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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444250

RESUMO

Fat mass and fat-free mass have become useful clinical indices in determining healthy growth and physical development during critical periods of childhood and adolescence; however, despite a wide range of nutritional surveillance its study is limited by a lack of reference data. The purpose of this study was to establish sex-specific and age-specific standards for fat mass and fat-free mass in a large sample of Croatian children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, we collected data from 12,678 participants aged 11 to 18 years old (mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 14.17 ± 2.25 years; height 164.56 ± 11.31 cm; weight: 57.45 ± 13.73 kg; body mass index: 21.24 ± 3.67 kg/m2; 53% girls). Fat mass and fat-free mass were measured three times by bioelectrical impedance. The Lambda, Mu and Sigma methods were used to create percentile charts for fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat mass and fat-free mass divided by height2). Sex and age differences were calculated using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc comparisons. Boys had lower FMI (from 2.66 to 3.89) and higher FFMI values (from 16.90 to 17.80) in all age groups, compared to girls (for FMI from 2.79 to 5.17 and for FFMI from 14.50 to 14.90, p < 0.001). In boys, FMI slightly declined until the age of 14, after which an increase from the age of 15 to 18 was observed. In girls, FMI gradually increased from the age of 11 to 18 (p < 0.001). In general, FFMI increased by age in boys [F(7,5440) = 52.674, p < 0.001], while girls had more stable FFMI across all age groups [F(7,7222) = 2.728, p = 0.057]. The newly established sex-specific and age-specific reference data could be used for national surveillance and to screen for children and adolescents with high FMI and low FFMI.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Padrões de Referência
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809407

RESUMO

There are numerous programs worldwide adapted for alpine ski beginners and they all share the same primary goal-inclusion of skiing beginners in alpine ski schools. The final elements of ski school taught in the parallel skiing technique are parallel turn and short turn. Synchronized analysis of kinetic and kinematic parameters of the parallel turn (PT) and short turn (ST) was conducted to determine the main biomechanical differences from a standpoint of foot pressure and lower limb angles. Both elements were performed by nine male ski instructors (age 33.4 ± 8.62, height 179.52 ± 5.98 cm, weight 78.6 ± 8.88 kg). Kinetic and kinematic analysis was conducted on 180 turns, 90 for each element. Differences in kinetic and kinematic parameters between parallel and short turns were tested by a paired t-test. The main findings of our study are determined differences in the ratio of pressure distribution on the inside and the outside foot and differences in kinematic parameters of the outside leg between elements. The mentioned analysis can provide an objective insight into the complexity of each element and provide guidelines for teaching process of those elements. This study determined the reasons for higher complexity of ST compared to PT based on the objective evaluation of biomechanical factors.


Assuntos
Esqui , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , , Cinética , Masculino
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33920854

RESUMO

Purpose: The current study aimed to investigate the normative data for blood pressure. Materials and Methods: From 2017 to 2020, 2032 men and women classified as 'war veterans' were recruited (mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 60.97 ± 7.98 years; mean stature: 172.50 ± 9.10 cm; mean body mass: 90.25 ± 36.45 kg; mean body-mass index: 29.66 ± 5.59 kg/m2; 29.9% women). Their systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured three times. The procedure was carried out according to the American Heart Organization. The sex-specific and age-specific normative data for the 5th, 25th, 50th (median), 75th, and 90th percentiles for systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (measured as SBP-DBP) and mid-BP (the average of SBP and DBP) were presented. Results: The men had higher SBP (p < 0.001), DBP (p < 0.001), pulse pressure (p < 0.001) and mid-BP (p < 0.001) compared to the women. The age-specific differences showed that older individuals had higher values of SBP (p < 0.001), pulse pressure (p < 0.001), and mid-BP (p < 0.001), while no significant differences for DBP (p = 0.496) were observed. Conclusions: This is the first study providing sex-specific and age-specific normative data for blood pressure in war veterans.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Veteranos , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Estatura , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525670

RESUMO

This work aimed to identify the influence of selected endogenous (internal load) and exogenous (possession duration, game quarter, and defensive pressure) factors in natural game conditions on the efficiency of dribbling and passing skills. Dribbling and passing skills were assessed during four games of U19 female basketball players and five games of senior (2nd division) female basketball players. In total, 551 dribbling and 914 passing executions were evaluated. Binary logistic regression identified defensive pressure of the opponent as a predictor of dribbling and passing skills effectivity. When the defensive pressure of the opponent was medium, the chances for the ineffective pass were 1.997 times more likely (95% CI; 1.179-3.383), as it is at the minimum defensive pressure. When the defensive pressure of the opponent was high, the chances for ineffective dribbling were 7.45 times more likely (95% CI; 3.672-15.113) and for ineffective pass were 8.419 times more likely (95% CI; 4.6-15.409), as it is at minimum defensive pressure. The game quarter and the internal load were not identified as the predictors influencing the dribbling and passing effectivity. Possession duration was also an insignificant predictor of dribbling and passing skills effectivity. However, the passing skill effectivity decreases when the shot clock is winding down. These findings confirm the importance of transferring game situations into the training process. Coaches should take into account these factors when they want to stimulate determinants of player performance in a balanced and systematic way.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Basquetebol , Feminino , Humanos , Propriedade , Probabilidade
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498975

RESUMO

Basketball shooting is one of the most important offensive skills in basketball. Winning or losing a game mostly depends on the shooting effectiveness. The study aims to compare the selected kinematic variables of 2-point (2-pt) and 3-point (3-pt) jump shots (after making a cut and receiving the ball) and ascertain the differences between elite male under 16 and 18 (U16M, U18M) and female under 16 and 18 (U16F, U18F) basketball players. Overall, forty-eight young male and female basketball players participated in the study. 3D motion analysis using an inertial suit with the addition of utilizing a smart ball was performed for assessing the 2-pt and 3-pt shooting techniques. Players in male categories shot for 2-pt with a higher center of mass difference in the vertical direction (U16M 5.7 cm, U18M 3.9 cm vs. U16F 1.4 cm, U18F 0.6 cm), with higher release shoulder angle (U16M 110.9, U18M 113.8 vs. U16F 103, U18F 105), and with a higher entry angle of the ball (U16M 34, U18M 32 vs. U16F 30, U18F 30) when compared to female categories (p < 0.001). In the 3-pt shooting, there were differences between male and female categories in the shoulder angle when releasing the ball (p < 0.001). In the players shooting speed, there were differences between U16M vs. U18F (0.95 ± 0.1 vs. 0.88 ± 0.1; p = 0.03) and U16F vs. U18F (0.96 ± 0.06 vs. 0.88 ± 0.1; p = 0.02) players. Male categories shot 3-pt shots with a smaller center of mass difference in the horizontal direction when compared to 2-pt shots (p < 0.001). The entry angle was higher in successful shooting attempts compared to unsuccessful shooting attempts when shooting for 3-pt (p = 0.02). Player shooting speed was higher in all categories (except U18F) when shooting for 3-pt (p < 0.001). It appears that performers show difference in kinematic variables based on distance from the basket. Basketball coaches and players should work to minimize the kinematic differences between 2-pt and 3-pt shooting and to optimize the shooting technique.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Ombro
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467488

RESUMO

Kinematic analysis is an objective method for examining basketball technique. However, there are just a few studies featuring a kinematic analysis of passing. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the kinematic parameters and accuracy of passing changed when players were under the influence of fatigue. Eleven Croatian basketball players who are members of the youth national program (age: 18.36 ± 0.67 years; height: 192.32 ± 9.98 cm; weight: 83.35 ± 11.19 kg; body fat: 15.00 ± 4.40%, arm span: 194.34 ± 10.39 cm) participated in fatigue and non-fatigue repetitive tests. A Xsens suit was used to analyze the kinematic parameters of push passing; a radar gun was used to determine ball speed; heart rate and blood lactate were used to identify fatigue and non-fatigue state. There was a significant difference in angular velocities of shoulder (p = 0.01), elbow (p = 0.04), and wrist (p = 0.01), accuracy (p = 0.01), ball speed (p = 0.00), pelvis position (p = 0.00), and velocity of the pelvis in X-axis (p = 0.00) between fatigue and non-fatigue state. Fatigue influences some kinematic parameters and accuracy of passing. The findings of this study suggest that coaches conduct as many drills as possible in situational conditions that are similar to the conditions during the basketball game itself.


Assuntos
Basquetebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cotovelo , Fadiga , Humanos , Ombro , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int Orthop ; 45(5): 1163-1168, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in matrix remodelling, as well as in tendon integrity. Due to overuse, athletes often develop chronic tendinopathies. If not treated, they lead to severe impairment, even complete tendon ruptures. AIM: The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether three functional polymorphisms within the MMP3 gene are associated with increased risk of developing tendinopathies in high-level Croatian athletes. METHODS: We have recruited one hundred fifty-five (63 high-level athletes with diagnosed tendinopathies and 92 asymptomatic controls) unrelated Caucasians for this case-control genetic study. All participants were genotyped for three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within the MMP3 gene: rs591058 C/T, rs650108 A/G and rs679620 G/A using the pyrosequencing method. RESULTS: The MMP3 rs650108 GG (P = 0.0074) and rs679620 AA (P = 0.0119) genotypes were significantly over-represented in cases compared with controls, while rs591058 TT (P = 0.0759), as well as haplotype variant T - G - A (P = 0.06), implicated that there is an indication of predisposition for tendinopathies. CONCLUSION: These results support association between functional variants within the MMP3 gene and the risk of tendinopathies in high-level athletes. Further research is needed to replicate these results in a larger population.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz , Tendinopatia , Atletas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tendinopatia/epidemiologia , Tendinopatia/genética
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036287

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) quarantine on low back pain (LBP) intensity, prevalence, and associated risk factors among adults in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). A total of 463 adults (259 males and 204 females) aged between 18 and 64 years and residing in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia) participated in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire composed of 20 questions regarding demographic characteristics, work- and academic-related aspects, physical activity (PA), daily habits and tasks, and pain-related aspects was used. The LBP point prevalence before the quarantine was 38.8%, and 43.8% after the quarantine. The LBP intensity significantly increased during the quarantine. The low back was also the most common musculoskeletal pain area. Furthermore, during the quarantine, a significantly higher LBP intensity was reported by those individuals who (a) were aged between 35 and 49 years old, (b) had a body mass index equal to or exceeding 30, (c) underwent higher levels of stress, (d) did not comply with the ergonomic recommendations, (e) were sitting for long periods, (f) did not practice enough physical activity (PA), and (g) underwent teleworking or distance learning. No significant differences were found between genders. The COVID-19 quarantine resulted in a significant increase in LBP intensity, point prevalence, and most associated risk factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Coronavirus , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e021902, 2018 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of the present study was to explore the associations between sleep quality and insufficient physical activity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Faculties in Croatia. PARTICIPANTS: 2100 university students (1049 men and 1051 women) aged 18-24 years were recruited. PRIMARY OUTCOME: To assess the domains of sleep quality (independent variables) and 'insufficient' physical activity (dependent variable), we used previously validated Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and International Physical Activity questionnaires. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the associations between the sleep quality and 'insufficient' physical activity. RESULTS: When sleep quality domains were entered separately into the model, very bad subjective sleep quality (OR 3.09; 95% CI 1.50 to 6.56), >60 min of sleep latency (OR 2.17; 95% CI 1.39 to 3.39), <7 hours of sleep (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.96), <65% of habitual sleep efficiency (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.26 to 4.05), sleep disturbances >1/week (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.52), use of sleep medication >1/week (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.83 to 6.10), very big daytime dysfunction problem (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.57 to 4.93) and poor sleep quality (1.53; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.91) were associated with 'insufficient' physical activity. When all sleep quality domains were entered simultaneously into the model, the same significant associations remained, except for sleep disturbances. Both models were adjusted for gender, body mass index, self-rated health, life satisfaction, socioeconomic status, presence or absence of chronic diseases, smoking status, binge drinking and psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that 'poor' sleep quality is associated with 'insufficient' physical activity in young adults. In order to improve, special strategies and policies that leverage 'good sleep' quality are warranted.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Sono/fisiologia , Croácia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Coll Antropol ; 29(2): 453-8, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16417143

RESUMO

The present study examined the degree to which positive illusion is associated with sport performance in basketball players among 3 different cultures: The United States of America, Croatia, and Norway. Positive illusion is a cognitive characteristic that is common in mentally healthy individuals, and becomes especially important in the athletic arena. The model tested in this study depicts the level of positive illusion as the main predictor variable and the performance of the basketball players as the criterion variable. The Positive Illusion Sports Scale was used to measure the predictor variable while The Basketball Evaluation System was used to measure the criterion variable. Participants were 239 competitive male basketball players, 122 from USA, 57 from Croatia and 60 from Norway. Results showed that positive illusion was directly (positively) related to actual success and that these relationships were statistically significant and consistent with positive illusion as a theoretical construct for predicting behavior and success.


Assuntos
Basquetebol/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Ilusões , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Croácia , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Noruega , Teoria Psicológica , Estados Unidos
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