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1.
Atherosclerosis ; 320: 61-69, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Platelet count (PLT) is a predictor of metabolic and inflammation-related disorders. Platelets can release prochemerin, which acts as a link between coagulation and inflammation and between innate and adaptive immunity. The causal effect between PLT and circulating chemerin level has not been elucidated. METHODS: Nondiabetic participants with samples in the Taiwan Biobank were recruited for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on PLT (17,037 participants) and chemerin levels (3887 participants). A bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) study was conducted to determine the association between circulating PLT and chemerin levels. RESULTS: For a GWAS of PLT, 11 gene loci were found to have genome-wide significance. For a GWAS of chemerin levels, two gene loci, RARRES2 and HLADQA2-HLADQB1, were found to have genome-wide significance. Age, sex, body mass index, leukocyte count, hemoglobin, mean blood pressure, hemoglobin A1C, serum total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, triglyceride, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and circulating chemerin level were found to be independently associated with PLT through a stepwise regression analysis. A bidirectional MR study revealed weighted genetic risk scores (WGRSs) for PLT were significantly associated with chemerin levels by using a two-stage least-square method in a multivariate analysis (p = 0.0031), and no significant association between chemerin level WGRSs and PLT was noted. Sensitivity analysis further revealed no violation of the exclusion-restriction assumption with PLT-determining genotypes on chemerin levels. CONCLUSIONS: Through a bidirectional MR analysis, our data revealed that chemerin levels were determined based on circulating PLT. Circulating chemerin levels can be intermediates between PLT and future metabolic and inflammation-related disorders.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyse the association of chemerin levels with several metabolic, biochemical and haematological parameters in a large Taiwanese population with relative healthy status. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Data of 4101 healthy participants without history of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and renal insufficiency from Taiwan Biobank were analysed. The demographic, biochemical and haematologic parameters were retrieved from the database. Chemerin levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to test the independent correlates of chemerin. RESULTS: In the univariate analysis, circulating chemerin levels were positively associated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), creatinine, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT), leucocyte and platelet counts both in men and women and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and total bilirubin. In the multivariate analysis, BMI, HbA1C, triglyceride, uric acid, γ-GT and platelet counts predicted chemerin levels independently both in men and in women with positive correlation, while eGFR, total bilirubin and HDL-C predicted circulating chemerin levels independently with negative correlation. CONCLUSIONS: Chemerin level is independently associated with multiple metabolic, biochemical and haematological parameters. This study provides further evidence on the molecular basis linking obesity with several human diseases.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1430, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446845

RESUMO

We aimed to compare the (1) clinical outcomes including composite cardiovascular outcomes, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death, and (2) healthcare costs of using liraglutide and basal insulin as an initial treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and high cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk. This is a retrospective cohort study using Taiwan's Health and Welfare Database. A total of 1057 patients treated with liraglutide were identified and matched with 4600 patients treated with basal insulin. The liraglutide group had a lower risk of a composite CVD outcome (hazard ratio (HR) 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.85; p < 0.01), all-cause mortality (HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.28-0.59; p < 0.0001), and nonfatal stroke (HR 0.54; 95% CI 0.34-0.87; p = 0.01). Compared to the basal insulin group, the liraglutide group had lower median per-patient-per-month (PPPM) inpatient, emergency room (ER), and total medical costs, but higher median PPPM outpatient, total pharmacy, and total costs (all p < 0.0001). In conclusion, compared to basal insulin, liraglutide was found to be associated with reduced risk of a composite CVD outcome, nonfatal stroke, and all-cause mortality among high CVD risk patients with T2DM. In addition, liraglutide users had lower inpatient, ER, and total medical costs, but they had higher outpatient and total pharmacy costs.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1311, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446677

RESUMO

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a stress-related chronic pain disorder with common cognitive complaints. This study characterized cognitive dysfunction in patients with FM and explored whether these changes are linked to altered cortisol levels. Consecutive 44 patients with FM and 48 healthy controls were enrolled for the assessments of subjective and objective cognitive functions and diurnal levels of salivary cortisol (sampled at awakening, 30 min after awakening, 3 pm, and bedtime). All measurements were compared between the groups and evaluated for clinical correlation. The FM group had more subjective cognitive complaints and performed poorer in objective cognitive testing in memory (delayed recall in Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test and Taylor Complex Figure Test), language (Boston Naming Test), and executive domains (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) after adjustments for education. The diurnal cortisol levels of patients with FM tended to be lower, especially at 30 min after awakening and bedtime. Moreover, moderate positive correlations existed between the Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test, Boston Naming Test and the morning cortisol levels within the FM group. We suggested the altered cognitive function in FM may be linked to stress maladaptation. Future studies are warranted to elucidate whether stress management improves cognitive performance in patients with FM.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499410

RESUMO

Hepatic lipase (encoded by LIPC) is a glycoprotein in the triacylglycerol lipase family and mainly synthesized in and secreted from the liver. Previous studies demonstrated that hepatic lipase is crucial for reverse cholesterol transport and modulating metabolism and the plasma levels of several lipoproteins. This study was conducted to investigate the suppression effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in a genome-wide association study and explore the possible mechanisms linking triglyceride (TG) to LIPC variants and HDL-C. Genome-wide association data for TG and HDL-C were available for 4657 Taiwan-biobank participants. The prevalence of haplotypes in the LIPC promoter region and their effects were calculated. The cloned constructs of the haplotypes were expressed transiently in HepG2 cells and evaluated in a luciferase reporter assay. Genome-wide association analysis revealed that HDL-C was significantly associated with variations in LIPC after adjusting for TG. Three haplotypes (H1: TCG, H2: CTA and H3: CCA) in LIPC were identified. H2: CTA was significantly associated with HDL-C levels and H1: TCG suppressed HDL-C levels when a third factor, TG, was included in mediation analysis. The luciferase reporter assay further showed that the H2: CTA haplotype significantly inhibited luciferase activity compared with the H1: TCG haplotype. In conclusion, we identified a suppressive role for TG in the genome-wide association between LIPC and HDL-C. A functional haplotype of hepatic lipase may reduce HDL-C levels and is suppressed by TG.

6.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(3): 245-247, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433137

RESUMO

The rapid spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in many countries has caused inconvenience in conducting daily life activities, and even deaths. Dexamethasone is a corticosteroid applied in clinical medicine since 1957, especially in immune therapy fields. Herein, we present the characteristics of Dexamethasone, from molecular mechanisms such as genomic and nongenomic pathways by cellular signal regulations, to clinical applications in various phases of the disease. During COVID-19 pandemic, Dexamethasone given to patients who required oxygen or ventilation therapy showed improved life efficacy.


Assuntos
/tratamento farmacológico , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
7.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 2): 303-310, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The biochemical response is a crucial indicator of prognosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients treated with nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (NAs). The impact of hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection on alanine aminotransferase normalization is elusive. METHODS: The longitudinal study recruited 1185 CHB patients who received NAs. These patients were tested for anti-HDV antibody and HDV RNA at the initiation of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy and annually for patients who were HDV-seropositive. ALT levels were examined at the first and second year of anti-HBV therapy. ALT abnormality was defined as ALT levels above 40 IU/mL in both male and female, and the risk factors associated with ALT abnormality were analysed. RESULTS: Rates of seropositivity for anti-HDV and HDV RNA were 2.0% and 0.8% among 1185 NA-treated CHB patients, respectively. The strongest factor associated with ALT abnormality (>40 IU/mL) after first year treatment with NAs was HDV RNA seropositivity at year 1 (odds ratio [OR]/95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.44/3.49-283.56, P = 0.002), followed by liver cirrhosis (2.18/1.51-3.15, P < 0.001), detectable HBV DNA at year 1 (OR/CI: 1.99/1.36-2.92, P < 0.001), diabetes (OR/CI: 1.75/1.10-2.78, P = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) (OR/CI: 1.13/1.09-1.18, P < 0.001) and age (OR/CI: 0.97/0.96-0.98, P < 0.001). Among patients who were seronegative for HBV DNA at year 1, the strongest factor associated with ALT abnormality was HDV RNA seropositivity at year 1 (OR/CI: 30.00/3.28-274.05, P = 0.003), followed by liver cirrhosis (OR/CI: 1.83/1.21-2.75, P = 0.004), BMI (OR/CI: 1.16/1.11-1.21, P < 0.001) and age (OR/CI: 0.97/0.96-0.99, P < 0.001). Similarly, the impact of HDV RNA seropositivity on ALT abnormality was noted in patients without detectable HBV DNA but not in those with hepatitis B viremia at treatment year 2 (OR/CI: 10.16/1.33-77.74, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: HDV infection played an important role in ALT abnormality in CHB patients receiving 1-year and 2-year NAs. The impact was particularly noted in patients who had successfully suppressed HBV DNA.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Vírus Delta da Hepatite , Nucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Nucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase , DNA Viral , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/genética , Hepatite B Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite D , Vírus Delta da Hepatite/genética , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
8.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; : 1538574420969252, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Creating and maintaining a functioning arteriovenous access is essential for long-term hemodialysis patients. Transposed brachiobasilic fistula (BBF) or arteriovenous graft (AVG) becomes an option when radiocephalic or brachiocephalic fistula cannot be created or fails. This study compared the patency and complications between BBFs and AVGs among patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in Shuang Ho Hospital, Taiwan, from November 2015 to May 2020. All the operations were done by a single surgeon. Primary outcomes were primary patency, primary-assisted patency, and secondary patency of the BBF and AVG groups. Secondary outcomes were incidence of complications and reinterventions. RESULTS: Of the 144 consecutive patients, 20 and 124 patients underwent BBF and AVG creation, respectively. Median follow-up time was 19.2 months. Primary patency at 1 and 2 years were 67% and 19% in the BBF group and 44% and 16% in the AVG group (P = 0.126). Primary-assisted patency at 1 and 2 years were 82% and 54% in the BBF group and 54% and 30% in the AVG group (P = 0.012). Secondary patency at 1 and 2 years were 100% and 82% in the BBF group and 81% and 67% in the AVG group (P = 0.078). The incidence of complication was significantly higher in the AVG than in the BBF group (1.7 per patient-year vs 0.93, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Compared with the AVG group, BBF group showed better primary-assisted patency, less complication and intervention rates. Therefore, BBF is a reliable option for patients with exhausted cephalic veins if basilic vein is available for reconstruction.

9.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229342

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine long-term outcomes and risk factors for failure after mitomycin C (MMC)-augmented initial trabeculectomy (IT) in Taiwanese patients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of patients with glaucoma undergoing IT during December 2006-December 2016. We defined complete success as an intraocular pressure (IOP) of >5 or ≤21 mm Hg or IOP reduction of ≥20% from baseline without supplemental medications and qualified success as the aforementioned IOP levels with or without supplemental medications. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional analyses evaluated success rates and risk factors for failure, respectively. RESULTS: We enrolled 190 patients (237 eyes; mean age: 54.0±15.3 years; mean postoperative follow-up period: 68.4±35.1 months). Mean IOP and glaucoma medications decreased from 22.2±10.8 to 14.4±5.2 mm Hg (p<0.001) and 3.0±0.7 to 1.8±1.2 (p=0.015), respectively, at the last visit. Cumulative qualified success rates were 93.9%, 93.0%, 86.5% and 67.1% at the 1, 2, 5 and 10 years follow-up, respectively; however, only 7.7% of the eyes reached complete success at the last visit. Eyes with poor preoperative visual acuity were associated with low qualified success rates (HR=1.689, p=0.027); patients aged >70 years had higher complete success rates than did those aged ≤70 years. Five cases (2.11%) exhibited bleb-associated complications. CONCLUSION: Despite satisfactory long-term success rates, most eyes needed medication for IOP control, supporting the notion of predisposed scarring vitality in patients of Chinese ethnicity following MMC-augmented trabeculectomy.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e17487, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two-year longevity is a crucial consideration in revascularization strategies for patients with symptomatic lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD). However, factors associated with 2-year longevity and risk stratification in octogenarians or nonagenarians have been underreported. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to investigate the associated variables and stratify the 2-year prognosis in older patients with LEAD. METHODS: We performed logistic regression and association rule mining based on the Apriori algorithm to discover independent variables and validate their associations with 2-year longevity. Malnutrition, inflammation, and stroke factors were identified. C statistics and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to assess the impact of different numbers of malnutrition, inflammation, and stroke factors on 2-year longevity. RESULTS: We recruited a total of 232 octogenarians or nonagenarians (mean age 85 years, SD 4.2 years) treated with endovascular therapy. During the study period, 81 patients died, and 27 of those (33%) died from a cardiac origin within 2 years. Association rules analysis showed the interrelationships between 2-year longevity and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and nutritional status as determined by the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score or Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI). The cut-off values of NLR, GNRI, and CONUT were ≥3.89, ≤90.3, and >3, respectively. The C statistics for the predictive power for 2-year longevity were similar between the CONUT score and the GNRI-based models (0.773 vs 0.760; P=.57). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 2-year longevity was worse as the number of malnutrition, inflammation, and stroke factors increased from 0 to 3 in both the GNRI-based model (92% vs 68% vs 46% vs 12%, respectively; P<.001) and the CONUT score model (87% vs 75% vs 49% vs 10%, respectively; P<.001). The hazard ratio between those with 3 factors and those without was 18.2 (95% CI 7.0-47.2; P<.001) in the GNRI and 13.6 (95% CI 5.9-31.5; P<.001) in the CONUT score model. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the association and crucial role of malnutrition, inflammation, and stroke factors in assessing 2-year longevity in older patients with LEAD. Using this simple risk score might assist clinicians in selecting the appropriate treatment.

11.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202749

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are undifferentiated cells that give rise to tumor and resistance to chemotherapy. This study reports that phenylacetaldehyde (PAA), a flower flavor, inhibits formation on breast CSCs. PAA showed anti-proliferation and increased apoptosis of breast cancer. PAA also reduced tumor growth in an in vivo mice model. PAA reduced the CD44+/CD24- and ALDH1-expressing cells, mammosphere formation, and CSC marker genes. PAA preferentially induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and combined treatment with PAA and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) decreased inhibition of mammosphere formation. PAA reduced phosphorylation of nuclear Stat3. PAA inhibited Stat3 signaling through de-phosphorylation of Stat3 and reduced secretory IL-6. Our results suggest that the PAA-induced ROS deregulated Stat3/IL-6 pathway and PAA may be a potential agent targeting breast cancer and CSCs.

12.
Pain Ther ; 9(2): 765-781, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090368

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain condition characterized by impaired emotional regulation. This study explored the brain response to pain-related fear as a potential brain signature of FM. METHODS: We used a conditioned fear task and magnetoencephalography to record pain-related fear responses in patients with FM. Two blocks of 30 fear responses were collected to compute the response strength in the first block and the strength difference between the first and second blocks (fear habituation). These measurements were investigated for their clinical relevance and compared with measurements obtained from healthy controls and patients with chronic migraine (CM), a different chronic pain condition often comorbid with FM. RESULTS: Pain-related fear clearly activated the bilateral amygdala and anterior insula in patients with FM (n = 52), patients with CM (n = 50), and the controls (n = 30); the response strength in the first block was consistent across groups. However, fear habituation in the right amygdala decreased in the FM group (vs. CM and control groups, both p ≤ 0.001, no difference between CM and control groups). At the 3-month follow-up, the patients with FM reporting < 30% improvement in pain severity (n = 15) after pregabalin treatment exhibited lower fear habituation in the left amygdala at baseline (vs. ≥ 30% improvement, n = 22, p = 0.019). Receiver operating characteristic analysis confirmed that amygdala fear habituation is a suitable predictor of diagnosis and treatment outcomes of FM (area under the curve > 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: Amygdala activation to pain-related fear is maladaptive and linked to treatment outcomes in patients with FM. Because the aberrant amygdala response was not observed in the CM group, this response is a potential brain signature of FM. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT02747940.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(42): e22749, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080739

RESUMO

Liver transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage liver diseases. However, early allograft dysfunction (EAD) is frequently encountered and associated with graft loss or mortality after transplantation. This study aimed to establish a predictive model of EAD after living donor liver transplantation. A total of 77 liver transplants were recruited to the study. Multivariate analysis was utilized to identify significant risk factors for EAD. A nomogram was constructed according to the contributions of the risk factors. The predictive values were determined by discrimination and calibration methods. A cohort of 30 patients was recruited to validate this predictive model. Four independent risk factors, including donor age, intraoperative blood loss, preoperative alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and reperfusion total bilirubin, were identified and used to build the nomogram. The c-statistics of the primary cohort and the validation group were 0.846 and 0.767, respectively. The calibration curves for the probability of EAD presented an acceptable agreement between the prediction by the nomogram and the actual incidence. In conclusion, the study developed a new nomogram for predicting the risk of EAD following living donor liver transplantation. This model may help clinicians to determine individual risk of EAD following living donor liver transplantation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Doadores Vivos , Nomogramas , Disfunção Primária do Enxerto/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Transplante Homólogo
14.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114669

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells have certain characteristics, such as self-renewal, differentiation, and drug resistance, which are related to tumor progression, maintenance, recurrence, and metastasis. In our study, we targeted breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) using a natural compound, coriolic acid, from Salicornia herbacea L. This compound was isolated by mammosphere formation inhibition bioassay-guided fractionation and identified by using NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Coriolic acid inhibited the formation of mammospheres and induced BCSC apoptosis. It also decreased the subpopulation of CD44high/CD24low cells, a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype, and specific genes related to CSCs, such as Nanog,Oct4, and CD44. Coriolic acid decreased the transcriptional and translational levels of the c-Myc gene, which is a CSC survival factor. These results indicated that coriolic acid could be a novel compound to target BCSCs via regulation of c-Myc.

15.
J Clin Med ; 9(10)2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998267

RESUMO

Persistent or recurrent back and leg pain following spinal surgery, known as failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), significantly limits daily life activities. A lumbar epidural injection can reduce adhesions, inflammation, and nerve compression, although the epidural space can be distorted due to dura mater and epidural tissues changes after spinal surgery. This study analyzed subdural injection during lumbar epidural injection in FBSS patients. We retrospectively analyzed data from 155 patients who received a lumbar interlaminar epidural injection to manage FBSS. We grouped the patients based on the injected contrast medium appearance in the subdural (group S) or epidural spaces (group E) in fluoroscopic contrast images. Demographic, clinical, surgical and fluoroscopic data were recorded and evaluated, as were the pain scores before and after injection. There were 59 patients (38.1%) in the subdural group. Injection distance from the surgery level differed between the groups. Risk of subdural injection at level 1 distance from the surgery level had an odds ratio of 0.374, and at level ≥2, it was 0.172, when compared to level 0. Subdural incidence differed with the distance from surgical site. Physicians should strive to reduce subdural incidence when the injection is planned at surgery site in FBSS.

16.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(9): 880-884, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, characteristics, and the awareness status of glaucoma in an elderly Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 460 individuals aged ≥72 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional community-based eye disease screening program. Glaucoma was diagnosed according to the diagnostic criteria proposed by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology. Characteristics of subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) were described and compared between groups using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Forty subjects were diagnosed with glaucoma, including 17 subjects with POAG, 22 with PACG, and one with secondary glaucoma. The estimated prevalence of glaucoma, POAG, and PACG was 8.7%, 3.7%, and 4.8%, respectively. In total, 71% of the subjects with PACG and 77% of POAG subjects presented with a normal intraocular pressure (IOP) of <19 mmHg. The demographic and ocular characteristics were similar between the two groups; however, subjects with POAG had a longer axial length and smaller vertical disc diameter than those with PACG. Further, 95% of the glaucoma subjects ever visited the eye clinic, but only 32.5% of them were aware of the disease. CONCLUSION: Glaucoma is prevalent in the elderly population in Taiwan, but the diagnostic rate and disease awareness are low. Since most subjects with glaucoma presented with normal IOPs, optic disc evaluation is critical for diagnosing glaucoma in the elderly in Taiwan.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997286

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify acute angle closure (AAC) risk following pharmacologic mydriasis and the factors affecting post-mydriatic intraocular pressure (IOP) in a population with a high prevalence of angle closure disease. METHODS: In total, 460 individuals aged ≥ 72 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional community-based screening program. IOP was measured at baseline and 1 hour after mydriasis. Individuals with post-mydriatic IOP spike > 6 mmHg received indentation gonioscopy and IOP-lowering medication. Linear regression analysis was used to identify ocular parameters associated with post-mydriatic IOP elevation. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 77.8 ± 4.1 years, and 65.4% of them were men. In total, 21 eyes of 16 participants (3.48%) had post-mydriatic IOP spikes (range: 6-13.7 mmHg); among them, 15 eyes had an IOP of > 21 mmHg. None of the participants developed AAC. All eyes with IOP spikes were phakic, except for one with pseudophakic angle closure. Analysis of 381 participants with at least one phakic eye revealed that higher post-mydriatic IOP and IOP changes were associated with narrower angle grading, more extensive peripheral anterior synechiae, shallower central anterior chamber, and thicker lens. According to multiple linear regression analysis, post-mydriatic IOP was independently associated with baseline IOP and factors suggestive of crowded anterior chamber based on gonioscopic findings and central or peripheral anterior chamber depth evaluation in conjunction with lens thickness. CONCLUSION: Post-mydriatic IOP should be measured in phakic eyes with a crowded anterior chamber. Post-mydriatic IOP spikes can be effectively blunted with intervention to prevent AAC.

18.
Int J Dermatol ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High rates of posttreatment discomfort, infection, recurrence, and increased time to return to work have been noted after nail plate avulsion resulting from epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor(EGFR-TKI)-induced paronychia, which may even interrupt the course of treatment for EGFR-TKI therapy. Thus, we conducted this study to determine how effectively a topical ß-blocker, betaxolol, prevents EGFR-TKI-induced paronychia. METHODS: This case-control cohort study included a total of 131 non-small-cell lung cancer patients. The prevention group comprised 40 patients treated with topical betaxolol 0.25% solution to prevent paronychia while they received EGFR-TKI therapy. The control group comprised 91 patients who did not preventively use topical betaxolol 0.25% solution while receiving EGFR-TKI therapy. The patients' age, gender, antineoplastic regimen, duration of antineoplastic treatment before the appearance of lesions, number of involved digits (fingernails or toenails) with lesions, grading of paronychia, and pain score were recorded. RESULTS: In terms of the cumulative incidence of paronychia, significant differences (P < 0.01) were noted at both the 2nd and 3rd months after starting EGFR-TKIs. Furthermore, the average visual analogue scale scores were 3.125 and 6.29 in the prevention group and control group, respectively (P < 0.01). The average grades of paronychia were 1.5 and 2.12 in the prevention group and control group, respectively (P < 0.01). The average numbers of involved digits were 2.25 (range: 1-5 digits) in the prevention group and 3.03 (range: 1-7) in the control group (P = 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Preventively using topical betaxolol can significantly decrease the incidence, VAS score, and grading of EGFR-TKI-induced paronychia.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977520

RESUMO

There is a need for valid and reliable instruments to focus on medication aspects of health literacy and help healthcare professionals address patients' barriers to medication use. This cross-sectional study describes the conceptualization, development, and psychometric properties of the first Chinese Medication Literacy Measurement (ChMLM) to assess the level of health literacy on medication use. The 17-item ChMLM (ChMLM-17) and its short form, 13-item ChMLM (ChMLM-13), consist of four sections (vocabulary, over-the-counter labels, prescription labels, and advertisements) to cover six domains of medication-related health literacy. Multistage stratified quota sampling was attempted to recruit a representative sample in Taiwan. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to identify the cut-off point for differentiating high and low medication literacy. Psychometric analyses were performed (n = 1410) to assess the reliability and validity separately on all samples and sociodemographic subgroups. The 17- and 13-item versions both had high construct validity among all patients and patients with low medication literacy. The developed ChMLM-17 and ChMLM-13 is expected to help healthcare providers and researchers to accurately measure medication-related health literacy and improve medication use in the real-world practice.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925955

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to review previous articles and evaluate the influence of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients who were treated with prostaglandin analogues (PGs). METHOD: The presenting study was designed as a meta-analysis of previous research. Databases include PubMed, Web of science, Cochrane library, and Embase were searched with keywords of "intraocular pressure, prostaglandin analogues, NSAIDs, latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost, tafluprost, unoprostone, latanoprostene bunod, ketorolac, diclofenac, nepafenac, bromfenac, flurbiprofen". Inclusion criteria were: 1. Study population were glaucoma patients; 2. Comparison between PGs monotherapy and PGs in combination with topical NSAIDs; 3. Changes of IOP as final outcomes. Studies with non-randomized design, treatments combining other anti-glaucomatous drugs, or unavailable absolute IOP were excluded from the analysis. Estimated difference in IOP were calculated using STATA 14.0. RESULT: Seven studies were retrieved for this meta-analysis. Since there is a significant heterogeneity (I2 = 94%) in these studies, random-effect model was used to calculate pooled standardized mean differences (SMD). Our results showed a significantly favorable IOP lowering effect in glaucoma patients treated with combination of topical NSAIDs and PGEs (SMD: 1.3 and -0.03, 95% CI: 0.29 to 2.38 and -0.32 to 0.26, Z = 2.50 and 0.23, p = 0.013 and 0.820, respectively). CONCLUSION: Results of our meta-analysis suggested that topical NSAIDs may enhance the IOP lowering effect of topical PGs in glaucoma patients.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Intraocular/efeitos dos fármacos , Prostaglandinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/classificação , Glaucoma/patologia , Humanos , Prostaglandinas Sintéticas/classificação , Tonometria Ocular
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