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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(3): 90-94, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971931

RESUMO

Since August 2019, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders have been investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). This report updates patient demographic characteristics, self-reported substance use, and hospitalization dates for EVALI patients reported to CDC by states, as well as the distribution of emergency department (ED) visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products analyzed through the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). As of January 14, 2020, a total of 2,668 hospitalized EVALI cases had been reported to CDC. Median patient age was 24 years, and 66% were male. Overall, 82% of EVALI patients reported using any tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, product (including 33% with exclusive THC-containing product use), and 57% of EVALI patients reported using any nicotine-containing product (including 14% with exclusive nicotine-containing product use). Syndromic surveillance indicates that ED visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products continue to decline after sharply increasing in August 2019 and peaking in September 2019. Clinicians and public health practitioners should remain vigilant for new EVALI cases. CDC recommends that persons not use THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, especially those acquired from informal sources such as friends, family members, or from in-person or online dealers. Vitamin E acetate is strongly linked to the EVALI outbreak and should not be added to any e-cigarette, or vaping, products (2). However, evidence is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC- or non-THC-containing products, in some reported EVALI cases.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Dronabinol/toxicidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina E/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 44-49, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945038

RESUMO

CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders continue to investigate a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (1). EVALI patients in Illinois, Utah, and Wisconsin acquired tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing products primarily from informal sources (2,3). This report updates demographic characteristics and self-reported sources of THC- and nicotine-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products derived from EVALI patient data reported to CDC by state health departments. As of January 7, 2020, among 1,979 (76%) patients with available data on substance use, a total of 1,620 (82%) reported using any THC-containing products, including 665 (34%) who reported exclusive THC-containing product use. Use of any nicotine-containing products was reported by 1,128 (57%) patients, including 264 (13%) who reported exclusive nicotine-containing product use. Among 809 (50%) patients reporting data on the source of THC-containing products, 131 (16%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources (i.e., recreational dispensaries, medical dispensaries, or both; vape or smoke shops; stores; and pop-up shops), 627 (78%) from only informal sources (i.e., friends, family, in-person or online dealers, or other sources), and 51 (6%) from both types of sources. Among 613 (54%) EVALI patients reporting nicotine-containing product use with available data on product source, 421 (69%) reported acquiring their products from only commercial sources, 103 (17%) from only informal sources, and 89 (15%) from both types of sources. Adolescents aged 13-17 years were more likely to acquire both THC- and nicotine-containing products from informal sources than were persons in older age groups. The high prevalence of acquisition of THC-containing products from informal sources by EVALI patients reinforces CDC's recommendation to not use e-cigarette, or vaping, products that contain THC, especially those acquired from informal sources. Although acquisition of nicotine-containing products through informal sources was not common overall, it was common among persons aged <18 years. While the investigation continues, CDC recommends that the best way for persons to ensure that they are not at risk is to consider refraining from the use of all e-cigarette, or vaping, products.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lesão Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dronabinol/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Lesão Pulmonar/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Perinatol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe obstetrician-gynecologists' practices and attitudes related to substance use screening in pregnant patients. STUDY DESIGN: A 2017 cross-sectional survey assessed US obstetrician-gynecologists' (n = 462; response rate = 34%) practices (substance use screening frequency and methods) and attitudes (practice priority of screening, confidence in treating, and responsibility statements). Chi-squared tests and adjusted modified Poisson regression were used to estimate associations between practices and attitudes. RESULTS: Of 353 respondents with screening information, 79% frequently screen for substance use and 11% used a validated instrument. Confidence was the highest for treating pregnant patients using tobacco (81%). Respondents whose practices make it a high priority to screen for all substances were 1.2 times as likely to frequently screen as their counterparts (95% CI: 1.1-1.3). CONCLUSIONS: Four out of five obstetricians-gynecologists reported a high frequency of substance use screening in pregnant patients. Findings highlight the importance of increasing priority of substance use screening by obstetrician-gynecologists.

5.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 61: 53-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder affects 2-8% of pregnant and postpartum women; untreated illness is associated with poor outcomes. This study aimed to describe bipolar disorder screening rates in obstetric settings and associated characteristics. METHOD: Women were recruited during pregnancy through three months postpartum from 14 obstetric clinics in Massachusetts. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) was used to screen for bipolar disorder; a subset previously diagnosed with bipolar was also examined. Differences in characteristics by screening outcome were tested using chi-square and t-tests. RESULTS: Of 574 participating women, 18.8% screened positive for bipolar disorder. Compared to those with negative, those with positive bipolar screens had 18.5-times the prevalence of positive substance use screens (11.1% vs. 0.6%, p < 0.001) and 3.4-times reported feeling they were not receiving adequate psychiatric help (24.0 vs. 7.0%, p < 0.001). Less than half of those with positive bipolar screens (42.0%) and 61.3% with pre-existing bipolar reported receiving current psychiatric care. CONCLUSIONS: Almost one in five perinatal women screened positive for bipolar disorder. Positive screenings were associated with comorbid substance use and low treatment rates. This study highlights the importance of screening for bipolar disorder during the perinatal period and the need for systematic approaches to ensure adequate assessment and follow-up. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02760004.

6.
J Perinatol ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616051

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe obstetrician-gynecologists' practices and attitudes related to opioid use among pregnant and postpartum women. STUDY DESIGN: A 2017 cross-sectional survey assessed U.S. obstetrician-gynecologists' (N = 462; response rate = 34%) practices (management) and attitudes (knowledge, preparedness, confidence, barriers, and resources needed) related to opioid use among pregnant and postpartum women. Modified Poisson regression determined adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) for advising medication-assisted therapy (MAT) for pregnant women with opioid use disorder (OUD) by knowledge, confidence, and preparedness. RESULTS: Of respondents, 33% always or usually advised MAT to pregnant women with OUD. Confidence in treating pregnant women who use opioids (aPR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.8) and knowledge that substance use services were covered under the Affordable Care Act (aPR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8) were associated with advising MAT. CONCLUSION: Evidence suggests that efforts are needed to enhance physician confidence to manage pregnant and postpartum patients who use opioids, which may increase optimal care of this patient population.

7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(39): 833-838, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581170

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted primarily through parenteral exposures to infectious blood or body fluids that contain blood (e.g., via injection drug use, needle stick injuries) (1). In the last 10 years, increases in HCV infection in the general U.S. population (1) and among pregnant women (2) are attributed to a surge in injection drug use associated with the opioid crisis. Opioid use disorders among pregnant women have increased (3), and approximately 68% of pregnant women with HCV infection have opioid use disorder (4). National trends in HCV infection among pregnant women by opioid use disorder status have not been reported to date. CDC analyzed hospital discharge data from the 2000-2015 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) to determine whether HCV infection trends differ by opioid use disorder status at delivery. During this period, the national rate of HCV infection among women giving birth increased >400%, from 0.8 to 4.1 per 1,000 deliveries. Among women with opioid use disorder, rates of HCV infection increased 148%, from 87.4 to 216.9 per 1,000 deliveries, and among those without opioid use disorder, rates increased 271%, although the rates in this group were much lower, increasing from 0.7 to 2.6 per 1,000 deliveries. These findings align with prior ecological data linking hepatitis C increases with the opioid crisis (2). Treatment of opioid use disorder should include screening and referral for related conditions such as HCV infection.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Gravidez , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(36): 777-783, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513558

RESUMO

Since 1999, the rate of opioid use disorder (OUD) has more than quadrupled, from 1.5 per 1,000 delivery hospitalizations to 6.5 (1), with similar increases in incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) observed for infants (from 2.8 per 1,000 live births to 14.4) among Medicaid-insured deliveries (2). CDC's response to the opioid crisis involves strategies to prevent opioid overdoses and related harms by building state capacity and supporting providers, health systems, and payers.* Recognizing systems gaps in provision of perinatal care and services, CDC partnered with the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) to launch the Opioid Use Disorder, Maternal Outcomes, and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Initiative Learning Community (OMNI LC). OMNI LC supports systems change and capacity building in 12 states.† Qualitative data from participating states were analyzed to identify strategies, barriers, and facilitators for capacity building in state-defined focus areas. Most states focused on strategies to expand access to and coordination of quality services (10 of 12) or increase provider awareness and training (nine of 12). Fewer states focused on data, monitoring, and evaluation (four of 12); financing and coverage (three of 12); or ethical, legal, and social considerations (two of 12). By building capacity to strengthen health systems, state-identified strategies across all focus areas might improve the health trajectory of mothers, infants, and families affected by the U.S. opioid crisis.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/terapia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(8): 1068-1076, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298606

RESUMO

Background: Comorbid substance use disorder and mental health conditions are common in women of reproductive age. We sought to understand the prevalence of substance use and substance use disorder by depression and anxiety disorder status and the independent association between depression and anxiety disorder status with receiving substance use treatment. Materials and Methods: A sample of 106,142 women ages 18-44 years was drawn from the 2008 to 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Differences in demographics, substance use, substance use disorders, and treatment by major depressive episode (MDE), and anxiety disorder status, were assessed with chi-squared tests. The independent association between MDE and anxiety disorder with substance use treatment was assessed with adjusted prevalence ratios. Results: Women with MDE and/or anxiety disorder had higher prevalence of substance use and substance use disorder than women with no MDE or anxiety disorder (p < 0.001). Less than a quarter of women with substance use disorders and both MDE and anxiety disorder received mental health and substance use treatment. After adjustment, women with substance use disorder and MDE and anxiety disorder, MDE only, or anxiety disorder only were more likely to receive substance use treatment (respectively, 2.4, 1.6, and 2.2 times) than women with no MDE or anxiety disorder (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Women with MDE and/or anxiety disorder are significantly more likely to suffer from substance use and substance use disorders than their counterparts. Integrating substance use treatment services and mental health services in settings frequently visited by reproductive-aged women may increase receipt of combined treatment.

10.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 256, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal depression, the most common pregnancy complication, is associated with negative maternal-offspring outcomes. Despite existence of effective treatments, it is under-recognized and under-treated. Professional organizations recommend universal screening, yet multi-level barriers exist to ensuring effective diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. Integrating mental health and obstetric care holds significant promise for addressing perinatal depression. The overall study goal is to compare the effectiveness of two active interventions: (1) the Massachusetts Child Psychiatry Access Program (MCPAP) for Moms, a state-wide, population-based program, and (2) the PRogram In Support of Moms (PRISM) which includes MCPAP for Moms plus a proactive, multifaceted, practice-level intervention with intensive implementation support. METHODS: This study is conducted in two phases: (1) a run-in phase which has been completed and involved practice and patient participant recruitment to demonstrate feasibility for the second phase, and (2) a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT), which is ongoing, and will compare two active interventions 1:1 with ten Ob/Gyn practices as the unit of randomization. In phase 1, rates of depressive symptoms and other demographic and clinical features among patients were examined to inform practice randomization. Patient participants to be recruited in phase 2 will be followed longitudinally until 13 months postpartum; they will have 3-5 total study visits depending on whether their initial recruitment and interview was at 4-24 or 32-40 weeks gestation, or 1-3 months postpartum. Sampling throughout pregnancy and postpartum will ensure participants with different depressive symptom onset times. Differences in depression symptomatology and treatment participation will be compared between patient participants by intervention arm. DISCUSSION: This manuscript describes the full two-phase study protocol. The study design is innovative because it combines effectiveness with implementation research designs and integrates critical components of participatory action research. Our approach assesses the feasibility, acceptance, efficacy, and sustainability of integrating a stepped-care approach to perinatal depression care into ambulatory obstetric settings; an approach that is flexible and can be tailored and adapted to fit unique workflows of real-world practices. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02760004, registered prospectively on May 3, 2016.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto , Depressão , Assistência Perinatal/métodos , Complicações na Gravidez , Técnicas Psicológicas , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão Pós-Parto/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Participação do Paciente , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Am J Public Health ; 109(9): 1193-1197, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318590

RESUMO

Rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) have increased fivefold in the past decade. To address this expanding and complex issue, state public health agencies have addressed the opioid crisis affecting newborns in diverse ways, leading to a variety of methods to quantify the burden of NAS.In an effort to understand this variability, we summarized clinical case and surveillance definitions used across jurisdictions in the United States. We confirmed that the rapid progression of the nation's opioid crisis resulted in heterogeneous processes for identifying NAS. Current clinical case definitions use different combinations of clinician-observed signs of withdrawal and evidence of perinatal substance exposure. Similarly, there is discordance in diagnosis codes used in surveillance definitions. This variability makes it difficult to produce comparable estimates across jurisdictions, which are needed to effectively guide public health strategies and interventions.Although standardization is complicated, consistent NAS definitions would increase comparability of NAS estimates across the nation and would better guide prevention and treatment efforts for women and their infants.


Assuntos
Classificação Internacional de Doenças/normas , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
12.
Prev Med ; 126: 105743, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173804

RESUMO

Use of some medications during pregnancy can be harmful to the developing fetus, and discussion of the risks and benefits with prenatal care providers can provide guidance to pregnant women. We used Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data collected for 2015 births aggregated from 34 US states (n = 40,480 women) to estimate the prevalence of self-reported receipt of prenatal care provider counseling about medications safe to take during pregnancy. We examined associations between counseling and maternal characteristics using adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR). The prevalence of counseling on medications safe to take during pregnancy was 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.7-89.7). Women who were nulliparous versus multiparous (aPR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02-1.04), who used prescription medications before pregnancy versus those who did not, (aPR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02-1.05), and who reported having asthma before pregnancy versus those who did not, (aPR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.08) were more likely to report receipt of counseling. There was no difference in counseling for women with pre-pregnancy diabetes, hypertension, and/or depression compared to those without. Women who entered prenatal care after the first trimester were less likely to report receipt of counseling (aPR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.91-0.96). Overall, self-reported receipt of counseling was high, with some differences by maternal characteristics. Although effect estimates were small, it is important to ensure that information is available to prenatal care providers about medication safety during pregnancy, and that messages are communicated to women who are or might become pregnant.

13.
Obstet Gynecol ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe national, state-specific, and sociodemographic trends in diagnoses of depressive disorders recorded during delivery hospitalizations. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the National Inpatient Sample (2000-2015) and 31 publicly available State Inpatient Databases (2000-2015) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Delivery hospitalizations were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic and procedure codes for obstetric delivery. Depressive disorders were identified from ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes classified as depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (291.89, 292.84, 293.83, 296.2-296.26, 296.3-296.36, 300.4, and 311). Prevalence rates and average annual rate change were calculated nationally and across 28 states with at least 3 years of data and age, payer source, and race or ethnicity. RESULTS: The U.S. rate of depressive disorders recorded during delivery hospitalizations increased from 4.1 diagnoses per 1,000 hospitalizations in 2000 to 28.7 in 2015. Rates significantly increased in 27 of the 28 states. Recent (2014-2015) rates were lowest in Hawaii and Nevada (less than 14/1,000) and highest in Vermont, Minnesota, Oregon, and Wisconsin (greater than 49/1,000). Rates in 2015 were highest among those aged 35 years or older, public insurance recipients, and non-Hispanic white women (greater than 31/1,000). The highest annual rate increases were in Vermont and Maine (3.8/1,000 or greater). Non-Hispanic white women, those 35 years of age or older, and public insurance recipients showed the highest annual rate increases during 2000-2015 (1.7/1,000 or greater). CONCLUSION: During 2000-2015, rates of depressive disorders recorded during delivery hospitalizations increased nationally, in 27 states with available data, and across all sociodemographic categories.

14.
Obstet Gynecol ; 133(6): 1216-1223, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135737

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe national, state-specific, and sociodemographic trends in diagnoses of depressive disorders recorded during delivery hospitalizations. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the National Inpatient Sample (2000-2015) and 31 publicly available State Inpatient Databases (2000-2015) of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project. Delivery hospitalizations were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic and procedure codes for obstetric delivery. Depressive disorders were identified from ICD-9-CM diagnoses codes classified as depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (291.89, 292.84, 293.83, 296.2-296.26, 296.3-296.36, 300.4, and 311). Prevalence rates and average annual rate change were calculated nationally and across 28 states with at least 3 years of data and age, payer source, and race or ethnicity. RESULTS: The U.S. rate of depressive disorders recorded during delivery hospitalizations increased from 4.1 diagnoses per 1,000 hospitalizations in 2000 to 28.7 in 2015. Rates significantly increased in 27 of the 28 states. Recent (2014-2015) rates were lowest in Hawaii and Nevada (less than 14/1,000) and highest in Vermont, Minnesota, Oregon, and Wisconsin (greater than 49/1,000). Rates in 2015 were highest among those aged 35 years or older, public insurance recipients, and non-Hispanic white women (greater than 31/1,000). The highest annual rate increases were in Vermont and Maine (3.8/1,000 or greater). Non-Hispanic white women, those 35 years of age or older, and public insurance recipients showed the highest annual rate increases during 2000-2015 (1.7/1,000 or greater). CONCLUSION: During 2000-2015, rates of depressive disorders recorded during delivery hospitalizations increased nationally, in 27 states with available data, and across all sociodemographic categories.

15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(1): 6-10, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629576

RESUMO

From 2004 to 2014, the incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) in the United States increased 433%, from 1.5 to 8.0 per 1,000 hospital births. The latest national data from 2014 indicate that one baby was born with signs of NAS every 15 minutes in the United States (1). NAS is a drug withdrawal syndrome that most commonly occurs among infants after in utero exposure to opioids, although other substances have also been associated with NAS. Prenatal opioid exposure has also been associated with poor fetal growth, preterm birth, stillbirth, and possible specific birth defects (2-5). NAS surveillance has often depended on hospital discharge data, which historically underestimate the incidence of NAS and are not available in real time, thus limiting states' ability to quickly direct public health resources (6,7). This evaluation focused on six states with state laws implementing required NAS case reporting for public health surveillance during 2013-2017 and reviews implementation of the laws, state officials' reports of data quality before and after laws were passed, and advantages and challenges of legally mandating NAS reporting for public health surveillance in the absence of a national case definition. Using standardized search terms in an online legal research database, laws in six states mandating reporting of NAS from medical facilities to state health departments (SHDs) or from SHDs to a state legislative body were identified. SHD officials in these six states completed a questionnaire followed by a semistructured telephone interview to clarify open-text responses from the questionnaire. Variability was found in the type and number of surveillance data elements reported and in how states used NAS surveillance data. Following implementation, five states with identified laws reported receiving NAS case reports within 30 days of diagnosis. Mandated NAS case reporting allowed SHDs to quantify the incidence of NAS in their states and to inform programs and services. This information might be useful to states considering implementing mandatory NAS surveillance.


Assuntos
Notificação de Abuso , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Pediatrics ; 143(1)2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal withdrawal syndrome experienced by some infants with opioid exposure. Hospital administrative data are commonly used for research and surveillance but have not been validated for NAS. Our objectives for this study were to validate the diagnostic codes for NAS and to develop an algorithm to optimize identification. METHODS: Tennessee Medicaid claims from 2009 to 2011 (primary sample) and 2016 (secondary sample; post-International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-10-CM]) were obtained. Cases of NAS were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code (2009-2011) 779.5 and ICD-10-CM code (2016) P96.1. Medical record review cases were then conducted by 2 physicians using a standardized algorithm, and positive predictive value (PPV) was calculated. Algorithms were developed for optimizing the identification of NAS in administrative data. RESULTS: In our primary sample of 112 029 mother-infant dyads, 950 potential NAS cases were identified from Medicaid claims data and reviewed. Among reviewed records, 863 were confirmed as having NAS (including 628 [66.1%] cases identified as NAS requiring pharmacotherapy, 224 [23.5%] as NAS not requiring pharmacotherapy, and 11 [1.2%] as iatrogenic NAS), and 87 (9.2%) did not meet clinical criteria for NAS. The PPV of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code for NAS in clinically confirmed NAS was 91% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-92.5%). Similarly, the PPV for the ICD-10-CM code in the secondary sample was 98.2% (95% confidence interval: 95.4%-99.2%). Algorithms using elements from the Medicaid claims and from length of stay improved PPV. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population-based cohort of Medicaid participants, hospital administrative data had a high PPV in identifying cases of clinically diagnosed NAS.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Análise de Dados , Administração Hospitalar/tendências , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/tendências , Medicaid/tendências , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Previsões , Administração Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/estatística & dados numéricos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/tendências , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/terapia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tennessee/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(31): 845-849, 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091969

RESUMO

Opioid use by pregnant women represents a significant public health concern given the association of opioid exposure and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, including preterm labor, stillbirth, neonatal abstinence syndrome, and maternal mortality (1,2). State-level actions are critical to curbing the opioid epidemic through programs and policies to reduce use of prescription opioids and illegal opioids including heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl, both of which contribute to the epidemic (3). Hospital discharge data from the 1999-2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) were analyzed to describe U.S. national and state-specific trends in opioid use disorder documented at delivery hospitalization. Nationally, the prevalence of opioid use disorder more than quadrupled during 1999-2014 (from 1.5 per 1,000 delivery hospitalizations to 6.5; p<0.05). Increasing trends over time were observed in all 28 states with available data (p<0.05). In 2014, prevalence ranged from 0.7 in the District of Columbia (DC) to 48.6 in Vermont. Continued national, state, and provider efforts to prevent, monitor, and treat opioid use disorder among reproductive-aged and pregnant women are needed. Efforts might include improved access to data in Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs, increased substance abuse screening, use of medication-assisted therapy, and substance abuse treatment referrals.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Hospitalização , Registros Médicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 187: 72-78, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to describe the correlates of marijuana use during and after pregnancy, and to examine the independent relationship between prenatal marijuana use and infant outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: We used state-specific data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (N = 9013) to describe correlates of self-reported prenatal and postpartum marijuana use. We estimated differences in mean infant birth weight and gestational age among prenatal marijuana users and nonusers, controlling for relevant covariates (i.e., cigarette smoking). RESULTS: Respectively, 4.2% (95% CI: 3.8-4.7) and 6.8% (95% CI: 6.0-7.7) of women reported using marijuana during and after pregnancy. Compared to nonusers, prenatal marijuana users were more likely to be ≤24 years; non-Hispanic white, not married, have <12 years of education, have Medicaid/IHS/Other insurance, be on WIC during pregnancy, have annual household income <$20,000, cigarette smokers, and alcohol drinkers during pregnancy (p-values < 0.05). After adjustment, no differences in gestational age or birthweight were observed. Postpartum users were more likely to smoke cigarettes (48.7% vs. 20.3%), experience postpartum depressive symptoms (14.0% vs. 9.0%), and breastfeed for <8 weeks (34.9% vs. 18.1%). CONCLUSION: Co-use of substances was common among prenatal and postpartum marijuana users. Prenatal marijuana use was not independently associated with lower average birthweight or gestational age. Postpartum marijuana use was associated with depressive symptoms and shorter breastfeeding duration. Surveillance of marijuana use among pregnant and postpartum women is critical to better understanding the relationship of marijuana use with birth outcomes, and postpartum experiences such as depression and breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Aleitamento Materno/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(9): 242-245, 2017 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28278146

RESUMO

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a drug withdrawal syndrome that most commonly occurs in infants after in utero exposure to opioids, although other substances have also been associated with the syndrome (1). NAS usually appears within 48-72 hours of birth with a constellation of clinical signs, including central nervous system irritability (e.g., tremors), gastrointestinal dysfunction (e.g., feeding difficulties), and temperature instability (1) (Box 1). Opioid exposure during pregnancy might result from clinician-approved use of prescription opioids for pain relief; misuse or abuse of prescription opioids; illicit use (e.g., heroin); or medication-assisted treatment (MAT) of opioid use disorder (2) (Box 2).


Assuntos
Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Legislação como Assunto , Síndrome de Abstinência Neonatal/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(6): 153-158, 2017 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207685

RESUMO

Postpartum depression is common and associated with adverse infant and maternal outcomes (e.g., lower breastfeeding initiation and duration and poor maternal and infant bonding) (1-3). A developmental Healthy People 2020 objective is to decrease the proportion of women delivering a live birth who experience postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS).* To provide a baseline for this objective, CDC sought to describe self-reported PDS overall, by reporting state, and by selected sociodemographic factors, using 2004, 2008, and 2012 data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). A decline in the prevalence of PDS was observed from 2004 (14.8%) to 2012 (9.8%) among 13 states with data for all three periods (p<0.01). Statistically significant (p<0.05) declines in PDS prevalence were observed for eight states, and no significant changes were observed for five states. In 2012, the overall PDS prevalence was 11.5% for 27 states and ranged from 8.0% (Georgia) to 20.1% (Arkansas). By selected characteristics, PDS prevalence was highest among new mothers who 1) were aged ≤19 years or 20-24 years, 2) were of American Indian/Alaska Native or Asian/Pacific Islander race/ethnicity, 3) had ≤12 years of education, 4) were unmarried, 5) were postpartum smokers, 6) had three or more stressful life events in the year before birth, 7) gave birth to term, low-birthweight infants, and 8) had infants requiring neonatal intensive care unit admission at birth. Although the study did not investigate reasons for the decline, better recognition of risk factors for depression and improved screening and treatment before and during pregnancy, including increased use of antidepressants, might have contributed to the decline. However, more efforts are needed to reduce PDS prevalence in certain states and subpopulations of women. Ongoing surveillance and activities to promote appropriate screening, referral, and treatment are needed to reduce PDS among U.S. women.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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