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1.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 31-41, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255192

RESUMO

Hypersensitivity reactions are overreactions of the immune system clinically seen as allergic and autoimmune diseases. Gell and Coombs originally described four different types of hypersensitivity reactions almost 60 years ago, and their description still applies in large parts. However, some modifications and extensions have been included in original definition. Especially in allergic diseases, it became clear that often, multiple types of hypersensitivity reaction can occur simultaneously. This improved insight is not only important for a better understanding of hypersensitivity disorders, but is especially of importance for improved diagnostics and directing therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia
2.
Allergy ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Component-resolved diagnostics (CRD) help predict hazelnut allergy (HA) in children, but are of unknown diagnostic value in adults. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of IgE to hazelnut extract and components in adults. METHODS: A Dutch population of consecutively presenting adults suspected of HA, who underwent a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge, were included. Serum IgE to hazelnut extract and Cor a 1, 8, 9, and 14 was measured on ImmunoCAP. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by area under the curve (AUC) analysis. RESULTS: Of 89 patients undergoing challenge, 46 had challenge-confirmed HA: 17 based on objective and 29 based on subjective symptoms. At commonly applied cutoffs 0.1 and 0.35 kUA /L, high sensitivity was observed for IgE to hazelnut extract and Cor a 1 (range 85-91%), and high specificity for IgE to Cor a 8, 9 and 14 (range 77-95%). However, the AUCs for hazelnut extract and components were too low for accurate prediction of HA (range 0.50-0.56). Combining hazelnut extract and component IgE measurements did not significantly improve accuracy. Higher IgE levels to Cor a 9 and 14 were tentatively associated with HA with objective symptoms, but the corresponding AUCs still only reached 0.68 and 0.63, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although hazelnut allergic adults are generally sensitized to hazelnut extract and Cor a 1, and hazelnut tolerant adults are usually not sensitized to Cor a 8, 9, or 14, challenge testing is still needed to accurately discriminate between presence and absence of HA in adults from a birch-endemic country.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046590, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593486

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Clinically diagnosed pneumonia in children is a leading cause of paediatric hospitalisation and mortality. The aetiology is usually bacterial or viral, but malaria can cause a syndrome indistinguishable from clinical pneumonia. There is no method with high sensitivity to detect a bacterial infection in these patients and, as result, antibiotics are frequently overprescribed. Conversely, unrecognised concomitant bacterial infection in patients with malarial infections occur with omission of antibiotic therapy from patients with bacterial infections. Previously, we identified two combinations of blood proteins with 96% sensitivity and 86% specificity for detecting bacterial disease. The current project aimed to validate and improve these combinations by evaluating additional biomarkers in paediatric patients with clinical pneumonia. Our goal was to describe combinations of a limited number of proteins with high sensitivity and specificity for bacterial infection to be incorporated in future point-of-care tests. Furthermore, we seek to explore signatures to prognosticate clinical pneumonia. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Patients (n=900) aged 2-59 months presenting with clinical pneumonia at two Gambian hospitals will be enrolled and classified according to criteria for definitive bacterial aetiology (based on microbiological tests and chest radiographs). We will measure proteins at admission using Luminex-based immunoassays in 90 children with definitive and 160 with probable bacterial aetiology, and 160 children classified according to the prognosis of their disease. Previously identified diagnostic signatures will be assessed through accuracy measures. Moreover, we will seek new diagnostic and prognostic signatures through machine learning methods, including support vector machine, penalised regression and classification trees. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval has been obtained from the Gambia Government/Medical Research Council Unit The Gambia Joint Ethics Committee (protocol 1616) and the institutional review board of Boston University Medical Centre (STUDY00000958). Study results will be disseminated to the staff of the study hospitals, in scientific seminars and meetings, and in publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: H-38462.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Bacteriana , África ao Sul do Saara , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico
4.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(5): e12011, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262691

RESUMO

Background: The pathogenesis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), including the mechanism of action of omalizumab, remain unclear. We hypothesized complement system involvement given the often fast clinical response induced by treatment, including omalizumab. Therefore, we assessed the role of various complement factors surrounding omalizumab treatment. Methods: Thirty CSU patients (median age 42 [range 21-70]; 73 % female) with a median once daily Urticaria Activity Score over 7 days (UAS7) score at baseline of 31.5 points were enrolled. Treatment consisted of six administrations of 300 mg omalizumab every 4 weeks succeeded by a follow-up period of 12 weeks. Four punch skin biopsies were taken per patient; at baseline from lesional skin, at baseline from nonlesional skin, and after 1 and 7 days from formerly lesional skin. Complement activity, including C1q, C3, C3bc/C3, C4, C4bc/C4, C5a, and Membrane Attack Complex in peripheral blood were analyzed and complement activation in the skin was determined by the analysis of C4d deposition. Results were related to the clinical response to omalizumab. Results: Fifteen patients showed a UAS7 score of 6 or lower (median 0) at Week 24, 15 patients did not (median 16). Lesional skin biopsies at baseline revealed complement deposition (C4d) in blood vessels in the papillary dermis of 53% (16/30) of the patients, which suggests involvement of immune complexes in the pathogenesis of urticaria. Moreover, indication of increased complement activation in CSU was substantiated by increased C5a levels in peripheral blood compared to healthy controls (p = 0.010). The clinical effect of omalizumab could not be linked to the variation of complement components. Conclusions: Both C4d deposition in lesional skin and elevated C5a levels in peripheral blood indicate the involvement of complement activation in the pathogenesis of CSU. No correlation was found between omalizumab and activation of complement indicative of independent processes in the immunopathogenesis of CSU.

5.
Allergy ; 76(11): 3504-3516, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As in many fields of medical care, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in an increased uncertainty regarding the safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Therefore, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) aimed to analyze the situation in different countries and to systematically collect all information available regarding tolerability and possible amendments in daily practice of sublingual AIT (SLIT), subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) for inhalant allergies and venom AIT. METHODS: Under the framework of the EAACI, a panel of experts in the field of AIT coordinated by the Immunotherapy Interest Group set-up a web-based retrospective survey (SurveyMonkey® ) including 27 standardized questions on practical and safety aspects on AIT in worldwide clinical routine. RESULTS: 417 respondents providing AIT to their patients in daily routine answered the survey. For patients (without any current symptoms to suspect COVID-19), 60% of the respondents informed of not having initiated SCIT (40% venom AIT, 35% SLIT) whereas for the maintenance phase of AIT, SCIT was performed by 75% of the respondents (74% venom AIT, 89% SLIT). No tolerability concern arises from this preliminary analysis. 16 physicians reported having performed AIT despite (early) symptoms of COVID-19 and/or a positive test result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). CONCLUSIONS: This first international retrospective survey in atopic diseases investigated practical aspects and tolerability of AIT during the COVID-19 pandemic and gave no concerns regarding reduced tolerability under real-life circumstances. However, the data indicate an undertreatment of AIT, which may be temporary, but could have a long-lasting negative impact on the clinical care of allergic patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(1): 189-198, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a highly heterogeneous disease, both clinically and biologically, whereas patients are still being treated according to a "one-size-fits-all" approach. Stratification of patients into biomarker-based endotypes is important for future development of personalized therapies. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to confirm previously defined serum biomarker-based patient clusters in a new cohort of patients with AD. METHODS: A panel of 143 biomarkers was measured by using Luminex technology in serum samples from 146 patients with severe AD (median Eczema Area and Severity Index = 28.3; interquartile range = 25.2-35.3). Principal components analysis followed by unsupervised k-means cluster analysis of the biomarker data was used to identify patient clusters. A prediction model was built on the basis of a previous cohort to predict the 1 of the 4 previously identified clusters to which the patients of our new cohort would belong. RESULTS: Cluster analysis identified 4 serum biomarker-based clusters, 3 of which (clusters B, C, and D) were comparable to the previously identified clusters. Cluster A (33.6%) could be distinguished from the other clusters as being a "skin-homing chemokines/IL-1R1-dominant" cluster, whereas cluster B (18.5%) was a "TH1/TH2/TH17-dominant" cluster, cluster C (18.5%) was a "TH2/TH22/PARC-dominant" cluster, and cluster D (29.5%) was a "TH2/eosinophil-inferior" cluster. Additionally, by using a prediction model based on our previous cohort we accurately assigned the new cohort to the 4 previously identified clusters by including only 10 selected serum biomarkers. CONCLUSION: We confirmed that AD is heterogeneous at the immunopathologic level and identified 4 distinct biomarker-based clusters, 3 of which were comparable with previously identified clusters. Cluster membership could be predicted with a model including 10 serum biomarkers.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica , Modelos Imunológicos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/sangue , Dermatite Atópica/classificação , Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Allergy ; 76(3): 648-676, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into a pandemic infectious disease transmitted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Allergists and other healthcare providers (HCPs) in the field of allergies and associated airway diseases are on the front line, taking care of patients potentially infected with SARS-CoV-2. Hence, strategies and practices to minimize risks of infection for both HCPs and treated patients have to be developed and followed by allergy clinics. METHOD: The scientific information on COVID-19 was analysed by a literature search in MEDLINE, PubMed, the National and International Guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the Cochrane Library, and the internet. RESULTS: Based on the diagnostic and treatment standards developed by EAACI, on international information regarding COVID-19, on guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations, and on previous experience, a panel of experts including clinicians, psychologists, IT experts, and basic scientists along with EAACI and the "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)" initiative have developed recommendations for the optimal management of allergy clinics during the current COVID-19 pandemic. These recommendations are grouped into nine sections on different relevant aspects for the care of patients with allergies. CONCLUSIONS: This international Position Paper provides recommendations on operational plans and procedures to maintain high standards in the daily clinical care of allergic patients while ensuring the necessary safety measures in the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Alergistas , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Tecnologia da Informação , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Triagem
8.
Allergy ; 76(1): 90-113, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593226

RESUMO

Therapeutic advances using targeted biologicals and small-molecule drugs have achieved significant success in the treatment of chronic allergic, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases particularly for some patients with severe, treatment-resistant forms. This has been aided by improved identification of disease phenotypes. Despite these achievements, not all severe forms of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases are successfully targeted, and current treatment options, besides allergen immunotherapy for selected allergic diseases, fail to change the disease course. T cell-based therapies aim to cure diseases through the selective induction of appropriate immune responses following the delivery of engineered, specific cytotoxic, or regulatory T cells (Tregs). Adoptive cell therapies (ACT) with genetically engineered T cells have revolutionized the oncology field, bringing curative treatment for leukemia and lymphoma, while therapies exploiting the suppressive functions of Tregs have been developed in nononcological settings, such as in transplantation and autoimmune diseases. ACT with Tregs are also being considered in nononcological settings such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and chronic inflammatory disorders. After describing the general features of T cell-based approaches and current applications in autoimmune diseases, this position paper reviews the experimental models testing or supporting T cell-based approaches, especially Treg-based approaches, in severe IgE-mediated responses and chronic respiratory airway diseases, such as severe asthma and COPD. Along with an assessment of challenges and unmet needs facing the application of ACT in these settings, this article underscores the potential of ACT to offer curative options for patients with severe or treatment-resistant forms of these immune-driven disorders.


Assuntos
Asma , Doenças Autoimunes , Hipersensibilidade , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Autoimunidade , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Linfócitos T Reguladores
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(4): 1667-1674.e3, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnostic value of peanut components is extensively studied in children, but to a lesser extent in adults with suspected peanut allergy. The use of peanut components in daily practice may reduce the need for double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs); however, validation studies are currently lacking. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of (combined) peanut components and validate a previously found Ara h 2 cutoff level with 100% positive predictive value (PPV) in adults with suspected peanut allergy. METHODS: Adults who underwent a peanut DBPCFC were included: 84 patients from a previous study (2002-2012) and 70 new patients (2012-2019). Specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut extract, Ara h 1, 2, 3, 6, and 8 was measured using ImmunoCAP. Diagnostic value was assessed with an area under the curve (AUC) analysis. RESULTS: In total, 95 (62%) patients were peanut allergic. sIgE to Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 were the best predictors with an AUC (95% confidence interval) of 0.85 (0.79-0.91) and 0.85 (0.79-0.92), respectively. The Ara h 2 cutoff level with 100% PPV (≥1.75 kUA/L) was validated in the 70 new patients. Thirty percent of all included patients could be classified correctly as peanut allergic using this validated cutoff level. CONCLUSION: sIgE to Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 have equally high discriminative ability. Peanut allergy can be predicted accurately in one-third of adults using a validated cutoff level of sIgE to Ara h 2.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim , Albuminas 2S de Plantas , Adulto , Alérgenos , Antígenos de Plantas , Arachis , Criança , Glicoproteínas , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/diagnóstico
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2163: 311-322, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766986

RESUMO

Despite the growing use of flow cytometry to analyze the functional characteristics of basophils, the intracellular signaling cascades that control their ability to elaborate various pro-allergic and inflammatory mediators and cytokines remain comparatively obscure. Additionally, some studies require the analysis of pro-allergic and inflammatory mediators, such as histamine, LTC4, and various basophil-derived cytokines (e.g., IL-4 and IL-13). Elucidation of intracellular signaling proteins by Western blotting, cytosolic free calcium concentration by spectrofluorophotometry, and detection of mediator releases, as well as analysis of gene expressions by RT-PCR, generally requires relatively large numbers of purified basophils. In selected assays, flow cytometry enables the analysis of relatively low cell numbers and purity for the expression of intracellular signaling proteins or measurement of cytosolic free calcium concentrations by basophil-specific gating strategies. Unfortunately, many aspects of signal transduction relevant to human basophils cannot be readily extrapolated from the use of basophil or mast cell lines. This chapter therefore focuses on how to employ primary human basophils for studying mediator releases and signaling characteristics.


Assuntos
Basófilos/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Transdução de Sinais , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Western Blotting , Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/metabolismo , Degranulação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/análise , Citocinas/metabolismo , Eicosanoides/análise , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Histamina/análise , Histamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos
11.
Allergy ; 75(10): 2445-2476, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584441

RESUMO

With the worldwide spread of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulting in declaration of a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020, the SARS-CoV-2-induced coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has become one of the main challenges of our times. The high infection rate and the severe disease course led to major safety and social restriction measures worldwide. There is an urgent need of unbiased expert knowledge guiding the development of efficient treatment and prevention strategies. This report summarizes current immunological data on mechanisms associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 development and progression to the most severe forms. We characterize the differences between adequate innate and adaptive immune response in mild disease and the deep immune dysfunction in the severe multiorgan disease. The similarities of the human immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and the SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV are underlined. We also summarize known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors on epithelial barriers, immune cells, endothelium and clinically involved organs such as lung, gut, kidney, cardiovascular, and neuronal system. Finally, we discuss the known and potential mechanisms underlying the involvement of comorbidities, gender, and age in development of COVID-19. Consequently, we highlight the knowledge gaps and urgent research requirements to provide a quick roadmap for ongoing and needed COVID-19 studies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Academias e Institutos , COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Allergy ; 75(7): 1546-1554, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329930
14.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 50(3): 364-371, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and the mechanism of action of omalizumab in CSU remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assessed the responsiveness and FcεRI expression of various subsets of leucocytes in patients with CSU treated with omalizumab. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 30 patients were treated with 6 administrations of 300 mg omalizumab every 4 weeks, followed by a follow-up period of 12 weeks. FcεRI expression and the percentage of basophils, monocytes, and dendritic cell subsets were analysed before and during treatment, and after follow-up. In addition, anti-IgE- and C5a-induced basophil degranulation was measured. The results were correlated with disease activity and response to omalizumab. RESULTS: In addition to a rapid and significant reduction in FcεRI on basophils, we demonstrated a reduction in FcεRI on plasmacytoid dendritic cells during omalizumab treatment, which persisted until 3 months after discontinuation. FcεRI expression on basophils and its reduction did not correlate with the treatment response. Omalizumab led to an increased percentage of basophils in blood but not of the other FcεRI-bearing leucocytes. Basophil responsiveness was differentially affected; anti-IgE-, but not C5a-induced basophil degranulation increased during the treatment. Apart from clinical non-responders showing a stronger increase in anti-IgE-induced basophil degranulation over a period time, no differences were found in omalizumab responders vs non-responders. CONCLUSIONS/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: FcεRI expression on basophils decreased rapidly, while anti-IgE-induced degranulation significantly increased due to omalizumab treatment in patients with CSU, persisting at least for 3 months after stopping the treatment. None of the markers were able to predict the effectiveness of treatment. Whether basophils play a role in omalizumab responsiveness in CSU remains unclear.


Assuntos
Urticária Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Urticária Crônica/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Omalizumab/administração & dosagem , Receptores de IgE/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Allergy ; 75(1): 116-126, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593343

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dupilumab has recently been approved for the treatment of moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in adults. Daily practice data on dupilumab treatment are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of 16-week treatment with dupilumab on clinical response and serum biomarkers in adult patients with moderate-severe AD in daily practice. METHODS: Data were extracted from the BioDay registry, a prospective multicenter registry. Sixteen-week clinical effectiveness of dupilumab was expressed as number of patients achieving EASI-50 (Eczema Area and Severity Index) or EASI-75, as well as patient-reported outcomes measures (Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure, Dermatology Life Quality Index, Numeric Rating Scale pruritus). Twenty-one biomarkers were measured in patients treated with dupilumab without concomitant use of oral immunosuppressive drugs at five different time points (baseline, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks). RESULTS: In total, 138 patients treated with dupilumab in daily practice were included. This cohort consisted of patients with very difficult-to-treat AD, including 84 (61%) patients who failed treatment on ≥2 immunosuppressive drugs. At week 16, the mean percent change in EASI score was 73%. The EASI-50 and EASI-75 were achieved by 114 (86%) and 82 (62%) patients after 16 weeks of treatment. The most reported side effect was conjunctivitis, occurring in 47 (34%) patients. During dupilumab treatment, disease severity-related serum biomarkers (TARC, PARC, periostin, and IL-22), eotaxin-1, and eotaxin-3 significantly decreased. CONCLUSION: Treatment with dupilumab significantly improved disease severity and decreased severity-related serum biomarkers in patients with very difficult-to-treat AD in a daily practice setting.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros
16.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718010

RESUMO

The immunological mechanism underlying Immunoglobuline E (IgE)-mediated cow's milk allergy has been subject to investigations for many years. Identification of the key immune cells (mast cells, B cells) and molecules (IgE) in the allergic process has led to the understanding that avoidance of IgE-crosslinking epitopes is effective in the reduction of allergic symptoms but it cannot be envisioned as a treatment. For the treatment and prevention of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy, it is thought that the induction of a sustained state of immunological tolerance is needed. In this review, we will discuss various approaches aimed at achieving immunological tolerance and their success. Furthermore, we will speculate on the involved immunological mechanism.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia
18.
Allergy ; 74(12): 2427-2436, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune chronic spontaneous urticaria (aiCSU) is an important subtype of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in which functional IgG autoantibodies to IgE or its high-affinity receptor (FcεRI) induces mast cell degranulation and subsequent symptom development. However, it has not been tightly characterized. This study aimed to better define the clinical and immunological features and to explore potential biomarkers of aiCSU. METHODS: This was a multinational, multicenter study of 182 CSU patients. The clinical features studied included: urticaria activity and impact (UAS7 and quality of life); autologous serum skin test (ASST); IgG anti-FcεRI and IgG anti-IgE; IgG-anti-thyroperoxidase (IgG anti-TPO); total serum IgE; and basophil reactivity (BASO) using the basophil activation test (BAT) and basophil histamine release assay (BHRA). RESULTS: Of the 182 patients, 107 (59%) were ASST+, 46 (25%) were BASO+, and 105 (58%) were IgG anti-FcεRI+/IgE+. Fifteen patients (8%) fulfilled all three criteria of aiCSU. aiCSU patients appeared more severe (UAS7 21 vs 9 P < 0.016) but showed no other clinical or demographic differences from non-aiCSU patients. aiCSU patients also had markedly lower total IgE levels (P < 0.0001) and higher IgG anti-TPO levels (P < 0.001). Of biomarkers, positive BAT and BHRA tests were 69% and 88% predictive of aiCSU, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: aiCSU is a relatively small but immunologically distinct subtype of CSU that cannot be identified by routine clinical parameters. Inclusion of BHRA or BAT in the diagnostic workup of CSU patients may aid identification of aiCSU patients, who may have a different prognosis and benefit from specific management.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Urticária Crônica/imunologia , Urticária Crônica/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Basófilos/imunologia , Basófilos/metabolismo , Urticária Crônica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Liberação de Histamina , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Receptores de IgE/metabolismo , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
19.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1632019 05 03.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140765

RESUMO

AR101: therapy for peanut allergy finally in view? Worldwide, the incidence of peanut allergy is increasing. Spontaneous tolerance only occurs in a small percentage of children who are allergic to peanuts. To date, no treatment for this potentially life-threatening condition has been proven effective. However, the recently published results of the PALISADE trial on oral immunotherapy with AR101 are promising. As AR101 has many side effects, and as it is unclear if tolerance persists after therapy is stopped, there is still a long way to go before AR101 can be added to the standard treatment for peanut allergy.


Assuntos
Fatores Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/terapia , Administração Oral , Criança , Humanos
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