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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e995, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood hearing impairment affects language and cognitive development. Profound congenital sensorineural hearing impairment can be due to an abnormal cochleovestibular nerve (CVN) and cochleovestibular malformations, however, the etiology of these conditions remains unclear. METHODS: We used a trio-based exome sequencing approach to unravel the underlying molecular etiology of a child with a rare nonsyndromic CVN abnormality and cochlear hypoplasia. Clinical and imaging data were also reviewed. RESULTS: We identified a de novo missense variant [p(Asn174Tyr)] in the DNA-binding Homeodomain of SIX1, a gene which previously has been associated with autosomal dominant hearing loss (ADHL) and branchio-oto-renal or Branchio-otic syndrome, a condition not seen in this patient. CONCLUSIONS: SIX1 has an important function in otic vesicle patterning during embryogenesis, and mice show several abnormalities to their inner ear including loss of inner ear innervation. Previous reports on patients with SIX1 variants lack imaging data and nonsyndromic AD cases were reported to have no inner ear malformations. In conclusion, we show that a de novo variant in SIX1 in a patient with sensorineural hearing loss leads to cochleovestibular malformations and abnormalities of the CVN, without any other abnormalities. Without proper interventions, severe to profound hearing loss is devastating to both education and social integration. Choosing the correct intervention can be challenging and a molecular diagnosis may adjust intervention and improve outcomes, especially for rare cases.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 222, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501410

RESUMO

BTB/POZ domain-containing 3 (BTBD3) was identified as a potential risk gene in the first genome-wide association study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). BTBD3 is a putative transcription factor implicated in dendritic pruning in developing primary sensory cortices. We assessed whether BTBD3 also regulates neural circuit formation within limbic cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and behaviors related to OCD in mice. Behavioral phenotypes associated with OCD that are measurable in animals include compulsive-like behaviors and reduced exploration. We tested Btbd3 wild-type, heterozygous, and knockout mice for compulsive-like behaviors including cage-mate barbering, excessive wheel-running, repetitive locomotor patterns, and reduced goal-directed behavior in the probabilistic learning task (PLT), and for exploratory behavior in the open field, digging, and marble-burying tests. Btbd3 heterozygous and knockout mice showed excessive barbering, wheel-running, impaired goal-directed behavior in the PLT, and reduced exploration. Further, chronic treatment with fluoxetine, but not desipramine, reduced barbering in Btbd3 wild-type and heterozygous, but not knockout mice. In contrast, Btbd3 expression did not alter anxiety-like, depression-like, or sensorimotor behaviors. We also quantified dendritic morphology within anterior cingulate cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, and hippocampus, regions of high Btbd3 expression. Surprisingly, Btbd3 knockout mice only showed modest increases in spine density in the anterior cingulate, while dendritic morphology was unaltered elsewhere. Finally, we virally knocked down Btbd3 expression in whole, or just dorsal, hippocampus during neonatal development and assessed behavior during adulthood. Whole, but not dorsal, hippocampal Btbd3 knockdown recapitulated Btbd3 knockout phenotypes. Our findings reveal that hippocampal Btbd3 expression selectively modulates compulsive-like and exploratory behavior.

4.
Compr Psychiatry ; 94: 152123, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study addresses the strength of associations between trichotillomania (TTM) and other DSM-IV Axis I conditions in a large sample (n = 2606) enriched for familial obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), to inform TTM classification. METHODS: We identified participants with TTM in the Johns Hopkins OCD Family Study (153 families) and the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study, a six-site genetic linkage study of OCD (487 families). We used logistic regression (with generalized estimating equations) to assess the strength of associations between TTM and other DSM-IV disorders. RESULTS: TTM had excess comorbidity with a number of conditions from different DSM-IV chapters, including tic disorders, alcohol dependence, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, impulse-control disorders, and bulimia nervosa. However, association strengths (odds ratios) were highest for kleptomania (6.6), pyromania (5.8), OCD (5.6), skin picking disorder (4.4), bulimia nervosa (3.5), and pathological nail biting (3.4). CONCLUSIONS: TTM is comorbid with a number of psychiatric conditions besides OCD, and it is strongly associated with other conditions involving impaired impulse control. Though DSM-5 includes TTM as an OCD-related disorder, its comorbidity pattern also emphasizes the impulsive, appetitive aspects of this condition that may be relevant to classification.

5.
Sci Adv ; 5(9): eaau4139, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535015

RESUMO

Applying tissue-specific deconvolution of transcriptional networks to identify their master regulators (MRs) in neuropsychiatric disorders has been largely unexplored. Here, using two schizophrenia (SCZ) case-control RNA-seq datasets, one on postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and another on cultured olfactory neuroepithelium, we deconvolved the transcriptional networks and identified TCF4 as a top candidate MR that may be dysregulated in SCZ. We validated TCF4 as a MR through enrichment analysis of TCF4-binding sites in induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons and in neuroblastoma cells. We further validated the predicted TCF4 targets by knocking down TCF4 in hiPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and glutamatergic neurons (Glut_Ns). The perturbed TCF4 gene network in NPCs was more enriched for pathways involved in neuronal activity and SCZ-associated risk genes, compared to Glut_Ns. Our results suggest that TCF4 may serve as a MR of a gene network dysregulated in SCZ at early stages of neurodevelopment.

6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An early-life anxious temperament (AT) is a risk factor for the development of anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. We validated a nonhuman primate model of early-life AT and identified the dorsal amygdala as a core component of AT's neural circuit. Here, we combine RNA sequencing, viral-vector gene manipulation, functional brain imaging, and behavioral phenotyping to uncover AT's molecular substrates. METHODS: In response to potential threat, AT and brain metabolism were assessed in 46 young rhesus monkeys. We identified AT-related transcripts using RNA-sequencing data from dorsal amygdala tissue (including central nucleus of the amygdala [Ce] and dorsal regions of the basal nucleus). Based on the results, we overexpressed the neurotrophin-3 gene, NTF3, in the dorsal amygdala using intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging-guided surgery (n = 5 per group). RESULTS: This discovery-based approach identified AT-related alterations in the expression of well-established and novel genes, including an inverse association between NTRK3 expression and AT. NTRK3 is an interesting target because it is a relatively unexplored neurotrophic factor that modulates intracellular neuroplasticity pathways. Overexpression of the transcript for NTRK3's endogenous ligand, NTF3, in the dorsal amygdala resulted in reduced AT and altered function in AT's neural circuit. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data implicate neurotrophin-3/NTRK3 signaling in the dorsal amygdala in mediating primate anxiety. More generally, this approach provides an important step toward understanding the molecular underpinnings of early-life AT and will be useful in guiding the development of treatments to prevent the development of stress-related psychopathology.

7.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 29(8): 615-624, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170001

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the lifetime prevalence of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders in a multisite study of probands with childhood-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and their first-degree relatives. Methods: Medical questionnaires were completed by 1401 probands and 1045 first-degree relatives in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study. Lifetime prevalence of immune-related diseases was compared with the highest available population estimate and reported as a point estimate with 95% adjusted Wald interval. Worst-episode OCD severity and symptom dimensions were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) and Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-CL). Results: Probands reported higher-than-expected prevalence of scarlet fever (4.0 [3.1-5.2]% vs. 1.0%-2.0%, z = 1.491, p < 0.001, n = 1389), encephalitis or meningitis (1.4 [0.9-2.1]% vs. 0.1%-0.4%, z = 5.913, p < 0.001, n = 1393), rheumatoid arthritis (1.1 [0.6-2.0]% vs. 0.2%-0.4%, z = 3.416, p < 0.001, n = 949) and rheumatic fever (0.6 [0.3-1.2]% vs. 0.1%-0.2%, z = 3.338, p < 0.001, n = 1390), but not systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes, asthma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, or inflammatory bowel disease. First-degree relatives reported similarly elevated rates of scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and encephalitis or meningitis independent of OCD status. There was no association between worst-episode severity and immune-related comorbidities, although probands reporting frequent ear or throat infections had increased severity of cleaning-/contamination-related symptoms (mean factor score 2.5 ± 0.9 vs. 2.3 ± 1.0, t = 3.183, p = 0.002, n = 822). Conclusion: These data suggest high rates of streptococcal-related and other immune-mediated diseases in patients with childhood-onset OCD and are consistent with epidemiological studies in adults noting familial clustering. Limitations include potential reporting bias and absence of a control group, underscoring the need for further prospective studies characterizing medical and psychiatric disease clusters and their interactions in children. Such studies may ultimately improve our understanding of OCD pathogenesis and aid in the development of adjunctive immune-modulating therapeutic strategies.

8.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 120, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902966

RESUMO

There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of Tourette syndrome (TS) as well as its underlying neurocircuitry. However, the mechanisms by which genetic variation that increases risk for TS-and its main symptom dimensions-influence relevant brain regions are poorly understood. Here we undertook a genome-wide investigation of the overlap between TS genetic risk and genetic influences on the volume of specific subcortical brain structures that have been implicated in TS. We obtained summary statistics for the most recent TS genome-wide association study (GWAS) from the TS Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Working Group (4644 cases and 8695 controls) and GWAS of subcortical volumes from the ENIGMA consortium (30,717 individuals). We also undertook analyses using GWAS summary statistics of key symptom factors in TS, namely social disinhibition and symmetry behaviour. SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA) was used to examine genetic pleiotropy-the same SNP affecting two traits-and concordance-the agreement in single nucelotide polymorphism (SNP) effect directions across these two traits. In addition, a conditional false discovery rate (FDR) analysis was performed, conditioning the TS risk variants on each of the seven subcortical and the intracranial brain volume GWAS. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR) was used as validation of the SECA method. SECA revealed significant pleiotropy between TS and putamen (p = 2 × 10-4) and caudate (p = 4 × 10-4) volumes, independent of direction of effect, and significant concordance between TS and lower thalamic volume (p = 1 × 10-3). LDSR lent additional support for the association between TS and thalamus volume (p = 5.85 × 10-2). Furthermore, SECA revealed significant evidence of concordance between the social disinhibition symptom dimension and lower thalamus volume (p = 1 × 10-3), as well as concordance between symmetry behaviour and greater putamen volume (p = 7 × 10-4). Conditional FDR analysis further revealed novel variants significantly associated with TS (p < 8 × 10-7) when conditioning on intracranial (rs2708146, q = 0.046; and rs72853320, q = 0.035) and hippocampal (rs1922786, q = 0.001) volumes, respectively. These data indicate concordance for genetic variation involved in disorder risk and subcortical brain volumes in TS. Further work with larger samples is needed to fully delineate the genetic architecture of these disorders and their underlying neurocircuitry.

10.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 885-896, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as the underlying neurocircuitry of these disorders. However, there is little work on the concordance of genetic variations that increase risk for these conditions, and that influence subcortical brain structures. We undertook a genome-wide investigation of the overlap between the genetic influences from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on volumes of subcortical brain structures and genetic risk for anxiety disorders and PTSD. METHOD: We obtained summary statistics of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of anxiety disorders (Ncases = 7016, Ncontrols = 14,745), PTSD (European sample; Ncases = 2424, Ncontrols = 7113) and of subcortical brain structures (N = 13,171). SNP Effect Concordance Analysis (SECA) and Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) Score Regression were used to examine genetic pleiotropy, concordance, and genome-wide correlations respectively. SECAs conditional false discovery was used to identify specific risk variants associated with anxiety disorders or PTSD when conditioning on brain related traits. RESULTS: For anxiety disorders, we found evidence of significant concordance between increased anxiety risk variants and variants associated with smaller amygdala volume. Further, by conditioning on brain volume GWAS, we identified novel variants that associate with smaller brain volumes and increase risk for disorders: rs56242606 was found to increase risk for anxiety disorders, while two variants (rs6470292 and rs683250) increase risk for PTSD, when conditioning on the GWAS of putamen volume. LIMITATIONS: Despite using the largest available GWAS summary statistics, the analyses were limited by sample size. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data indicate that there is genome wide concordance between genetic risk factors for anxiety disorders and those for smaller amygdala volume, which is consistent with research that supports the involvement of the amygdala in anxiety disorders. It is notable that a genetic variant that contributes to both reduced putamen volume and PTSD plays a key role in the glutamatergic system. Further work with GWAS summary statistics from larger samples, and a more extensive look at the genetics underlying brain circuits, is needed to fully delineate the genetic architecture of these disorders and their underlying neurocircuitry.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Variação Genética/genética , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia
11.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(2): 110-119, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic risk for bipolar disorder (BD) is conferred through many common alleles, while a role for rare copy number variants (CNVs) is less clear. Subtypes of BD including schizoaffective disorder bipolar type (SAB), bipolar I disorder (BD I), and bipolar II disorder (BD II) differ according to the prominence and timing of psychosis, mania, and depression. The genetic factors contributing to the combination of symptoms among these subtypes are poorly understood. METHODS: Rare large CNVs were analyzed in 6353 BD cases (3833 BD I [2676 with psychosis, 850 without psychosis, and 307 with unknown psychosis history], 1436 BD II, 579 SAB, and 505 BD not otherwise specified) and 8656 controls. CNV burden and a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia were used to evaluate the relative contributions of rare and common variants to risk of BD, BD subtypes, and psychosis. RESULTS: CNV burden did not differ between BD and controls when treated as a single diagnostic entity. However, burden in SAB was increased relative to controls (p = .001), BD I (p = .0003), and BD II (p = .0007). Burden and schizophrenia PRSs were increased in SAB compared with BD I with psychosis (CNV p = .0007, PRS p = .004), and BD I without psychosis (CNV p = .0004, PRS p = 3.9 × 10-5). Within BD I, psychosis was associated with increased schizophrenia PRSs (p = .005) but not CNV burden. CONCLUSIONS: CNV burden in BD is limited to SAB. Rare and common genetic variants may contribute differently to risk for psychosis and perhaps other classes of psychiatric symptoms.

12.
Sci Adv ; 4(12): eaav8550, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555922

RESUMO

As part of PsychENCODE, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) epigenomic map of primary cultured neuronal cells derived from olfactory neuroepithelium (CNON). We mapped topologically associating domains and high-resolution chromatin interactions using Hi-C and identified regulatory elements using chromatin immunoprecipitation and nucleosome positioning assays. Using epigenomic datasets from biopsies of 63 living individuals, we found that epigenetic marks at distal regulatory elements are more variable than marks at proximal regulatory elements. By integrating genotype and metadata, we identified enhancers that have different levels corresponding to differences in genetic variation, gender, smoking, and schizophrenia. Motif searches revealed that many CNON enhancers are bound by neuronal-related transcription factors. Last, we combined 3D epigenomic maps and gene expression profiles to predict enhancer-target gene interactions on a genome-wide scale. This study not only provides a framework for understanding individual epigenetic variation using a primary cell model system but also contributes valuable data resources for epigenomic studies of neuronal epithelium.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Neurônios Receptores Olfatórios/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigenômica/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Heterocromatina/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Ligação Proteica , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Fluxo de Trabalho
13.
Science ; 362(6420)2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545854

RESUMO

To broaden our understanding of human neurodevelopment, we profiled transcriptomic and epigenomic landscapes across brain regions and/or cell types for the entire span of prenatal and postnatal development. Integrative analysis revealed temporal, regional, sex, and cell type-specific dynamics. We observed a global transcriptomic cup-shaped pattern, characterized by a late fetal transition associated with sharply decreased regional differences and changes in cellular composition and maturation, followed by a reversal in childhood-adolescence, and accompanied by epigenomic reorganizations. Analysis of gene coexpression modules revealed relationships with epigenomic regulation and neurodevelopmental processes. Genes with genetic associations to brain-based traits and neuropsychiatric disorders (including MEF2C, SATB2, SOX5, TCF4, and TSHZ3) converged in a small number of modules and distinct cell types, revealing insights into neurodevelopment and the genomic basis of neuropsychiatric risks.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/embriologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Neurogênese/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
14.
Science ; 362(6420)2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545857

RESUMO

Despite progress in defining genetic risk for psychiatric disorders, their molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Addressing this, the PsychENCODE Consortium has generated a comprehensive online resource for the adult brain across 1866 individuals. The PsychENCODE resource contains ~79,000 brain-active enhancers, sets of Hi-C linkages, and topologically associating domains; single-cell expression profiles for many cell types; expression quantitative-trait loci (QTLs); and further QTLs associated with chromatin, splicing, and cell-type proportions. Integration shows that varying cell-type proportions largely account for the cross-population variation in expression (with >88% reconstruction accuracy). It also allows building of a gene regulatory network, linking genome-wide association study variants to genes (e.g., 321 for schizophrenia). We embed this network into an interpretable deep-learning model, which improves disease prediction by ~6-fold versus polygenic risk scores and identifies key genes and pathways in psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Aprendizado Profundo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087453

RESUMO

Anorexia nervosa (AN) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often comorbid and likely to share genetic risk factors. Hence, we examine their shared genetic background using a cross-disorder GWAS meta-analysis of 3495 AN cases, 2688 OCD cases, and 18,013 controls. We confirmed a high genetic correlation between AN and OCD (rg = 0.49 ± 0.13, p = 9.07 × 10-7) and a sizable SNP heritability (SNP h2 = 0.21 ± 0.02) for the cross-disorder phenotype. Although no individual loci reached genome-wide significance, the cross-disorder phenotype showed strong positive genetic correlations with other psychiatric phenotypes (e.g., rg = 0.36 with bipolar disorder and 0.34 with neuroticism) and negative genetic correlations with metabolic phenotypes (e.g., rg = -0.25 with body mass index and -0.20 with triglycerides). Follow-up analyses revealed that although AN and OCD overlap heavily in their shared risk with other psychiatric phenotypes, the relationship with metabolic and anthropometric traits is markedly stronger for AN than for OCD. We further tested whether shared genetic risk for AN/OCD was associated with particular tissue or cell-type gene expression patterns and found that the basal ganglia and medium spiny neurons were most enriched for AN-OCD risk, consistent with neurobiological findings for both disorders. Our results confirm and extend genetic epidemiological findings of shared risk between AN and OCD and suggest that larger GWASs are warranted.

16.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) has been implicated in a number of psychiatric diseases along with neurodevelopmental phenotypes such as the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. While there has been significant effort directed toward understanding the function of DISC1 through the determination of its protein-protein interactions within an in vitro setting, endogenous interactions involving DISC1 within a cell type-specific setting relevant to neural development remain unclear. METHODS: Using CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9) genome engineering technology, we inserted an endogenous 3X-FLAG tag at the C-terminus of the canonical DISC1 gene in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We further differentiated these cells and used affinity purification to determine protein-protein interactions involving DISC1 in iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells and astrocytes. RESULTS: We were able to determine 151 novel cell type-specific proteins present in DISC1 endogenous interactomes. The DISC1 interactomes can be clustered into several subcomplexes that suggest novel DISC1 cell-specific functions. In addition, the DISC1 interactome in iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells associates in a connected network containing proteins found to harbor de novo mutations in patients affected by schizophrenia and contains a subset of novel interactions that are known to harbor syndromic mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Endogenous DISC1 interactomes within iPSC-derived human neural progenitor cells and astrocytes are able to provide context to DISC1 function in a cell type-specific setting relevant to neural development and enables the integration of psychiatric disease risk factors within a set of defined molecular functions.

17.
Br J Psychiatry ; 213(1): 430-436, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have identified changes in the brain associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), but few have examined the relationship between genetic determinants of OCD and brain variation.AimsWe present the first genome-wide investigation of overlapping genetic risk for OCD and genetic influences on subcortical brain structures. METHOD: Using single nucleotide polymorphism effect concordance analysis, we measured genetic overlap between the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of OCD (1465 participants with OCD, 5557 controls) and recent GWASs of eight subcortical brain volumes (13 171 participants). RESULTS: We found evidence of significant positive concordance between OCD risk variants and variants associated with greater nucleus accumbens and putamen volumes. When conditioning OCD risk variants on brain volume, variants influencing putamen, amygdala and thalamus volumes were associated with risk for OCD. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with current OCD neurocircuitry models. Further evidence will clarify the relationship between putamen volume and OCD risk, and the roles of the detected variants in this disorder.Declaration of interestThe authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

18.
Hum Genet ; 137(6-7): 459-470, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955957

RESUMO

Congenital inner ear malformations affecting both the osseous and membranous labyrinth can have a devastating impact on hearing and language development. With the exception of an enlarged vestibular aqueduct, non-syndromic inner ear malformations are rare, and their underlying molecular biology has thus far remained understudied. To identify molecular factors that might be important in the developing inner ear, we adopted a family-based trio exome sequencing approach in young unrelated subjects with severe inner ear malformations. We identified two previously unreported de novo loss-of-function variants in GREB1L [c.4368G>T;p.(Glu1410fs) and c.982C>T;p.(Arg328*)] in two affected subjects with absent cochleae and eighth cranial nerve malformations. The cochlear aplasia in these affected subjects suggests that a developmental arrest or problem at a very early stage of inner ear development exists, e.g., during the otic pit formation. Craniofacial Greb1l RNA expression peaks in mice during this time frame (E8.5). It also peaks in the developing inner ear during E13-E16, after which it decreases in adulthood. The crucial function of Greb1l in craniofacial development is also evidenced in knockout mice, which develop severe craniofacial abnormalities. In addition, we show that Greb1l-/- zebrafish exhibit a loss of abnormal sensory epithelia innervation. An important role for Greb1l in sensory epithelia innervation development is supported by the eighth cranial nerve deficiencies seen in both affected subjects. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GREB1L is a key player in early inner ear and eighth cranial nerve development. Abnormalities in cochleovestibular anatomy can provide challenges for cochlear implantation. Combining a molecular diagnosis with imaging techniques might aid the development of individually tailored therapeutic interventions in the future.

19.
Brain Struct Funct ; 223(6): 2841-2858, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663135

RESUMO

Tractography is a powerful technique capable of non-invasively reconstructing the structural connections in the brain using diffusion MRI images, but the validation of tractograms is challenging due to lack of ground truth. Owing to recent developments in mapping the mouse brain connectome, high-resolution tracer injection-based axonal projection maps have been created and quickly adopted for the validation of tractography. Previous studies using tracer injections mainly focused on investigating the match in projections and optimal tractography protocols. Being a complicated technique, however, tractography relies on multiple stages of operations and parameters. These factors introduce large variabilities in tractograms, hindering the optimization of protocols and making the interpretation of results difficult. Based on this observation, in contrast to previous studies, in this work we focused on quantifying and ranking the amount of performance variation introduced by these factors. For this purpose, we performed over a million tractography experiments and studied the variability across different subjects, injections, anatomical constraints and tractography parameters. By using N-way ANOVA analysis, we show that all tractography parameters are significant and importantly performance variations with respect to the differences in subjects are comparable to the variations due to tractography parameters, which strongly underlines the importance of fully documenting the tractography protocols in scientific experiments. We also quantitatively show that inclusion of anatomical constraints is the most significant factor for improving tractography performance. Although this critical factor helps reduce false positives, our analysis indicates that anatomy-informed tractography still fails to capture a large portion of axonal projections.

20.
Compr Psychiatry ; 81: 53-59, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hoarding behavior may distinguish a clinically and possibly etiologically distinct subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the relationship between executive dysfunction and hoarding in individuals with OCD. METHODS: The study sample included 431 adults diagnosed with DSM-IV OCD. Participants were assessed by clinicians for Axis I disorders, personality disorders, indecision, and hoarding. Executive functioning domains were evaluated using a self-report instrument, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). We compared scores on these domains in the 143 hoarding and 288 non-hoarding participants, separately in men and women. We used logistic regression to evaluate relationships between executive function scores and hoarding, and correlation and linear regression analyses to evaluate relationships between executive function scores and hoarding severity, in women. RESULTS: In men, the hoarding group had a significantly higher mean score than the non-hoarding group only on the shift dimension. In contrast, in women, the hoarding group had higher mean scores on the shift scale and all metacognition dimensions, i.e., those that assess the ability to systematically solve problems via planning and organization. The relationships in women between hoarding and scores on initiating tasks, planning/organizing, organization of materials, and the metacognition index were independent of other clinical features. Furthermore, the severity of hoarding in women correlated most strongly with metacognition dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported deficits in planning and organization are associated with the occurrence and severity of hoarding in women, but not men, with OCD. This may have implications for elucidating the etiology of, and developing effective treatments for, hoarding in OCD.

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