Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 52
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722767

RESUMO

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been considered a suitable model organism to assess the evolutionarily bases of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. Depending on the nature of the stressor, prolonged stress may elicit habituation or evoke long-term changes in the central nervous systems (CNS) often associated with various neuropsychiatric disorders. Conspecific alarm substance (CAS) and net chasing (NC) constitute chemical and physical stressors, respectively, which cause aversive behaviors and physiological changes in fishes. Here, we investigate whether predictable chronic stress (PCS) using two homotypic stressors differently modulates behavioral and physiological responses in zebrafish. PCS-CAS or PCS-NC were performed for 14 days, 2-times daily, while locomotion, exploratory activity, anxiety-like behaviors, and whole-body cortisol levels were measured on day 15. PCS-CAS reduced distance traveled, the number of transitions and time in top area, as well as increased the latency to enter the top in the novel tank test. In the light/dark test, CAS-exposed fish showed decreased time spent in lit area, shorter latency to enter the dark area, and increased risk assessments. PCS-CAS also increased whole-body cortisol levels in zebrafish. Although PCS-NC reduced the latency to enter the dark area, whole-body cortisol levels did not change. Moreover, acute experiments revealed that both CAS and NC promoted anxiogenesis and increased cortisol levels, suggesting habituation to stress following PCS-NC. Overall, our novel findings demonstrate that PCS induces behavioral and physiological changes in zebrafish depending on the nature of the stressor.

2.
Behav Brain Res ; 404: 113169, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577884

RESUMO

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is widely used as a promising translational model organism for studying various brain disorders. Zebrafish are also commonly used in behavioral and drug screening assays utilizing individually tested (socially isolated) fish. Various sounds represent important exogenous factors that may affect fish behavior. Mounting evidence shows that musical/auditory environmental enrichment can improve welfare of laboratory animals, including fishes. Here, we show that auditory environmental enrichment mitigates anxiogenic-like effects caused by acute 24-h social isolation in adult zebrafish. Thus, auditory environmental enrichment may offer an inexpensive, feasible and simple tool to improve welfare of zebrafish stocks in laboratory facilities, reduce unwanted procedural stress, lower non-specific behavioral variance and, hence, collectively improve zebrafish data reliability and reproducibility.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; : 143794, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272603

RESUMO

Viticulture plays an important role in generating income for small farms globally. Historically, vineyards use large quantities of phytosanitary products, such as Bordeaux mixture [Ca(OH)2 + CuSO4], to control plant diseases. These products result in the accumulation of copper (Cu) in the soil and increases the risk of transfer to water bodies. Thus, it is important to evaluate whether the presence of Cu-bearing particles in water is toxic to aquatic fauna. This study conducted chemical, mineralogical, and particle size evaluations on water samples and sediments collected from a watershed predominantly cultivated with old vineyards. The proportion of Cu-rich nanoparticles (<10 nm) in the sediment was ~27%. We exposed zebrafish to different dilutions of water and sediment samples that collected directly from the study site (downstream river) under laboratory conditions. Then, we evaluated their exploratory behavior and the stress-related endocrine parameter, whole-body cortisol. We also carried out two experiments in which zebrafish were exposed to Cu. First, we determined the median lethal concentration (LC50-96 h) of Cu and then assessed whether Cu exposure results in effects similar to those associated with exposure to the water and sediment samples collected from the study site. The water and sediment samples directly impacted the exploratory behavior of zebrafish, showing clear anxiety-like behavioral phenotype and stress in terms of cortisol increase (during the second rain event). The Cu exposure did not mimic the same behavioral changes triggered by the water and sediment samples, although it had caused similar stress in the fish. Our results highlight that even at low concentrations, the water and sediment samples from vineyard watershed runoff were able to induce behavioral and endocrine changes that may harm the ecological balance of an aquatic environment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800866

RESUMO

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant widely misused to increase wakefulness by drivers and students. Also, MPH can be found in dietary supplements in a clandestine manner aiming to burst performance of physical exercise practitioners. The abusive use of high doses of caffeine (CAF) in these contexts is equally already known. Here, we demonstrate the behavioral, oxidative and mitochondrial effects after acute exposure to high doses of MPH (80 mg/L) and CAF (150 mg/L), alone or associated (80 mg/L + 150 mg/L, respectively). We used zebrafish as animal model due to its high translational relevance. We evaluated the behavioral effects using the Novel Tank Test (NTT), Social Preference Test (SPT) and Y-maze Task and analyzed biomarkers of oxidative stress and activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. MPH alone induced antisocial behavior. MPH inhibited lipid peroxidation. The association of MPH + CAF presented memory impairment and anxiogenic behavior. In oxidative status, it inhibited lipid peroxidation, increased protein carbonylation and mitochondrial complex II, III and IV activity. Our results demonstrate that MPH and CAF alone negatively impact the typical behavioral of zebrafish. When associated, changes in cognition, memory, oxidative and mitochondrial status are more relevant.

5.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 80: 103473, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860936

RESUMO

Residual contamination of water with MPH represents a severe environmental issue because it can affect non-target animals. Here we describe the behavioral effects in zebrafish after chronic contamination of water containing residues of MPH (0.1875, 1.875 and 3 ug/L). These doses are environmentally relevant since they reflect those found in wastewaters. We evaluated the behavioral effect through the novel tank test (NTT) and social preference test (SPT), and after euthanasia we analyzed oxidative stress parameters. Zebrafish exposed to MPH presented a social impairment, avoiding the conspecifics segment in the social preference test. In addition, MPH in the lowest concentration provoked an anxiolytic effect in the novel tank test. Oxidative stress is not related to these changes. Since the maintenance of an intact behavioral repertoire is crucial for species survival and fitness, our results demonstrate that residual contamination of water by MPH can be a threat to zebrafish, impacting directly to its well-being and survival in the aquatic environment.

6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38559-38567, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623676

RESUMO

Due to human activities, there is an increasing presence of agrochemicals residues in water bodies, which could be attributed to an increased use of these chemicals, incorrect disposal of packaging materials, and crop leaching. The effects of these residues on prey-predator relationship of aquatic animals are poorly known. Here, we show that fish acutely exposed to glyphosate, 2,4-D, and methylbenzoate-based agrichemicals have their anti-predatory responses impaired. We exposed zebrafish to sub-lethal concentrations of agrichemicals and evaluated their behavioral reaction against a simulated bird predatory strike. We observed that agrichemical-exposed fish spent more time in a risky area, suggesting that the pesticides interfered with their ability of risk perception. Our results highlight the impairment and environmental consequences of agrochemical residues, which can affect aquatic life and crucial elements for life (food web) such as the prey-predator relationship.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Agroquímicos , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
7.
Physiol Behav ; 222: 112944, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407833

RESUMO

Zebrafish has become an animal model in research and articles have established ideal conditions for their maintenance. However, little is known regarding the influence of gender and other cues on zebrafish behavior. Thus, here we analyzed the exploratory and social behavior of different sexes (male and female, mixed or segregated) under different housing conditions with various types of stimuli (visual or/and chemical cues and structural environmental enrichment). Segregated females and males were more active than mixed individuals and females were more anxious. Fish that visualized and smelled the opposite sex presented higher activity and were less anxious than individuals that only smelled or visualized the opposite sex. Fish segregated by sex while being allowed to visualize and smell the opposite sex with the presence of structural environmental enrichment exhibited lower activity and anxiety-like behavior than fish without structural environmental enrichment. Thus, we emphasized that these variables should be taken into account in housing conditions and should be detailed for better replicability and reproducibility of experiments performed with zebrafish.

8.
Stress ; : 1-6, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013653

RESUMO

We report the effects of acute and chronic stress on the expression of selective immune-related genes and markers of neuronal function in the brain of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were distributed into three groups: the non-stressed control group; the acute stress (AS) group, submitted to a single stressing episode; and the unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) group, submitted to two daily stressing episodes of alternating times and types of stress. The stressing protocols were applied for a period of 14 days. The UCS protocol triggered the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes IL-1ß and TNF-α, the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (negative feedback from the immune system), reduction in cFOS gene expression, and caused neuro-inflammation. The AS protocol had no effect on gene expression. Altered expression of cytokine genes, as observed in our study, correlates with several pathologies associated with neuro-inflammation, and the reduction of cFOS gene expression may indicate the occurrence of reduced neuronal plasticity. Our study further extends our knowledge about the interaction of the immune system and the different forms of stress.

9.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 189: 172841, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893526

RESUMO

Environmental pollution caused by antipsychotic residues is a relevant ecological problem. Studies revealed that residues of these drugs are present in a wide range of different ecosystems and can have adverse effects on non-target organisms even in low environmental concentrations. Among these antipsychotic drugs, aripiprazole (APPZ) is a second-generation atypical antipsychotic that is a partial agonist of dopaminergic and serotoninergic receptors. APPZ is used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety or panic disorders. Thus, in this study we posed the following question: "What will be the behavioral effects of waterborne APPZ on fish?" To answer this question, we exposed adult zebrafish to different APPZ concentrations (0.556, 5.56, and 556 ng/L) for 15 min and evaluated their exploratory, anxiety-like, social, and anti-predatory behaviors. Our results showed that, despite the apparent beneficial reversal of stress-induced social impairment and anxiety-like behavior, APPZ exposure impaired the anti-predatory reaction of adult zebrafish. Taken altogether, our results show that APPZ-exposed zebrafish may have a decreased perception of predators, even at concentrations lower than those already detected in the environment. A failure to exhibit an antipredatory response may favor the predator, decrease the fitness of the prey species, and, consequently, affect the food chain. Our results highlight the risks and consequences associated with APPZ residues in water, which may affect aquatic life and endanger species that depend on appropriate behavioral responses for survival.

10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(25): 26293-26303, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286368

RESUMO

Since behavior is the connection between the internal physiological processes of an animal and its interaction with the environment, a complete behavioral repertoire is crucial for fish survival and fitness, at both the individual and population levels. Thus, unintended exposure of non-target organisms to antipsychotic residues in the environment can impact their normal behavior, and some of these behavioral changes can be seen during the entire life of the animal and passed to subsequent generations. Although there are some reports related to transgenerational toxicology, little is known of the long-term consequences of exposure to pharmaceutical compounds such as risperidone. Here, we show that zebrafish exposed to risperidone (RISP) during embryonic and larval stages presented impaired anti-predatory behavior during adulthood, characterizing a persistent effect. We also show that some of these behavioral changes are present in the following generation, characterizing a transgenerational effect. This suggests that even short exposures to environmentally relevant concentrations, at essential stages of development, can persist throughout the whole life of the zebrafish, including its offspring. From an environmental perspective, our results suggested possible risks and long-term consequences associated with drug residues in water, which can affect aquatic life and endanger species that depend on appropriate behavioral responses for survival.


Assuntos
Risperidona/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
11.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(3): 443-451, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190101

RESUMO

Environmental contamination caused by the human occupancy and economic activities that generate a wide range of contaminated effluents that reach natural water resources, is a current reality. Residues of agrichemicals used in plant production were detected in different environments and in different countries. Among these agrochemicals, we studied a glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH), a fipronil-based insecticide (FBI), and their mixtures (GBH + FBI). Zebrafish exposed to 3 and 5 mg/L of GBH spend more time in the top zone and less time in the bottom zone. Fish exposed to 0.009 and 0.018 mg/L of FBI spent less time in the bottom zone, whereas zebrafish exposed to the three GBH + FBI mixtures spend more time in the top zone compared with unexposed control fish. This clear anxiolytic pattern, in an environmental context, can directly impair the ability of fish to avoid or evade predators. We concluded that both glyphosate-based herbicide and fipronil-based insecticide and their mixtures alter zebrafish behavior, which may result in significant repercussions on the maintenance of the species as well as on the food chain and the ecosystem.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Pirazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Feminino , Glicina/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório
12.
Horm Behav ; 109: 44-52, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742830

RESUMO

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is used as an emergent model organism to investigate the behavioral and physiological responses to stress. The anxiolytic-like effects of taurine in zebrafish support the existence of different mechanisms of action, which can play a role in preventing stress-related disorders (i.e., modulation of GABAA, strychnine-sensitive glycine, and NMDA receptors, as well as antioxidant properties). Herein, we investigate whether taurine modulates some behavioral and biochemical responses in zebrafish acutely submitted to chemical and mechanical stressors. We pretreated zebrafish for 1 h in beakers at 42, 150, and 400 mg/L taurine. Fish were later acutely exposed to a chemical stressor (conspecific alarm substance) or to a mechanical stressor (net chasing), which elicits escaping responses and aversive behaviors. Locomotion, exploration, and defensive-like behaviors were measured using the novel tank and the light-dark tests. Biochemical (brain oxidative stress-related parameters) and whole-body cortisol levels were also quantified. We showed that taurine prevents anxiety/fear-like behaviors and protein carbonylation and dampens the cortisol response following acute stress in zebrafish. In summary, our results demonstrate a protective role of taurine against stress-induced behavioral and biochemical changes, thereby reinforcing the growing utility of zebrafish models to investigate the neuroprotective actions of taurine in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13908, 2018 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224742

RESUMO

Here we show that the novel object recognition test can discriminate between high (HRN, neophobic) and low (LRN, neophilic) novelty responders in zebrafish populations. Especially when we observe the latency to the first entry in the novel object zone, zebrafish did not maintain these behavioral phenotypes in sequential tests and only the HRN group returned to their initial responsive behavior when exposed to fluoxetine. Our results have important implications for behavioral data analysis since such behavioral differences can potentially increase individual response variability and interfere with the outcomes obtained from various behavioral tasks. Our data reinforce the validity of personality determination in zebrafish since we show clear differences in behavior in response to fluoxetine.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino
14.
PeerJ ; 6: e5162, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057858

RESUMO

Environmental enrichment is widely used to improve welfare and behavioral performance of animal species. It ensures housing of laboratory animals in environments with space and complexity that enable the expression of their normal behavioral repertoire. Auditory enrichment by exposure to classical music decreases abnormal behaviors and endocrine stress responses in humans, non-humans primates, and rodents. However, little is known about the role of auditory enrichment in laboratory zebrafish. Given the growing importance of zebrafish for neuroscience research, such studies become critical. To examine whether auditory enrichment by classical music can affect fish behavior and physiology, we exposed adult zebrafish to 2 h of Vivaldi's music (65-75 dB) twice daily, for 15 days. Overall, zebrafish exposed to such auditory stimuli were less anxious in the novel tank test and less active, calmer in the light-dark test, also affecting zebrafish physiological (immune) biomarkers, decreasing peripheral levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the activity of some CNS genes, without overt effects on whole-body cortisol levels. In summary, we report that twice-daily exposure to continuous musical sounds may provide benefits over the ongoing 50-55 dB background noise of equipment in the laboratory setting. Overall, our results support utilizing auditory enrichment in laboratory zebrafish to reduce stress and improve welfare in this experimental aquatic organism.

15.
Brain Behav Immun ; 73: 596-602, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981831

RESUMO

In a previous study we showed a clear relationship between immune system and behavior in zebrafish and we hypothesized that the immune system is capable of inducing behavioral changes. To further investigate this subject and to address our main question, here we induced an inflammatory response in one group of fish by the inoculation of formalin-inactivated Aeromonoas hydrophila bacterin and compared their social and exploratory behavior with control groups. After the behavioral tests, we also analyzed the expression of cytokines genes and markers of neuronal activity in fish brain. In the bacterin-inoculated fish, the locomotor activity, social preference and exploratory behavior towards a new object were reduced compared to the control fish while the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the brain was upregulated. With this study we demonstrated for the first time that the immune system is capable of causing behavioral changes that are consistent with the sickness behavior observed in mammals.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Doença/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Feminino , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Relações Interpessoais , Locomoção/imunologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo
16.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 44(2): 465-474, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29423894

RESUMO

Dietary supplements are commonly used by animals and humans and play key roles in diverse systems, such as the immune and reproductive systems, and in metabolism. Essential oils (EOs), which are natural substances, have potential for use in food supplementation; however, their effects on organisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we examine the effects of dietary Aloysia triphylla EO supplementation on zebrafish behavior, metabolism, stress response, and growth performance. We show that fish fed diets containing A. triphylla EO presented an anxiolytic response, with reduced exploratory activity and oxygen consumption; no changes were observed in neuroendocrine stress axis functioning and growth was not impaired. Taken together, these results suggest that the A. triphylla EO supplementation is a strong candidate for use in feed, since it ensures fish welfare (anxiolytic behavior) with decreased oxygen consumption. This makes it suitable for use in high-density production systems without causing damage to the neuroendocrine stress axis and without growth performance being impaired.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Verbenaceae/química , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Zebrafish ; 15(3): 228-233, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29369748

RESUMO

Studies regarding predator-prey relationships have often focused on prey assessment and the responses to predation risk, but few have verified the relationship in the presence or absence of visual contact with a predator (e.g., tiger oscar, Astronotus ocellatus) or a nonpredator (e.g., goldfish, Carassius auratus) during the developmental phase, which could alter several physiological and neuroendocrine mechanisms in adulthood. Herein, we determined responses to physical (chasing with a net) and biological stressors (visualization to predator) in adult zebrafish raised in visual contact with a predator or nonpredator fish. We demonstrated that adult naive zebrafish show a more intense cortisol stress response than fish housed in visual contact with the stimulus fish (predator or nonpredator) when larvae, and that this alteration is related with movement specificity of the stimulus fish.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
18.
J Exp Biol ; 221(Pt 4)2018 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361609

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that manipulations to the housing environment modulate susceptibility to stress in laboratory animals, mainly in rodents. Environmental enrichment (EE) is one such manipulation that promotes neuroprotection and neurogenesis, besides affecting behaviors such as drug self-administration. Zebrafish are a popular and useful animal model for behavioral neuroscience studies; however, studies evaluating the impact of housing conditions in this species are scarce. In this study, we verified the effects of EE on behavioral (novel tank test) and biochemical [cortisol and reactive oxygen species (ROS)] parameters in zebrafish submitted to unpredictable chronic stress (UCS). Consistent with our previous findings, UCS increased anxiety-like behavior, cortisol and ROS levels in zebrafish. EE for 21 or 28 days attenuated the effects induced by UCS on behavior and cortisol, and prevented the effects on ROS levels. Our findings reinforce the idea that EE exerts neuromodulatory effects across species, reducing vulnerability to stress and its biochemical impact. Also, these results indicate that zebrafish is a suitable model animal to study the behavioral effects and neurobiological mechanisms related to EE.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Meio Ambiente , Estresse Fisiológico , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Distribuição Aleatória , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
19.
PeerJ ; 5: e3739, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28890851

RESUMO

Chemical communication relating to predation risk is a trait common among fish species. Prey fish under threat of predation can signal risk to conspecific fish, which then exhibit defensive responses. Fish also assess predation risk by visual cues and change their behavior accordingly. Here, we explored whether these behavioral changes act as visual alarm signals to conspecific fish that are not initially under risk. We show that shoals of zebrafish (Danio rerio) visually exposed to a predator display antipredator behaviors. In addition, these defensive maneuvers trigger antipredator reactions in conspecifics and, concomitantly, stimulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis, leading to cortisol increase. Thus, we conclude that zebrafish defensive behaviors act as visual alarm cues that induce antipredator and stress response in conspecific fish.

20.
PeerJ ; 5: e3330, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28503384

RESUMO

Fluoxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that increases serotonin concentration in the central nervous system and modulates various systems, including the control of sympathetic outflow and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal. However, it is not yet established whether fluoxetine can modulate the responses to stressors stimulants (physical or chemical) that trigger cortisol response in zebrafish. We demonstrate that fluoxetine blunts the response to physical stress, but not to chemical stress.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...