin measured from a fasting venous blood sample. Data on socioeconomic status (SES) were obtained via questionnaire. CVD risk factor status was defined using standard cut-points or the upper quintile of the distribution where the numbers meeting standard cut-points were small. Relative risks were estimated using odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression models. Results: Prevalence of EBP/HTN was 30% among males and 13% among females (p < 0.001 for sex difference). There was evidence for sex interaction in the relationship between EBP/HTN and some of risk factors (obesity and household possessions), therefore we report sex-specific analyses. In multivariable logistic regression models, factors independently associated with EBP/HTN among men were obesity (OR 8.48, 95% CI [2.64-27.2], p < 0.001), and high glucose (OR 2.01, CI [1.20-3.37], p = 0.008), while high HOMA-IR did not achieve statistical significance (OR 2.08, CI [0.94-4.58], p = 0.069). In similar models for women, high triglycerides (OR 1.98, CI [1.03-3.81], p = 0.040) and high HOMA-IR (OR 2.07, CI [1.03-4.12], p = 0.039) were positively associated with EBP/HTN. Lower SES was also associated with higher odds for EBP/HTN (OR 4.63, CI [1.31-16.4], p = 0.017, for moderate vs. high household possessions; OR 2.61, CI [0.70-9.77], p = 0.154 for low vs. high household possessions). Alcohol consumption was associated with lower odds of EBP/HTN among females only; OR 0.41 (CI [0.18-0.90], p = 0.026) for drinking <1 time per week vs. never drinkers, and OR 0.28 (CI [0.11-0.76], p = 0.012) for drinking ≥3 times per week vs. never drinkers. Physical activity was inversely associated with EBP/HTN in both males and females. Conclusion: Factors associated with EBP/HTN among Jamaican young adults include obesity, high glucose, high triglycerides and high HOMA-IR, with some significant differences by sex. Among women lower SES was positively associated with EBP/HTN, while moderate alcohol consumption was associated lower odds of EBP/HTN.

11.
Hematology ; 23(2): 122-130, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons with sickle cell disease (SCD) experience multiple medical and physical complications; the disease also has numerous effects on their social and emotional well-being. We hypothesized that adults with SCD in Jamaica experience moderate levels of stigma and illness uncertainty and that these experiences may be associated with socio-demographic factors, such as gender, educational status and economic status. METHODS: We surveyed 101 adults with SCD (54.5% female; mean age 31.6 ± 10.4 years; 72.2% homozygous SCD) using the Stigma in Sickle Cell Disease Scale (Adult), Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale (Adult) and a Socio-Demographic questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean stigma score was 33.6 ± 21.6 (range: 2-91) with no significant difference between males and females (32.3 ± 21.3 vs. 34.7 ± 21.9; p-value = 0.58). Illness uncertainty was greater in females than in males, though not statistically significant, (88.7 ± 13.5 vs. 82.6 ± 19.2; p-value: 0.07). Stigma and uncertainty had a significant positive correlation (r: 0.31; p-value: 0.01). In an age and sex controlled model, stigma scores were lower with higher numbers of household items (coef: -2.26; p-value: 0.001) and higher in those living in greater crowding (coef: 7.89; p-value: 0.002). Illness uncertainty was higher in females (coef: 6.94; p-value: 0.02) and lower with tertiary as compared with primary education (coef: -16.68; p-value: 0.03). CONCLUSION: The study highlights socioeconomic factors to be significant to the stigma and illness uncertainty experiences in SCD. Efforts by healthcare workers to reduce patient illness uncertainty may have additional impact, reducing their stigma.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 4: 2333794X17739194, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152543

RESUMO

Disease knowledge, illness perceptions, and quality of life (QOL) were examined in 150 adolescents (mean age = 16.1 years, SD = 1.9; 49.3% males) with sickle cell disease (SCD). Females had higher knowledge (P = .004), lower QOL (P = .02), and perceived their illness to be more unpredictable (P = .03). Those with more severe disease perceived their illness to be unpredictable with worse outcomes. Those with higher knowledge scores perceived their illness to be chronic, made more sense of their illness, and perceived greater personal and treatment control. Final hierarchical regression model showed that secondary education as compared to primary education level (P < .001) was positively correlated whereas disease severity (P < .001), perceived unpredictability (P = .024), and negative emotions (P < .001) were negatively correlated with QOL. Health practitioners should assess adolescents' illness perceptions and encouraging continuing schooling and addressing emotional/psychological problems could improve their QOL.

13.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175260, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28384224

RESUMO

There is much variability in the expression of sickle cell disease (SCD) and recent works suggest that environmental and social factors may also influence this variability. This paper aims to use geographic information systems technology to examine the association between socio-environmental exposures and health outcomes in all persons who have attended or currently attend the Sickle Cell Unit in Jamaica. Rural patients presented for clinical care at older ages and had less annual visits to clinic. Persons travelled relatively long distances to seek SCD care and those travelling longer had less health maintenance visits. Urban patients had a higher prevalence of significant pain crises (69.4% vs. 55.8%, p value<0.001) and respiratory events (21.2% vs. 14%, p value<0.001). Prevalence of leg ulcers did not vary between rural and urban patients but was higher in males than in females. Females also had lower odds of having respiratory events but there was no sex difference in history of painful crises. Persons with more severe genotypes lived in higher poverty and travelled longer for healthcare services. Persons in areas with higher annual rainfall, higher mean temperatures and living farther from factories had less painful crises and respiratory events. The paper highlights a need for better access to healthcare services for Jamaicans with SCD especially in rural areas of the island. It also reports interesting associations between environmental climatic exposures and health outcomes.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ambiental , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
14.
N Engl J Med ; 376(5): 429-439, 2017 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27959701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The up-regulation of P-selectin in endothelial cells and platelets contributes to the cell-cell interactions that are involved in the pathogenesis of vaso-occlusion and sickle cell-related pain crises. The safety and efficacy of crizanlizumab, an antibody against the adhesion molecule P-selectin, were evaluated in patients with sickle cell disease. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, we assigned patients to receive low-dose crizanlizumab (2.5 mg per kilogram of body weight), high-dose crizanlizumab (5.0 mg per kilogram), or placebo, administered intravenously 14 times over a period of 52 weeks. Patients who were receiving concomitant hydroxyurea as well as those not receiving hydroxyurea were included in the study. The primary end point was the annual rate of sickle cell-related pain crises with high-dose crizanlizumab versus placebo. The annual rate of days hospitalized, the times to first and second crises, annual rates of uncomplicated crises (defined as crises other than the acute chest syndrome, hepatic sequestration, splenic sequestration, or priapism) and the acute chest syndrome, and patient-reported outcomes were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 198 patients underwent randomization at 60 sites. The median rate of crises per year was 1.63 with high-dose crizanlizumab versus 2.98 with placebo (indicating a 45.3% lower rate with high-dose crizanlizumab, P=0.01). The median time to the first crisis was significantly longer with high-dose crizanlizumab than with placebo (4.07 vs. 1.38 months, P=0.001), as was the median time to the second crisis (10.32 vs. 5.09 months, P=0.02). The median rate of uncomplicated crises per year was 1.08 with high-dose crizanlizumab, as compared with 2.91 with placebo (indicating a 62.9% lower rate with high-dose crizanlizumab, P=0.02). Adverse events that occurred in 10% or more of the patients in either active-treatment group and at a frequency that was at least twice as high as that in the placebo group were arthralgia, diarrhea, pruritus, vomiting, and chest pain. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with sickle cell disease, crizanlizumab therapy resulted in a significantly lower rate of sickle cell-related pain crises than placebo and was associated with a low incidence of adverse events. (Funded by Selexys Pharmaceuticals and others; SUSTAIN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01895361 .).


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Selectina-P/antagonistas & inibidores , Dor/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Selectina-P/imunologia , Dor/etiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 7: 12522, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27725671

RESUMO

The African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere represents one of the largest forced migrations in history and had a profound impact on genetic diversity in modern populations. To date, the fine-scale population structure of descendants of the African Diaspora remains largely uncharacterized. Here we present genetic variation from deeply sequenced genomes of 642 individuals from North and South American, Caribbean and West African populations, substantially increasing the lexicon of human genomic variation and suggesting much variation remains to be discovered in African-admixed populations in the Americas. We summarize genetic variation in these populations, quantifying the postcolonial sex-biased European gene flow across multiple regions. Moreover, we refine estimates on the burden of deleterious variants carried across populations and how this varies with African ancestry. Our data are an important resource for empowering disease mapping studies in African-admixed individuals and will facilitate gene discovery for diseases disproportionately affecting individuals of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Humano , Migração Humana , Sequência de Bases , DNA Intergênico/genética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sexismo
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD003733, 2016 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27673392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchodilators are used to treat bronchial hyper-responsiveness in asthma. Bronchial hyper-responsiveness may be a component of acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. Therefore, bronchodilators may be useful in the treatment of acute chest syndrome. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and risks associated with the use of bronchodilators in people with acute chest syndrome. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Additional searches were carried out on MEDLINE (1966 to 2002) and Embase (1981 to 2002).Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 July 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials. Trials using quasi-randomisation methods will be included in future updates of this review if there is sufficient evidence that the treatment and control groups are similar at baseline. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We found no trials investigating the use of bronchodilators for acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. MAIN RESULTS: We found no trials investigating the use of bronchodilators for acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: If bronchial hyper-responsiveness is an important component of some episodes of acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease, the use of inhaled bronchodilators may be indicated. There is need for a well-designed, adequately-powered randomised controlled trial to assess the benefits and risks of the addition of inhaled bronchodilators to established therapies for acute chest syndrome in people with sickle cell disease.

17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 5(3): e185, 2016 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27619954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasculopathy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) begins in childhood and features intracranial arterial stenosis with high risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke risk can be reduced by transcranial doppler (TCD) screening and chronic transfusion therapy; however, this approach is impractical in many developing countries. Accumulating evidence supports the use of hydroxyurea for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in children with SCA. Recently we reported that hydroxyurea significantly reduced the conversion from conditional TCD velocities to abnormal velocities; whether hydroxyurea can be used for children with newly diagnosed severe cerebrovascular disease in place of starting transfusion therapy remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the EXpanding Treatment for Existing Neurological Disease (EXTEND) trial is to investigate the effect of open label hydroxyurea on the maximum time-averaged mean velocity (TAMV) after 18 months of treatment compared to the pre-treatment value. Secondary objectives include the effects of hydroxyurea on serial TCD velocities, the incidence of neurological and non-neurological events, quality of life (QOL), body composition and metabolism, toxicity and treatment response, changes to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), genetic and serologic markers of disease severity, and cognitive and pulmonary function. METHODS: This prospective Phase II trial will enroll children with SCA in Jamaica, between the ages of 2 and 17 years, with either conditional (170-199 cm/sec) or abnormal (≥ 200 cm/sec) TCD velocities. Oral hydroxyurea will be administered daily and escalated to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Participants will be seen in the Sickle Cell Unit (SCU) in Kingston, Jamaica monthly until achieving MTD, and then every 3 months. TCD will be performed every 6 months. RESULTS: Currently, 43 participants have been enrolled out of a projected 50. There was one withdrawal due to immigration, with no permanent screen failures. Of the 43 enrolled, 37 participants have initiated study treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This trial investigates the effects of hydroxyurea treatment at MTD in children with conditional or abnormal TCD velocities before transfusion therapy and may represent an important advance towards establishing a suitable non-transfusion protocol for stroke prevention in children with SCA. The trial outcomes will have profound significance in developing countries where the disease burden is highest. CLINICALTRIAL: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02556099; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02556099 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6k1yMAa9G).

18.
Appl Transl Genom ; 9: 23-9, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27354937

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating single gene disorder caused by a single point mutation that results in physical deformation (i.e. sickling) of erythrocytes at reduced oxygen tensions. Up to 75% of SCD in newborns world-wide occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, where neonatal and childhood mortality from sickle cell related complications is high. While SCD research across the globe is tackling the disease on multiple fronts, advances have yet to significantly impact on the health and quality of life of SCD patients, due to lack of coordination of these disparate efforts. Ensuring data across studies is directly comparable through standardization is a necessary step towards realizing this goal. Such a standardization requires the development and implementation of a disease-specific ontology for SCD that is applicable globally. Ontology development is best achieved by bringing together experts in the domain to contribute their knowledge. The SCD community and H3ABioNet members joined forces at a recent SCD Ontology workshop to develop an ontology covering aspects of SCD under the classes: phenotype, diagnostics, therapeutics, quality of life, disease modifiers and disease stage. The aim of the workshop was for participants to contribute their expertise to development of the structure and contents of the SCD ontology. Here we describe the proceedings of the Sickle Cell Disease Ontology Workshop held in Cape Town South Africa in February 2016 and its outcomes. The objective of the workshop was to bring together experts in SCD from around the world to contribute their expertise to the development of various aspects of the SCD ontology.

19.
Am J Public Health ; 106(5): 851-3, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26999505

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a significant problem in the Caribbean, where many individuals have African and Asian forebears. However, reliable prevalence data and specific health care programs for SCD are often missing in this region. Closer collaboration between Caribbean territories initiated in 2006 to set up strategies to promote better equity in the health care system for SCD patients led to the formation of CAREST: the Caribbean Network of Researchers on Sickle Cell Disease and Thalassemia. We present the effectiveness of collaborations established by CAREST to promote SCD newborn screening programs and early childhood care, to facilitate health worker training and approaches for prevention and treatment of SCD complications, and to carry out inter-Caribbean research studies.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/etnologia , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Triagem Neonatal , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Talassemia/etnologia , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Competência Cultural , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Capacitação em Serviço , Linguagem , Prevalência
20.
EBioMedicine ; 2(8): 937-41, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26425701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the significance of haemoglobin genotype in dengue fever severity. This study was undertaken to determine the case fatality ratio and the impact of genotype in patients with sickle cell disease and confirmed dengue fever. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included 40 patients with confirmed dengue and sickle cell disease, during the study period (2010-2012). FINDINGS: There was a significantly higher case fatality ratio, 12.5% among patients with either haemoglobin SC disease or homozygous SS disease when compared to that of the general population 0.41% (p < 0.0001). The unadjusted odds of dying among those with haemoglobin SC disease compared with the group with homozygous SS disease was OR = 4.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 31.7). The predictors of mortality independent of sickle cell disease genotype were haemoglobin concentration at presentation OR = 0.57 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.94) and the change in haemoglobin concentration from steady state OR = 0.59 (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.94). Adjusting for haemoglobin concentration at presentation increased the risk of death for the SC genotype relative to SS genotype OR = 13.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 160.3). INTERPRETATION: The risk of fatal dengue may be higher among patients with a relatively mild genotype (haemoglobin SC).


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Dengue/sangue , Dengue/mortalidade , Hemoglobina Falciforme/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/genética , Feminino , Hemoglobina Falciforme/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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