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1.
Nat Chem ; 10(4): 462-468, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483638

RESUMO

The evolution of atmospheric organic carbon as it undergoes oxidation has a controlling influence on concentrations of key atmospheric species, including particulate matter, ozone and oxidants. However, full characterization of organic carbon over hours to days of atmospheric processing has been stymied by its extreme chemical complexity. Here we study the multigenerational oxidation of α-pinene in the laboratory, characterizing products with several state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Although quantification of some early generation products remains elusive, full carbon closure is achieved (within measurement uncertainty) by the end of the experiments. These results provide new insights into the effects of oxidation on organic carbon properties (volatility, oxidation state and reactivity) and the atmospheric lifecycle of organic carbon. Following an initial period characterized by functionalization reactions and particle growth, fragmentation reactions dominate, forming smaller species. After approximately one day of atmospheric aging, most carbon is sequestered in two long-lived reservoirs-volatile oxidized gases and low-volatility particulate matter.

2.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 165-194, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574555

RESUMO

Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (Tg) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective Tg and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezing temperature with soot acting as ice nuclei (IN). At lower temperatures the α-pinene SOA coating can be semisolid, inducing ice nucleation. Naphthalene SOA coated soot particles acted as ice nuclei above and below the homogeneous freezing limit, which can be explained by the presence of a highly viscous SOA phase. Our results suggest that biogenic SOA does not play a significant role in mixed-phase cloud formation and the presence of sulfate renders this even less likely. However, anthropogenic SOA may have an enhancing effect on cloud glaciation under mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions compared to biogenic SOA that dominate during pre-industrial times or in pristine areas.

3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(43): 29721-29731, 2016 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722496

RESUMO

Heterogeneous ice nucleation is a physical chemistry process of critical relevance to a range of topics in the fundamental and applied sciences and technologies. Heterogeneous ice nucleation remains insufficiently understood, partially due to the lack of experimental methods capable of obtaining in situ microscopic details of ice formation over nucleating substrates or particles. We present microscopic observations of ice nucleation events on kaolinite particles at the nanoscale and demonstrate the capability of direct tracking and micro-spectroscopic characterization of individual ice nucleating particles (INPs) in an authentic atmospheric sample. This approach utilizes a custom-built ice nucleation cell, interfaced with an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (IN-ESEM platform) operated at temperatures and relative humidities relevant for heterogeneous ice nucleation. The IN-ESEM platform allows dynamic observations of individual ice formation events over particles in isobaric and isothermal experiments. Isothermal experiments on individual kaolinite particles demonstrate that ice crystals preferably nucleate at the edges of the stacked kaolinite platelets, rather than on their basal planes. These experimental observations of the location of ice nucleation provide direct information for further theoretical chemistry predictions of ice formation on kaolinite.

4.
Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) ; 9(1): 117-43, 2016 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27306308

RESUMO

This article presents an overview of recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surface interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multimodal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, these approaches provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore the environmental effects of air-surface interactions.

5.
Sci Adv ; 2(4): e1501630, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27152346

RESUMO

Ice-nucleating organisms play important roles in the environment. With their ability to induce ice formation at temperatures just below the ice melting point, bacteria such as Pseudomonas syringae attack plants through frost damage using specialized ice-nucleating proteins. Besides the impact on agriculture and microbial ecology, airborne P. syringae can affect atmospheric glaciation processes, with consequences for cloud evolution, precipitation, and climate. Biogenic ice nucleation is also relevant for artificial snow production and for biomimetic materials for controlled interfacial freezing. We use interface-specific sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy to show that hydrogen bonding at the water-bacteria contact imposes structural ordering on the adjacent water network. Experimental SFG data and molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that ice-active sites within P. syringae feature unique hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterns to enhance ice nucleation. The freezing transition is further facilitated by the highly effective removal of latent heat from the nucleation site, as apparent from time-resolved SFG spectroscopy.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Pseudomonas syringae/metabolismo , Bactérias/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Gelo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Plantas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , Temperatura , Água/metabolismo
6.
Nature ; 525(7568): 234-8, 2015 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354482

RESUMO

The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Gelo , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Ar , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Regiões Árticas , Diatomáceas/química , Congelamento , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Fitoplâncton/química , Água do Mar/química
7.
Anal Chem ; 87(7): 3746-54, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25744622

RESUMO

Flow reactors, denuders, and sampling tubes are essential tools for many applications in analytical and physical chemistry and engineering. We derive a new method for determining radial diffusion effects and the penetration or transmission of gas molecules and aerosol particles through cylindrical tubes under laminar flow conditions using explicit analytical equations. In contrast to the traditional Brown method [Brown, R. L. J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (U. S.) 1978, 83, 1-8] and CKD method (Cooney, D. O.; Kim, S. S.; Davis, E. J. Chem. Eng. Sci. 1974, 29, 1731-1738), the new approximation developed in this study (known as the KPS method) does not require interpolation or numerical techniques. The KPS method agrees well with the CKD method under all experimental conditions and also with the Brown method at low Sherwood numbers. At high Sherwood numbers corresponding to high uptake on the wall, flow entry effects become relevant and are considered in the KPS and CKD methods but not in the Brown method. The practical applicability of the KPS method is demonstrated by analysis of measurement data from experimental studies of rapid OH, intermediate NO3, and slow O3 uptake on various organic substrates. The KPS method also allows determination of the penetration of aerosol particles through a tube, using a single equation to cover both the limiting cases of high and low deposition described by Gormley and Kennedy (Proc. R. Ir. Acad., Sect. A. 1949, 52A, 163-169). We demonstrate that the treatment of gas and particle diffusion converges in the KPS method, thus facilitating prediction of diffusional loss and penetration of gases and particles, analysis of chemical kinetics data, and design of fluid reactors, denuders, and sampling lines.

8.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(19): 4533-44, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25686209

RESUMO

Multiphase reactions of OH radicals are among the most important pathways of chemical aging of organic aerosols in the atmosphere. Reactive uptake of OH by organic compounds has been observed in a number of studies, but the kinetics of mass transport and chemical reaction are still not fully understood. Here we apply the kinetic multilayer model of gas-particle interactions (KM-GAP) to experimental data from OH exposure studies of levoglucosan and abietic acid, which serve as surrogates and molecular markers of biomass burning aerosol (BBA). The model accounts for gas-phase diffusion within a cylindrical coated-wall flow tube, reversible adsorption of OH, surface-bulk exchange, bulk diffusion, and chemical reactions at the surface and in the bulk of the condensed phase. The nonlinear dependence of OH uptake coefficients on reactant concentrations and time can be reproduced by KM-GAP. We find that the bulk diffusion coefficient of the organic molecules is approximately 10(-16) cm(2) s(-1), reflecting an amorphous semisolid state of the organic substrates. The OH uptake is governed by reaction at or near the surface and can be kinetically limited by surface-bulk exchange or bulk diffusion of the organic reactants. Estimates of the chemical half-life of levoglucosan in 200 nm particles in a biomass burning plume increase from 1 day at high relative humidity to 1 week under dry conditions. In BBA particles transported to the free troposphere, the chemical half-life of levoglucosan can exceed 1 month due to slow bulk diffusion in a glassy matrix at low temperature.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Biomassa , Radical Hidroxila/química , Abietanos/química , Adsorção , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/química , Atmosfera/análise , Simulação por Computador , Difusão , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/química , Umidade , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Proteínas Quinases/química , Temperatura
9.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 15(16): 5898-915, 2013 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23487256

RESUMO

The reactive uptake coefficients (γ) of OH by levoglucosan, abietic acid, and nitroguaiacol serving as surrogate compounds for biomass burning aerosol have been determined employing a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer coupled to a rotating-wall flow-tube reactor over a wide range of [OH] ∼10(7)-10(11) molecule cm(-3). Volatilisation products of these organic substrates due to heterogeneous oxidation by OH have been determined at 1 atm using a high resolution proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (HR-PTR-ToF-MS). γ range within 0.05-1 for [OH] = 2.6 × 10(7)-3 × 10(9) molecule cm(-3) for all investigated organic compounds, but decrease to 0.008-0.034 for [OH] = 4.1 × 10(10)-6.7 × 10(10) molecule cm(-3). γ as a function of [OH] can be described by a Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, neglecting bulk processes, suggesting that despite its strong reactivity, OH is mobile on surfaces prior to reaction. The best fit Langmuir-Hinshelwood parameters on average are K(OH) = 3.81 × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) and k(s) = 9.71 × 10(-17) cm(2) molecule(-1) s(-1) for all of the investigated organic compounds. Volatilised products have been identified indicating enhancements over background of 50% up to a factor of 15. Amongst the common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified between levoglucosan, abietic acid, and nitroguaiacol were methanol, acetaldehyde, formic acid, and acetic acid. VOCs having the greatest enhancement over background were glucic acid from levoglucosan, glycolic acid from abietic acid, and methanol and nitric acid from nitroguaiacol. Reaction mechanisms leading to the formation of glucic acid, glycolic acid, methanol, and nitric acid are proposed. Estimated lower limits of atmospheric lifetimes of biomass burning aerosol particles, 200 nm in diameter, by heterogeneous OH oxidation under fresh biomass burning plume conditions are ∼2 days and up to ∼2 weeks for atmospheric background conditions. However, estimated lifetimes depend crucially on [OH] and corresponding γ, emphasising the need to determine γ under relevant conditions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Hidróxidos/química , Abietanos/química , Biomassa , Gases/química , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/química , Guaiacol/química , Cinética , Oxirredução , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Volatilização
10.
Faraday Discuss ; 165: 513-34, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24601020

RESUMO

Immersion freezing of water and aqueous solutions by particles acting as ice nuclei (IN) is a common process of heterogeneous ice nucleation which occurs in many environments, especially in the atmosphere where it results in the glaciation of clouds. Here we experimentally show, using a variety of IN types suspended in various aqueous solutions, that immersion freezing temperatures and kinetics can be described solely by temperature, T, and solution water activity, a(w), which is the ratio of the vapour pressure of the solution and the saturation water vapour pressure under the same conditions and, in equilibrium, equivalent to relative humidity (RH). This allows the freezing point and corresponding heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, J(het), to be uniquely expressed by T and a(w), a result we term the a(w) based immersion freezing model (ABIFM). This method is independent of the nature of the solute and accounts for several varying parameters, including cooling rate and IN surface area, while providing a holistic description of immersion freezing and allowing prediction of freezing temperatures, J(het), frozen fractions, ice particle production rates and numbers. Our findings are based on experimental freezing data collected for various IN surface areas, A, and cooling rates, r, of droplets variously containing marine biogenic material, two soil humic acids, four mineral dusts, and one organic monolayer acting as IN. For all investigated IN types we demonstrate that droplet freezing temperatures increase as A increases. Similarly, droplet freezing temperatures increase as the cooling rate decreases. The log10(J(het)) values for the various IN types derived exclusively by Tand a(w), provide a complete description of the heterogeneous ice nucleation kinetics. Thus, the ABIFM can be applied over the entire range of T, RH, total particulate surface area, and cloud activation timescales typical of atmospheric conditions. Lastly, we demonstrate that ABIFM can be used to derive frozen fractions of droplets and ice particle production for atmospheric models of cirrus and mixed phase cloud conditions.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 46(12): 6630-6, 2012 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22594762

RESUMO

Multiphase reactions with nitrate radicals are among the most important chemical aging processes of organic aerosol particles in the atmosphere especially at nighttime. Reactive uptake of NO(3) by organic compounds has been observed in a number of studies, but the pathways of mass transport and chemical reaction remained unclear. Here we apply kinetic flux models to experimental NO(3) exposure studies. The model accounts for gas phase diffusion within a cylindrical flow tube, reversible adsorption of NO(3), surface-bulk exchange, bulk diffusion, and chemical reactions from the gas-condensed phase interface to the bulk. We resolve the relative contributions of surface and bulk reactions to the uptake of NO(3) by levoglucosan and abietic acid, which serve as surrogates and molecular markers of biomass burning aerosol (BBA). Applying the kinetic flux model, we provide the first estimate of the diffusion coefficient of NO(3) in amorphous solid organic matrices (10(-8)-10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)) and show that molecular markers are well-conserved in the bulk of solid BBA particles but undergo rapid degradation upon deliquescence/liquefaction at high relative humidity, indicating that the observed concentrations and subsequent apportionment of the biomass burning source could be significantly underestimated.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Cinética
12.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(47): 21050-62, 2011 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22020363

RESUMO

The reactive uptake coefficients (γ) of O(3), NO(2), N(2)O(5), and NO(3) by levoglucosan, abietic acid, nitroguaiacol, and an atmospherically relevant mixture of those species serving as surrogates for biomass burning aerosol have been determined employing a chemical ionization mass spectrometer coupled to a rotating-wall flow-tube reactor. γ of O(3), NO(2), N(2)O(5), and NO(3) in the presence of O(2) are in the range of 1-8 × 10(-5), <10(-6)-5 × 10(-5), 4-6 × 10(-5), and 1-26 × 10(-3), respectively, for the investigated organic substrates. Within experimental uncertainties the uptake of NO(3) was not sensitive to the presence of water vapour ( <0.5% relative humidity). [corrected]. NO(3) uptake experiments involving substrates of levoglucosan, abietic acid, and the mixture exhibit an initial strong uptake of NO(3) followed by NO(3) gas-phase recovery as a function of NO(3) exposure. In contrast, the uptake of NO(3) by nitroguaiacol continuously proceeds at the same efficiency for investigated NO(3) exposures. The derived oxidative power, i.e. the product of γ and atmospheric oxidant concentration, for applied oxidants is similar or significantly larger in magnitude than for OH, emphasizing the potential importance of these oxidants for particle oxidation. Estimated atmospheric lifetimes for the topmost organic layer with respect to O(3), NO(2), N(2)O(5), and NO(3) oxidation for typical polluted conditions range between 1-112 min, indicating the potential for significant chemical transformation during atmospheric transport. The contact angles determined prior to, and after heterogeneous oxidation by NO(3), representative of 50 ppt for 1 day, do not decrease and thus do not indicate a significant increase in hygroscopicity with potential impacts on water uptake and cloud formation processes.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Nitratos/química , Nitritos/química , Óxidos de Nitrogênio/química , Ozônio/química , Biomassa , Cinética , Oxirredução
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(44): 19882-94, 2011 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21912788

RESUMO

Biogenic particles have the potential to affect the formation of ice crystals in the atmosphere with subsequent consequences for the hydrological cycle and climate. We present laboratory observations of heterogeneous ice nucleation in immersion and deposition modes under atmospherically relevant conditions initiated by Nannochloris atomus and Emiliania huxleyi, marine phytoplankton with structurally and chemically distinct cell walls. Temperatures at which freezing, melting, and water uptake occur are observed using optical microscopy. The intact and fragmented unarmoured cells of N. atomus in aqueous NaCl droplets enhance ice nucleation by 10-20 K over the homogeneous freezing limit and can be described by a modified water activity based ice nucleation approach. E. huxleyi cells covered by calcite plates do not enhance droplet freezing temperatures. Both species nucleate ice in the deposition mode at an ice saturation ratio, S(ice), as low as ~1.2 and below 240 K, however, for each, different nucleation modes occur at warmer temperatures. These observations show that markedly different biogenic surfaces have both comparable and contrasting effects on ice nucleation behaviour depending on the presence of the aqueous phase and the extent of supercooling and water vapour supersaturation. We derive heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients, J(het), and cumulative ice nuclei spectra, K, for quantification and analysis using time-dependent and time-independent approaches, respectively. Contact angles, α, derived from J(het)via immersion freezing depend on T, a(w), and S(ice). For deposition freezing, α can be described as a function of S(ice) only. The different approaches yield different predictions of atmospheric ice crystal numbers primarily due to the time evolution allowed for the time-dependent approach with implications for the evolution of mixed-phase and ice clouds.


Assuntos
Gases/química , Gelo , Água/química , Clorófitas/química , Congelamento , Haptófitas/química , Transição de Fase , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Termodinâmica , Fatores de Tempo , Temperatura de Transição
14.
J Phys Chem A ; 115(22): 5579-91, 2011 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21568271

RESUMO

This study presents heterogeneous ice nucleation from water and aqueous NaCl droplets coated by 1-nonadecanol and 1-nonadecanoic acid monolayers as a function of water activity (a(w)) from 0.8 to 1 accompanied by measurements of the corresponding pressure-area isotherms and equilibrium spreading pressures. For water and aqueous NaCl solutions of ~0-20 wt % in concentration, 1-nonadecanol exhibits a condensed phase, whereas the phase of 1-nonadecanoic acid changes from an expanded to a condensed state with increasing NaCl content of the aqueous subphase. 1-Nonadecanol-coated aqueous droplets exhibit the highest median freezing temperatures that can be described by a shift in a(w) of the ice melting curve by 0.098 according to the a(w)-based ice nucleation approach. This freezing curve represents a heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient (J(het)) of 0.85 ± 0.30 cm(-2) s(-1). The median freezing temperatures of 1-nonadecanoic acid-coated aqueous droplets decrease less with increasing NaCl content compared to the homogeneous freezing temperatures. This trend in freezing temperature is best described by a linear function in a(w) and not by the a(w)-based ice nucleation approach most likely due to an increased ice nucleation efficiency of 1-nonadecanoic acid governed by the monolayer state. This freezing curve represents J(het) = 0.46 ± 0.16 cm(-2) s(-1). Contact angles (α) for 1-nonadecanol- and 1-nonadecanoic acid-coated aqueous droplets increase as temperature decreases for each droplet composition, but absolute values depend on employed water diffusivity and the interfacial energies of the ice embryo. A parametrization of log[J(het)(Δa(w))] is presented which allows prediction of freezing temperatures and heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients for water and aqueous NaCl droplets coated by 1-nonadecanol without knowledge of the droplet's composition and α.

15.
J Phys Chem A ; 115(5): 762-73, 2011 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21235213

RESUMO

Homogeneous ice nucleation plays an important role in the formation of cirrus clouds with subsequent effects on the global radiative budget. Here we report on homogeneous ice nucleation temperatures and corresponding nucleation rate coefficients of aqueous droplets serving as surrogates of biomass burning aerosol. Micrometer-sized (NH(4))(2)SO(4)/levoglucosan droplets with mass ratios of 10:1, 1:1, 1:5, and 1:10 and aqueous multicomponent organic droplets with and without (NH(4))(2)SO(4) under typical tropospheric temperatures and relative humidities are investigated experimentally using a droplet conditioning and ice nucleation apparatus coupled to an optical microscope with image analysis. Homogeneous freezing was determined as a function of temperature and water activity, a(w), which was set at droplet preparation conditions. The ice nucleation data indicate that minor addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) to the aqueous organic droplets renders the temperature dependency of water activity negligible in contrast to the case of aqueous organic solution droplets. The mean homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient derived from 8 different aqueous droplet compositions with average diameters of ∼60 µm for temperatures as low as 195 K and a(w) of 0.82-1 is 2.18 × 10(6) cm(-3) s(-1). The experimentally derived freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients are in agreement with predictions of the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory when taking predictive uncertainties into account. However, the presented ice nucleation data indicate that the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory overpredicts the freezing temperatures by up to 3 K and corresponding ice nucleation rate coefficients by up to ∼2 orders of magnitude. A shift of 0.01 in a(w), which is well within the uncertainty of typical field and laboratory relative humidity measurements, brings experimental and predicted freezing temperatures and homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficients into agreement. The experimentally derived ice nucleation data are applied to constrain the water activity-based homogeneous ice nucleation theory to smaller than ±1 order of magnitude compared to the predictive uncertainty of larger than ±6 orders of magnitude. The atmospheric implications of these findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Gelo , Material Particulado/química , Temperatura de Transição , Água/química , Aerossóis/química , Sulfato de Amônio/química , Atmosfera/química , Cristalização/métodos , Congelamento , Gases/química , Glucose/análogos & derivados , Glucose/química , Modelos Químicos , Tamanho da Partícula , Transição de Fase , Soluções/química
16.
J Phys Chem A ; 110(17): 5745-50, 2006 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16640368

RESUMO

Laboratory data of the freezing of nitric acid hydrates (NAD, NAT) from HNO(3)/H(2)O and HNO(3)/H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O solution droplets have been evaluated with respect to a "pseudoheterogeneous" (surface-induced) nucleation mechanism of NAD and NAT, which has been argued to possibly lead to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). In addition, a parametrization of pseudoheterogeneous nucleation of NAD and NAT suggested recently (Tabazadeh et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2002, 106, 10238-10246) has been analyzed, showing that this parametrization should not be used in stratospheric modeling studies. The analysis of several laboratory data sets yields an upper limit of the pseudoheterogeneous nucleation rate coefficient of NAD of 2.2 x 10(-5) cm(-2) s(-1). In contrast, the upper limit of the pseudoheterogeneous nucleation rate coefficient of NAT could not be constrained satisfactorily, since formation of NAT has not been observed at stratospheric conditions in laboratory experiments applying small droplets. Maximum NAD production rates of 9.6 x 10(-9) cm(-3) (air) h(-1) in the stratosphere have been estimated assuming a pseudoheterogeneous nucleation mechanism that is constrained by the experimental observations. If maximum NAD supersaturation persisted for 4 weeks in the polar stratosphere the corresponding NAD particle number densities are estimated to be about 6 x 10(-6) cm(-3). These particle number densities are 3 orders of magnitude lower than particle number densities recently observed in the stratosphere. In conclusion, on the basis of laboratory data it is found that a pseudoheterogeneous nucleation mechanism is not sufficient to explain recent observations of large nitric acid containing particles in the polar stratosphere.

17.
Nature ; 434(7030): 202-5, 2005 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15758996

RESUMO

An important mechanism for ice cloud formation in the Earth's atmosphere is homogeneous nucleation of ice in aqueous droplets, and this process is generally assumed to produce hexagonal ice. However, there are some reports that the metastable crystalline phase of ice, cubic ice, may form in the Earth's atmosphere. Here we present laboratory experiments demonstrating that cubic ice forms when micrometre-sized droplets of pure water and aqueous solutions freeze homogeneously at cooling rates approaching those found in the atmosphere. We find that the formation of cubic ice is dominant when droplets freeze at temperatures below 190 K, which is in the temperature range relevant for polar stratospheric clouds and clouds in the tropical tropopause region. These results, together with heat transfer calculations, suggest that cubic ice will form in the Earth's atmosphere. If there were a significant fraction of cubic ice in some cold clouds this could increase their water vapour pressure, and modify their microphysics and ice particle size distributions. Under specific conditions this may lead to enhanced dehydration of the tropopause region.

18.
J Phys Chem A ; 109(25): 5579-89, 2005 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16833889

RESUMO

The heterogeneous reaction of O3 with lauric acid/oleic acid (LA/OA) mixtures and myristic acid/oleic acid (MA/OA) mixtures were studied as a function of composition, physical state, and microstructure at 298 K. Lauric acid and myristic acid are both alkanoic acids, whereas oleic acid is an alkenoic acid. Additionally, we investigated the uptake of O3 by multicomponent mixtures that closely represent the composition of meat-cooking aerosols. These measurements were performed with a rotating-wall flow-tube reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The reactive uptake coefficients (gamma) of O3 on liquid LA/OA and MA/OA solutions range from 4 x 10(-4) to 7.2 x 10(-4). The gamma values measured for solid-liquid LA/OA and MA/OA mixtures (which consist of solid LA or solid MA in equilibrium with a liquid) range from 2 x 10(-5) to 1.7 x 10(-4). These experiments show that only 7% solid by mass in the solid-liquid mixture can decrease gamma by an order of magnitude compared to the liquid mixtures. The gamma values for solid-liquid mixtures that closely represent the composition of meat-cooking aerosols range from 1.6 x 10(-5) to 6.9 x 10(-5). We found that gamma of solid-liquid mixtures depends on the microstructure of the mixtures, which in turn depends on the method of preparing the films. Furthermore, experiments employing solid-liquid mixtures show an increase in gamma with increasing film age. This can be explained either by the formation of a nonequilibrium phase followed by its relaxation to the stable phase or by Ostwald's ripening, which refers to a change in the solid microstructure due to a tendency to minimize the total surface free energy of the solid. We used the obtained gamma values to estimate OA lifetimes for polluted atmospheric conditions. For liquid solutions, the lifetimes were on the order of a few minutes. The lifetimes derived for solid-liquid mixtures are up to 75 min, significantly longer than for liquid solutions. Our study emphasizes the effect of the physical state and microstructure of multicomponent mixtures on the heterogeneous chemistry.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Ácidos Láuricos/química , Ácido Mirístico/química , Ácido Oleico/química , Ozônio/química , Transição de Fase , Cinética , Microscopia , Temperatura
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