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1.
J Perinatol ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better understand COVID-19 in newborns, we compared in-hospital illness severity indicators by COVID-19 status during birth hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort of newborns born March-December 2020 in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, we classified COVID-19 status and severe illness indicators using ICD-CM-10 codes, laboratory data, and billing records. Illness severity indicators were compared by COVID-19 status, stratified by gestational age and race/ethnicity. RESULT: Among 701,777 newborns, 209 had a COVID-19 diagnosis during the birth hospitalization. COVID-19 status differed significantly by race/ethnicity, gestational age, payor, and region. Late preterm/term newborns with COVID-19 had increased intensive care unit admission and sepsis risk; early preterm newborns with COVID-19 had increased risk for invasive ventilation. Risk for illness severity varied among racial/ethnic strata. CONCLUSION: From March to December 2020, COVID-19 diagnosis in newborns was rare. More clinical data are needed to describe the risk profiles of newborns with COVID-19.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(47): 1640-1645, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818318

RESUMO

Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe COVID-19-related illness, and COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal and neonatal complications (1-3). To date, studies assessing whether COVID-19 during pregnancy is associated with increased risk for stillbirth have yielded mixed results (2-4). Since the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) became the predominant circulating variant,* there have been anecdotal reports of increasing rates of stillbirths in women with COVID-19.† CDC used the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR), a large hospital-based administrative database,§ to assess whether a maternal COVID-19 diagnosis documented at delivery hospitalization was associated with stillbirth during March 2020-September 2021 as well as before and during the period of Delta variant predominance in the United States (March 2020-June 2021 and July-September 2021, respectively). Among 1,249,634 deliveries during March 2020-September 2021, stillbirths were rare (8,154; 0.65%): 273 (1.26%) occurred among 21,653 deliveries to women with COVID-19 documented at the delivery hospitalization, and 7,881 (0.64%) occurred among 1,227,981 deliveries without COVID-19. The adjusted risk for stillbirth was higher in deliveries with COVID-19 compared with deliveries without COVID-19 during March 2020-September 2021 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.69-2.15), including during the pre-Delta (aRR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.27-1.71) and Delta periods (aRR = 4.04; 95% CI = 3.28-4.97). COVID-19 documented at delivery was associated with increased risk for stillbirth, with a stronger association during the period of Delta variant predominance. Implementing evidence-based COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination before or during pregnancy, is critical to reducing the impact of COVID-19 on stillbirths.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(10): 1551-1559, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606354

RESUMO

Each year approximately 700 people die in the United States from pregnancy-related complications. We describe the characteristics of pregnancy-related deaths due to mental health conditions, including substance use disorders, and identify opportunities for prevention based on recommendations from fourteen state Maternal Mortality Review Committees (MMRCs) from the period 2008-17. Among 421 pregnancy-related deaths with an MMRC-determined underlying cause of death, 11 percent were due to mental health conditions. Pregnancy-related mental health deaths were more likely than deaths from other causes to be determined by an MMRC to be preventable (100 percent versus 64 percent), to occur among non-Hispanic White people (86 percent versus 45 percent), and to occur 43-365 days postpartum (63 percent versus 18 percent). Sixty-three percent of pregnancy-related mental health deaths were by suicide. Nearly three-quarters of people with a pregnancy-related mental health cause of death had a history of depression, and more than two-thirds had past or current substance use. MMRC recommendations can be used to prioritize interventions and can inform strategies to enable screening, care coordination, and continuation of care throughout pregnancy and the year postpartum.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Suicídio , Comitês Consultivos , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Mortalidade Materna , Saúde Mental , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1228-1232, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473684

RESUMO

Viral infections are a common cause of myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium) that can result in hospitalization, heart failure, and sudden death (1). Emerging data suggest an association between COVID-19 and myocarditis (2-5). CDC assessed this association using a large, U.S. hospital-based administrative database of health care encounters from >900 hospitals. Myocarditis inpatient encounters were 42.3% higher in 2020 than in 2019. During March 2020-January 2021, the period that coincided with the COVID-19 pandemic, the risk for myocarditis was 0.146% among patients diagnosed with COVID-19 during an inpatient or hospital-based outpatient encounter and 0.009% among patients who were not diagnosed with COVID-19. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, patients with COVID-19 during March 2020-January 2021 had, on average, 15.7 times the risk for myocarditis compared with those without COVID-19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.1-17.2); by age, risk ratios ranged from approximately 7.0 for patients aged 16-39 years to >30.0 for patients aged <16 years or ≥75 years. Overall, myocarditis was uncommon among persons with and without COVID-19; however, COVID-19 was significantly associated with an increased risk for myocarditis, with risk varying by age group. These findings underscore the importance of implementing evidence-based COVID-19 prevention strategies, including vaccination, to reduce the public health impact of COVID-19 and its associated complications.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Miocardite/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocardite/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 26: 65-68, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537460

RESUMO

In this study, hospital discharge data from the 2016-2017 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project were analyzed to describe national and, where data were available, state-specific prevalences of chronic hypertension and pregnancy-associated hypertension at delivery hospitalization. In 2016-2017, the prevalence of chronic hypertension was 216 per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations nationwide, ranging from 125 to 400 per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations in individual states. The prevalence of pregnancy-associated hypertension was 1021 per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations nationwide, ranging from 693 to 1382 per 10,000 delivery hospitalizations in individual states. The burden of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remains high and varies considerably by jurisdiction.

6.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E66, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197283

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25-1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24-1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41-1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45-4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações do Diabetes , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Multimorbidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Obesidade , Transtornos Fóbicos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(8): 902-908, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hospital discharge records remain a common data source for tracking the opioid crisis among pregnant women and infants. The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) transition from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification may have affected surveillance. Our aim was to evaluate this transition on rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), maternal opioid use disorder (OUD), and opioid-related diagnoses (OUD with ICD-10-CM codes for long-term use of opioid analgesics and unspecified opioid use). METHODS: Data from the 2013-2017 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample were used to conduct, interrupted time series analysis and log-binomial segmented regression to assess whether quarterly rates differed across the transition. RESULTS: From 2013 to 2017, an estimated 18.8 million birth and delivery hospitalizations were represented. The ICD-10-CM transition was not associated with NAS rates (rate ratio [RR]: 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-1.08; P = .79) but was associated with 11% lower OUD rates (RR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80-0.98; P = .02) and a decrease in the quarterly trend (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96-1.00; P = .04). The transition was not associated with maternal OUD plus long-term use rates (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.89-1.09; P = .76) but was associated with a 20% overall increase in opioid-related diagnosis rates including long-term and unspecified use (RR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.09-1.32; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The ICD-10-CM transition did not appear to affect NAS. However, coding of maternal OUD alone may not capture the same population across the transition, which confounds the interpretation of trend data spanning this time period.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Gravidez
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2111182, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097050

RESUMO

Importance: Information on underlying conditions and severe COVID-19 illness among children is limited. Objective: To examine the risk of severe COVID-19 illness among children associated with underlying medical conditions and medical complexity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included patients aged 18 years and younger with International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification code U07.1 (COVID-19) or B97.29 (other coronavirus) during an emergency department or inpatient encounter from March 2020 through January 2021. Data were collected from the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release, which included data from more than 800 US hospitals. Multivariable generalized linear models, controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, were used to estimate adjusted risk of severe COVID-19 illness associated with underlying medical conditions and medical complexity. Exposures: Underlying medical conditions and medical complexity (ie, presence of complex or noncomplex chronic disease). Main Outcomes and Measures: Hospitalization and severe illness when hospitalized (ie, combined outcome of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death). Results: Among 43 465 patients with COVID-19 aged 18 years or younger, the median (interquartile range) age was 12 (4-16) years, 22 943 (52.8%) were female patients, and 12 491 (28.7%) had underlying medical conditions. The most common diagnosed conditions were asthma (4416 [10.2%]), neurodevelopmental disorders (1690 [3.9%]), anxiety and fear-related disorders (1374 [3.2%]), depressive disorders (1209 [2.8%]), and obesity (1071 [2.5%]). The strongest risk factors for hospitalization were type 1 diabetes (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 4.60; 95% CI, 3.91-5.42) and obesity (aRR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.66-3.54), and the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness were type 1 diabetes (aRR, 2.38; 95% CI, 2.06-2.76) and cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies (aRR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.48-1.99). Prematurity was a risk factor for severe COVID-19 illness among children younger than 2 years (aRR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.47-2.29). Chronic and complex chronic disease were risk factors for hospitalization, with aRRs of 2.91 (95% CI, 2.63-3.23) and 7.86 (95% CI, 6.91-8.95), respectively, as well as for severe COVID-19 illness, with aRRs of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.69-2.26) and 2.86 (95% CI, 2.47-3.32), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found a higher risk of severe COVID-19 illness among children with medical complexity and certain underlying conditions, such as type 1 diabetes, cardiac and circulatory congenital anomalies, and obesity. Health care practitioners could consider the potential need for close observation and cautious clinical management of children with these conditions and COVID-19.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Saúde da Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , COVID-19/mortalidade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pandemias , Nascimento Prematuro , Respiração Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S24-S31, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on risk for adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among pregnant women is still emerging. We examined the association between COVID-19 at delivery and adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal complications, and severe illness, and whether these associations differ by race/ethnicity, and describe discharge status by COVID-19 diagnosis and maternal complications. METHODS: Data from 703 hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database during March-September 2020 were included. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) overall and stratified by race/ethnicity were estimated using Poisson regression with robust standard errors. Proportion not discharged home was calculated by maternal complications, stratified by COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: Among 489 471 delivery hospitalizations, 6550 (1.3%) had a COVID-19 diagnosis. In adjusted models, COVID-19 was associated with increased risk for acute respiratory distress syndrome (aRR, 34.4), death (aRR, 17.0), sepsis (aRR, 13.6), mechanical ventilation (aRR, 12.7), shock (aRR, 5.1), intensive care unit admission (aRR, 3.6), acute renal failure (aRR, 3.5), thromboembolic disease (aRR, 2.7), adverse cardiac event/outcome (aRR, 2.2), and preterm labor with preterm delivery (aRR, 1.2). Risk for any maternal complications or for any severe illness did not significantly differ by race/ethnicity. Discharge status did not differ by COVID-19; however, among women with concurrent maternal complications, a greater proportion of those with (vs without) COVID-19 were not discharged home. CONCLUSIONS: These findings emphasize the importance of implementing recommended prevention strategies to reduce risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and further inform counseling and clinical care for pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Opioid Manag ; 17(2): 125-133, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33890276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual percentage of women of reproductive age with private insurance or Medicaid who had opioid prescription claims during 2013-2017 and describe trends over time. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of insurance claims data from IBM MarketScan® Commercial and Multi-State Medicaid Databases to assess outpatient pharmacy claims for prescription opioids among women aged 15-44 years during 2013-2017. PARTICIPANTS: Annual cohorts of 3.5-3.8 million women aged 15-44 years with private insurance and 0.9-2.1 million women enrolled in Medicaid. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The percentage of women aged 15-44 years with outpatient pharmacy claims for opioid prescriptions. RESULTS: During 2013-2017, the proportion of women aged 15-44 years with private insurance who had claims for opioid prescriptions decreased by 22.1 percent, and among women enrolled in Medicaid, the proportion decreased by 31.5 -percent. CONCLUSIONS: Opioid prescription claims decreased from 2013 to 2017 among insured women of reproductive age. However, opioid prescription claims remained common and were more common among women enrolled in Medicaid than those with private insurance; additional strategies to improve awareness of the risks associated with opioid prescribing may be needed.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Medicaid , Prescrições , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 223: 108704, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894458

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe healthcare utilization of infants by maternal opioid exposure and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) status. METHODS: A longitudinal cohort of 81,833 maternal-infant dyads were identified from Oregon's 2008-2012 linked birth certificate and Medicaid eligibility and claims data. Chi-square tests compared term infants (≥37 weeks of gestational age) by maternal opioid exposure, defined using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes or prescription fills, and NAS, defined using ICD-9-CM codes, such that infants were categorized as Opioid+/ NAS+, Opioid+/NAS-, Opioid-/NAS+, and Opioid-/NAS-. Modified Poisson regression was used to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for healthcare utilization for each infant group compared to Opioid-/NAS- infants. RESULTS: The prevalence of documented maternal opioid exposure was 123.1 per 1000 dyads and NAS incidence was 5.8 per 1000 dyads. Compared to Opioid-/NAS- infants, infants with maternal opioid exposures were more likely to be hospitalized within 4 weeks (Opioid+/ NAS+: [aRR: 4.7; 95 % CI: 4.3-5.1]; Opioid+/ NAS-: [aRR: 3.7; 95 %CI: 3.1-4.5]) and a year after birth (Opioid+/ NAS+: [aRR: 3.7; 95 %CI: 3.4-4.0]; Opioid+/ NAS-: [aRR: 2.8; 95 %CI: 2.3-3.4]). Infants with maternal opioid exposure and/or NAS were more likely than Opioid-/NAS- infants to have ≥2 sick visits and any ED visits in the year after birth. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with NAS and/or maternal opioid exposure had greater healthcare utilization than infants without NAS or opioid exposure. Efforts to mitigate future hospitalization risk and encourage participation in preventative services within the first year of life may improve outcomes.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Psychiatr Res ; 137: 126-130, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected mental health and created barriers to healthcare. In this study, we sought to elucidate the pandemic's effects on mental health and access to care for perinatal individuals. METHODS: This cross-sectional study of individuals in Massachusetts who were pregnant or up to three months postpartum with a history of depressive symptoms examined associations between demographics and psychiatric symptoms (via validated mental health screening instruments) and the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on mental health and access to care. Chi-square associations and multivariate regression models were used. RESULTS: Of 163 participants, 80.8% perceived increased symptoms of depression and 88.8% of anxiety due to the pandemic. Positive screens for depression, anxiety, and/or PTSD at time of interview, higher education, and income were associated with increased symptoms of depression and anxiety due to the pandemic. Positive screens for depression, anxiety, and/or PTSD were also associated with perceived changes in access to mental healthcare. Compared to non-Hispanic White participants, participants of color (Black, Asian, Multiracial, and/or Hispanic/Latinx) were more likely to report that the pandemic changed their mental healthcare access (aOR:3.25, 95%CI:1.23, 8.59). LIMITATIONS: Limitations included study generalizability, given that participants have a history of depressive symptoms, and cross-sectional design. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has increased symptoms of perinatal depression and anxiety and impacted perceived access to care. Self-reported increases in depression and anxiety and changes to healthcare access varied by education, race/ethnicity, income, and positive screens. Understanding these differences is important to address perinatal mental health and provide equitable care.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Gravidez
14.
J Hum Lact ; 37(4): 803-812, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about breastfeeding initiation and duration in the context of postpartum marijuana use and safety beliefs. RESEARCH AIMS: (1) To describe characteristics of women who used marijuana postpartum; (2) to evaluate the relationship between postpartum marijuana use and breastfeeding behaviors; and 3) to assess, among women who used marijuana postpartum, how safety perceptions are associated with breastfeeding behaviors. METHODS: Data from the cross-sectional Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a United States national governmental survey, 2017, were analyzed for participants with infants aged ≥ 12 weeks (seven states, unweighted N = 4604). Chi-square tests were used to compare characteristics and counseling for postpartum marijuana use. For participants with postpartum use, adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated to evaluate relationships between safety perceptions and breastfeeding initiation and duration. RESULTS: Overall, 5.5% (95% CI [4.6, 6.6]) of participants reported postpartum marijuana use; among these women, 47.2% (CI [37.6, 56.9]) were breastfeeding at the time of the survey. Overall, 25.7% of participants indicated that they had been advised, by their prenatal care provider, against marijuana use while breastfeeding. Breastfeeding initiation or duration did not differ by postpartum marijuana use. Among participants with postpartum use, those who perceived marijuana was safe for breastfeeding women to use were more likely to have breastfed (aPR = 1.22, CI [1.04, 1.43]) and have a breastfeeding duration > 12 weeks (aPR = 1.57, CI [1.08, 2.27]) compared to those who perceived it to be unsafe. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding maternal safety beliefs and provider education about the latest evidence and guidance related to postpartum marijuana use may improve clinical care.

16.
JAMA ; 325(2): 146-155, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433576

RESUMO

Importance: Substantial increases in both neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and maternal opioid use disorder have been observed through 2014. Objective: To examine national and state variation in NAS and maternal opioid-related diagnoses (MOD) rates in 2017 and to describe national and state changes since 2010 in the US, which included expanded MOD codes (opioid use disorder plus long-term and unspecified use) implemented in International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification. Design, Setting, and Participants: Repeated cross-sectional analysis of the 2010 to 2017 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample and State Inpatient Databases, an all-payer compendium of hospital discharge records from community nonrehabilitation hospitals in 47 states and the District of Columbia. Exposures: State and year. Main Outcomes and Measures: NAS rate per 1000 birth hospitalizations and MOD rate per 1000 delivery hospitalizations. Results: In 2017, there were 751 037 birth hospitalizations and 748 239 delivery hospitalizations in the national sample; 5375 newborns had NAS and 6065 women had MOD documented in the discharge record. Mean gestational age was 38.4 weeks and mean maternal age was 28.8 years. From 2010 to 2017, the estimated NAS rate significantly increased by 3.3 per 1000 birth hospitalizations (95% CI, 2.5-4.1), from 4.0 (95% CI, 3.3-4.7) to 7.3 (95% CI, 6.8-7.7). The estimated MOD rate significantly increased by 4.6 per 1000 delivery hospitalizations (95% CI, 3.9-5.4), from 3.5 (95% CI, 3.0-4.1) to 8.2 (95% CI, 7.7-8.7). Larger increases for MOD vs NAS rates occurred with new International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes in 2016. From a census of 47 state databases in 2017, NAS rates ranged from 1.3 per 1000 birth hospitalizations in Nebraska to 53.5 per 1000 birth hospitalizations in West Virginia, with Maine (31.4), Vermont (29.4), Delaware (24.2), and Kentucky (23.9) also exceeding 20 per 1000 birth hospitalizations, while MOD rates ranged from 1.7 per 1000 delivery hospitalizations in Nebraska to 47.3 per 1000 delivery hospitalizations in Vermont, with West Virginia (40.1), Maine (37.8), Delaware (24.3), and Kentucky (23.4) also exceeding 20 per 1000 delivery hospitalizations. From 2010 to 2017, NAS and MOD rates increased significantly for all states except Nebraska and Vermont, which only had MOD increases. Conclusions and Relevance: In the US from 2010 to 2017, estimated rates of NAS and MOD significantly increased nationally and for the majority of states, with notable state-level variation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/economia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/etnologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): e695-e703, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32945846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hospitalization are needed to guide prevention efforts and clinical care. We sought to identify factors independently associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. METHODS: Community-dwelling adults (aged ≥18 years) in the United States hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during 1 March-23 June 2020 were identified from the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), a multistate surveillance system. To calculate hospitalization rates by age, sex, and race/ethnicity strata, COVID-NET data served as the numerator and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System estimates served as the population denominator for characteristics of interest. Underlying medical conditions examined included hypertension, coronary artery disease, history of stroke, diabetes, obesity, severe obesity, chronic kidney disease, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Generalized Poisson regression models were used to calculate adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for hospitalization. RESULTS: Among 5416 adults, hospitalization rates (all reported as aRR [95% confidence interval]) were higher among those with ≥3 underlying conditions (vs without) (5.0 [3.9-6.3]), severe obesity (4.4 [3.4-5.7]), chronic kidney disease (4.0 [3.0-5.2]), diabetes (3.2 [2.5-4.1]), obesity (2.9 [2.3-3.5]), hypertension (2.8 [2.3-3.4]), and asthma (1.4 [1.1-1.7]), after adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Adjusting for the presence of an individual underlying medical condition, higher hospitalization rates were observed for adults aged ≥65 or 45-64 years (vs 18-44 years), males (vs females), and non-Hispanic black and other race/ethnicities (vs non-Hispanic whites). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings elucidate groups with higher hospitalization risk that may benefit from targeted preventive and therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 30(5): 731-738, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633692

RESUMO

Background: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that providers screen women for depression at the postpartum checkup. If this checkup is the only screening opportunity, women who do not attend or whose depressive episode occurs at a different time may not be identified. We evaluated women's encounters with postpartum health care to identify screening opportunities for postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS). Materials and Methods: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data for 2012-2015 from eight jurisdictions (n = 23,990, representing 1,939,865 women) were used to calculate percentage of women reporting attendance at postpartum checkups, well-child visits, or postpartum home visitation, by presence of PDS. PDS were assessed using a modified two-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Using Modified Poisson regression, adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare health services by PDS, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Almost all women with or without PDS attended a postpartum checkup (85.1% and 91.4%; aPR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.93-0.99) and their infants attended a well-child visit (97.3% and 98.9%; aPR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.98-1.00); 13.7% and 10.9% received home visitation (aPR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.02-1.35). Of women with PDS who missed their postpartum checkup, 13.5% reported infant attendance at well-child visits, and 2.0% received home visitation. Of women with PDS, 98.8%, 86.1%, and 11.2% attended 1, 2, or 3 health services. Conclusion: A large percentage of women with PDS may attend well-child visits or receive home visitation, representing opportunities for depression screening and referral for care.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Depressão , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Programas de Rastreamento , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
20.
Med Care ; 59(2): 185-192, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid overdose epidemic has been declared a public health emergency. Women are more likely than men to be prescribed opioid medications. Some states have adopted policies to improve opioid prescribing, including prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) and pain clinic laws. OBJECTIVE: Among reproductive-aged women, we examined the association of mandatory use laws for PDMPs in Kentucky (concurrent with a pain clinic law) and New York with overdose involving prescription opioids or heroin and opioid use disorder (OUD). STUDY DESIGN, SUBJECTS, AND OUTCOME MEASURES: We conducted interrupted time series analyses estimating outcome changes after policy implementation in Kentucky and New York, compared with geographically close states without these policies (comparison states), using 2010-2014 State Inpatient and State Emergency Department Databases. Outcomes included rates of inpatient discharges and emergency department visits for overdoses involving prescription opioids or heroin and OUD among reproductive-aged women. RESULTS: Relative to comparison states, following Kentucky's policy change, we found an immediate postpolicy decrease and a decreasing trend in the rate of overdoses involving prescription opioids, an immediate postpolicy increase in the rate of overdoses involving heroin, and a decreasing trend in the OUD rate (P<0.01); New York's policy change was not associated with the assessed outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: PDMPs and pain clinic laws, such as those implemented in Kentucky, may be promising strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of high-risk opioid prescribing among reproductive-aged women. As states continue efforts to improve inappropriate opioid prescribing, similar strategies as those adopted in Kentucky merit consideration.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Governo Estadual , Adulto , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Política de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Kentucky/epidemiologia , New York/epidemiologia , Overdose de Opiáceos/epidemiologia , Overdose de Opiáceos/prevenção & controle , Epidemia de Opioides/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos
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