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1.
Genesis ; 60(3): e23471, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35261143

RESUMO

Protein kinases (PKs) and protein phosphatases (PPs) regulate the phosphorylation of proteins that are involved in a variety of biological processes. To study such biological processes systematically, it is important to know the whole repertoire of PKs and PPs encoded in a genome. In the present study, we surveyed the genome of an ascidian (Ciona robusta or Ciona intestinalis type A) to comprehensively identify the genes that encoded PKs and PPs. Because ascidians belong to the sister group of vertebrates, a comparison of the whole repertoire of PKs and PPs of ascidians with those of vertebrates may help to delineate the complements of these proteins that were present in the last common ancestor of these two groups of animals. Our results show that the repertory of PPs was much more expanded in vertebrates than the repertory of PKs. We also showed that approximately 75% of PKs and PPs were expressed during development from eggs to larvae. Thus, the present study provides catalogs for PKs and PPs encoded in the ascidian genome. These catalogs will be useful for systematic studies of biological processes that involve phosphorylation and for evolutionary studies of the origin of vertebrates.


Assuntos
Ciona intestinalis , Animais , Ciona intestinalis/genética , Genoma , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/genética , Fosfoproteínas Fosfatases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Vertebrados
2.
J Exp Med ; 219(4)2022 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319723

RESUMO

Activation of astrocytes has a profound effect on brain plasticity and is critical for the pathophysiology of several neurological disorders including neuropathic pain. Here, we show that metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), which reemerges in astrocytes in a restricted time frame, is essential for these functions. Although mGluR5 is absent in healthy adult astrocytes, it transiently reemerges in astrocytes of the somatosensory cortex (S1). During a limited spatiotemporal time frame, astrocytic mGluR5 drives Ca2+ signals; upregulates multiple synaptogenic molecules such as Thrombospondin-1, Glypican-4, and Hevin; causes excess excitatory synaptogenesis; and produces persistent alteration of S1 neuronal activity, leading to mechanical allodynia. All of these events were abolished by the astrocyte-specific deletion of mGluR5. Astrocytes dynamically control synaptic plasticity by turning on and off a single molecule, mGluR5, which defines subsequent persistent brain functions, especially under pathological conditions.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Dor Crônica , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Dor Crônica/patologia , Camundongos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/metabolismo , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2239, 2022 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140244

RESUMO

Recently, the plywood industry has been using low-molecule phenol (LMP) to enhance the dimensional stability of inferior-quality wood, along with copper naphthenate to increase veneer durability against staining fungi as a wood preservative. Non-destructive X-ray microtomography is a promising visualization method for reviewing the distribution of these materials. This study aimed to determine the applicability of X-ray microtomography for observing the distribution of LMP and Cu in two-and three-dimensional visualizations. The distribution mechanisms of these materials were investigated using X-ray images and image plot profiles. Six hardwood (wood from broad-leaved trees) and one softwood (wood from conifer trees) species were used for the experiments. An impregnation process was used to treat the wood samples with LMP, and copper naphthenate was added by dipping the wood in the compound for 1 s. A 10 mm2 sample of each wood species was scanned using X-ray microtomography, and the distribution of LMP and Cu was successfully visualized using X-ray microtomography with the same settings. The LMP was displayed approximately evenly throughout the veneer, whereas the copper naphthenate existed mainly on the veneer surface. The X-ray images successfully showed penetration at the microscopic scale.

5.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 5, 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of gallstones is higher in patients who have undergone gastrectomy than in the general population. While there have been some studies of gallstone formation after open gastrectomy, there are few reports of gallstones after laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG). Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the incidence of gallstones after LG. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 184 patients who underwent LG between January 2011 and May 2016 at Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital. After gastrectomy, abdominal ultrasonography was generally performed every 6 months for 5 years. Patients who underwent cholecystectomy before LG, underwent simultaneous cholecystectomy, and did not undergo abdominal ultrasonography, with an observation period of < 24 months, were excluded from the study. Finally, 90 patients were analyzed. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed whenever biliary complications occurred. Patient characteristics were compared using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test or Chi-square test. In addition, the risk factors for postoperative gallstones were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among the 90 patients included in this study, 60 were men (78%), and the mean age was 65.5 years. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy was performed for 15 patients and laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for 75 patients. D2 lymph node dissection was performed for 8 patients (9%), whereas 68 patients underwent LG with Roux-en-Y reconstruction (76%). Gallstones were detected after LG in 27 of the 90 (30%) patients. Multivariate analysis identified Roux-en-Y reconstruction and male sex as significant risk factors of gallstones after gastrectomy. The incidence of gallstones was significantly higher (53%) in male patients who underwent Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Symptomatic gallstones after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were found in 6 cases (6/27, 22%), and all patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. CONCLUSION: Roux-en-Y reconstruction and male sex were identified as significant risk factors for gallstones after LG.


Assuntos
Cálculos Biliares , Laparoscopia , Neoplasias Gástricas , Idoso , Cálculos Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cálculos Biliares/epidemiologia , Cálculos Biliares/etiologia , Gastrectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia
6.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(35): 9950-9959, 2021 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455782

RESUMO

Excited-state symmetry breaking (ESB) has attracted much attention because it is often observed in symmetric multipolar chromophores designed as two-photon absorption/emission materials. Herein, we report an ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy investigation of ESB in hexakis[4-(p-dioctylaminostyryl)phenylethynyl]benzene(DB6), a two-photon absorber possessing a C6-symmetric π-D6 structure (π = hexaethynylbenzene, D = (p-dioctylaminostyryl)phenyl group) consisting of three equivalent D-π-D moieties. Ensemble and single-molecule measurements and theoretical calculations revealed that DB6 undergoes a photoabsorption process with two orthogonal transition dipole moments, whereas it fluoresces with a single transition dipole moment after one- or two-step ESB upon photoexcitation, depending on the environmental polarity. In nonpolar solvents and polymer films, one of the three D-π-D sites becomes planar, and the excited state is localized on this moiety: a [Dδ+-πδ--Dδ+]* quadrupolar state is formed. In polar solvents, the symmetry is further broken within the planarized D-π-D moiety, and the excited state is localized on one of the two D-π sites; i.e., a D-[πδ--Dδ+]* dipolar state is generated. Hence, DB6 can behave like a multichromophore with multiple emission sites in the molecule, which was demonstrated by stepwise photobleaching under photon antibunching conditions.


Assuntos
Imagem Óptica , Fótons , Fotodegradação , Solventes , Análise Espectral
7.
J Neurosci ; 41(39): 8220-8232, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380761

RESUMO

To improve future decisions, people should seek information based on the value of information (VOI), which depends on the current evidence and the reward structure of the upcoming decision. When additional evidence is supplied, people should update the VOI to adjust subsequent information seeking, but the neurocognitive mechanisms of this updating process remain unknown. We used a modified beads task to examine how the VOI is represented and updated in the human brain of both sexes. We theoretically derived, and empirically verified, a normative prediction that the VOI depends on decision evidence and is biased by reward asymmetry. Using fMRI, we found that the subjective VOI is represented in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Critically, this VOI representation was updated when additional evidence was supplied, showing that the DLPFC dynamically tracks the up-to-date VOI over time. These results provide new insights into how humans adaptively seek information in the service of decision-making.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT For adaptive decision-making, people should seek information based on what they currently know and the extent to which additional information could improve the decision outcome, formalized as the VOI. Doing so requires dynamic updating of VOI according to outcome values and newly arriving evidence. We formalize these principles using a normative model and show that information seeking in people adheres to them. Using fMRI, we show that the underlying subjective VOI is represented in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and, critically, that it is updated in real time according to newly arriving evidence. Our results reveal the computational and neural dynamics through which evidence and values are combined to inform constantly evolving information-seeking decisions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
8.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(30): 35739-35749, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291896

RESUMO

Two starburst-shaped organic chromophores, incorporating a hexaethynylbenzene core modified by five donor branches (D-branches) of (p-dioctylaminostyryl)benzene and one acceptor/anchoring branch (A-branch) of either carboxylic acid-terminated phenylethynylbenzene (SB-07) or cyanoacrylic acid-terminated diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-thiophene (SB-08), were synthesized and applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). In these chromophores, the common donor moiety, five (p-dioctylaminostyryl)phenyl groups, exhibits excellent optical absorption in the visible region (molar absorption coefficient ε > 105 M-1 cm-1 below 500 nm). The A-branch of SB-07 does not possess strong electron-accepting properties; however, the A-branch of SB-08, the DPP-thiophene moiety, serves as a strong electron acceptor site. Furthermore, the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) transition between the thiophene and DPP moieties extends the optical absorption range to the near-infrared region (∼800 nm). Optimized DSSC devices using SB-08 with coadsorption of chenodeoxycholic acid, in conjunction with iodide/triiodide-based electrolytes, exhibited incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) exceeding 70% in the 370-700 nm range and over 20% even at 800 nm, with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 19.3 mA cm-2 and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.4% under AM 1.5G illumination (100 mW cm-2). These results are considerably better than those of SB-07 (Jsc = 7.0 mA cm-2, PCE = 3.3%). The starburst-shaped architecture presented here can be used as a novel structural motif for metal-free organic sensitizers because it enables flexible modification of the multiple D-branches that enhance light-harvesting ability and the A-branch that serves as an excited electron transport pathway.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081159

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although early prediction of mortality is useful for the management of patients with colorectal perforations, no significant perioperative predictive factors have been identified. The purpose of this study was to identify useful prognostic factors for patients with colorectal perforation. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study included consecutive patients undergoing emergency surgery for colorectal perforation from January 2012 to December 2019. The primary outcome was combined 30 day and in-hospital mortality. Patient- and disease-related factors obtained perioperatively were evaluated for mortality prediction. A scoring system was developed to enhance clinical utility. RESULTS: Overall, 146 patients were included and 20 (14%) died after surgery. Multivariate logistic regression identified five predictive factors: age, hemodialysis, uncommon perforation etiology, plasma albumin level, and decreased platelet count. The area under the receiver operating curve for the scoring system using these parameters was 0.894 (95% CI 0.835-0.952). Patients at high-risk of mortality were classified by the proposed score with a sensitivity of 90.0% and negative predictive value of 98.0%. CONCLUSION: This study identified five perioperative factors significantly associated with mortality of patients with colorectal perforation. Although these parameters predict mortality of patients with colorectal perforation using a score with high discrimination, further study is required to confirm these findings.

10.
Sci Adv ; 7(24)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108211

RESUMO

In animal embryos, gene regulatory networks control the dynamics of gene expression in cells and coordinate such dynamics among cells. In ascidian embryos, gene expression dynamics have been dissected at the single-cell resolution. Here, we revealed mathematical functions that represent the regulatory logics of all regulatory genes expressed at the 32-cell stage when the germ layers are largely specified. These functions collectively explain the entire mechanism by which gene expression dynamics are controlled coordinately in early embryos. We found that regulatory functions for genes expressed in each of the specific lineages contain a common core regulatory mechanism. Last, we showed that the expression of the regulatory genes became reproducible by calculation and controllable by experimental manipulations. Thus, these regulatory functions represent an architectural design for the germ layer specification of this chordate and provide a platform for simulations and experiments to understand the operating principles of gene regulatory networks.

11.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 27, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of antithrombotic drugs on intraoperative operative blood loss volume in patients undergoing emergency surgery for generalized peritonitis is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of antithrombotic drugs on intraoperative blood loss in patients with generalized peritonitis using a nationwide surgical registry in Japan. METHOD: This retrospective cohort study used a nationwide surgical registry data from 2011 to 2017 in Japan. Propensity score matching for the use of antithrombotic drugs was used for the adjustment of age, gender, comorbidities, frailty, preoperative state, types of surgery, surgical approach, laboratory data, and others. The main outcome was intraoperative blood loss: comparison of intraoperative blood loss, ratio of intraoperative blood loss after adjusted for confounding factors, and variable importance of all covariates. RESULTS: A total of 70,105 of the eligible 75,666 patients were included in this study, and 2947 patients were taking antithrombotic drugs. Propensity score matching yielded 2864 well-balanced pairs. The blood loss volume was slightly higher in the antithrombotic drug group (100 [10-349] vs 70 [10-299] ml). After adjustment for confounding factors, the use of antithrombotic drugs was related to a 1.30-fold increase in intraoperative blood loss compared to non-use of antithrombotic drugs (95% CI, 1.16-1.45). The variable importance revealed that the effect of the use of antithrombotic drugs was minimal compared with surgical approach or type of surgery. CONCLUSION: This study shows that while taking antithrombotic drugs is associated with a slight increase in intraoperative blood loss in patients undergoing emergency surgery for generalized peritonitis, the effect is likely of minimal clinical significance.


Assuntos
Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Peritonite/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Emergências , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211016704, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973483

RESUMO

Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare benign systemic histiocytic proliferation characterized by massive lymph node enlargement and sometimes associated with extranodal involvement. Even though it is considered to be benign, death can occur depending on the extent and location. Our case highlights a primary extranodal site of the right pinna with extension through the Eustachian tube to the subglottis. A previously healthy 15-year-old female presented with 1-year right pinna swelling, slowly enlarging and becoming more bothersome. An incisional biopsy was performed on the ear along with S100 staining yielding a diagnosis. After multidisciplinary case discussion, clofarabine monotherapy and systemic therapy for Langerhans cell histiocytosis has started. Rosai-Dorfman disease can be a general disorder, often affecting the lymph nodes. Unlike a nodal disease, extranodal disease could involve any site on the patient's anatomy. Head and neck lesions are the most common extranodal lesions. Rosai-Dorfman disease is self-limited in more than 20% of the cases with spontaneous regression without intervention; 70% of the patients have noticeable symptoms and vital organ involvement requiring treatments such as surgery, steroids, radiation, and chemotherapy. In our case, the patient had wide involvement and presented without any serious breathing difficulties; we decided to start with monotherapy with chemotherapy and systematic glucocorticoid treatment.

13.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 15(1): 108-114, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708057

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is strongly associated with neurofibromas and malignancies. Solid pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) have been recently reported in patients with NF-1. PanNETs are always solid and rarely present with a cystic appearance due to central necrosis and hemorrhage caused by rapid growth. A 33-year-old female diagnosed with NF-1 at age 16 was referred for evaluation of a pelvic mass found on abdominal ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 6 cm solid pelvic mass adjacent to the left external iliac artery, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed a 3-cm solid para-aortic mass and a 3-cm cystic mass in the pancreatic tail. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a cystic tumor with necrotic tissue and septa. Preoperative diagnosis was pancreatic cystic malignancy with para-aortic lymph node metastasis accompanied with a pelvic neurofibroma. These lesions were resected simultaneously. The specimen resected from the pancreas showed a necrotizing cystic tumor invading abutting lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed positive chromogranin A and synaptophysin. The Ki-67 index was <1%, and the mitotic count was 1/10 in high power field. Therefore, a non-functional PanNET (grade G1) was diagnosed. The pelvic and para-aortic tumors were both neurofibromas. A cystic appearance is atypical for PanNET and makes preoperative diagnosis difficult. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a cystic PanNET in a patient with NF-1.

14.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 15(1): 154-162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708064

RESUMO

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by pancreatic manifestations of IgG4-related disease. Malignancies in patients with AIP have been reported, but carcinoma of the bile duct is extremely rare. We report a patient with IgG4-related AIP who developed cholangiocarcinoma after 8 years of steroid treatment. A 76-year-old male presented with fever (37.8°C) due to biliary obstruction and cholangitis. He had been treated with steroids for 8 years to control inflammation due to IgG4-related AIP. During 8 years of treatment, hepatobiliary enzyme levels were well controlled within their normal range, but serum IgG4 levels remained elevated. A computed tomography scan showed intrahepatic bile duct dilatation. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed obstructive changes at the junction of the cystic and common ducts. To relieve biliary obstruction, endoscopic bile duct drainage using a nasobiliary tube was performed, and cytology was Class IV. Aorto-caval lymph node enlargement was found at laparotomy, intraoperatively diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, and resection was abandoned. He died 4 months postoperatively. We report a patient with IgG4-related AIP complicated by cholangiocarcinoma which developed after 8 years of steroid treatment. Even if hepatobiliary markers are well controlled, periodic follow-up with imaging studies may facilitate detection of an early cholangiocarcinoma.

15.
Mol Clin Oncol ; 14(4): 80, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33758661

RESUMO

The optimal surgical indications for small rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are controversial. Generally, treatment guidelines for rectal NETs >2 cm or with potential lymph node (LN) metastasis recommend formal oncologic low anterior resection (LAR) with total mesorectal excision (TME). However, rectal NETs have the potential to metastasize to the lateral lymph nodes (LLNs). To the best of our knowledge, there are no detailed reports in English on LLN metastasis from rectal NETs. A 47-year-old man diagnosed with a rectal NET underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The pathological diagnosis was NET G1. The tumor was 10 mm in diameter, and the tumor depth reached the submucosal layer. A period of 3 years after ESD, the patient was diagnosed with LN metastasis in the mesorectum and LLN metastasis on the left side from the NET. Robotic TME and bilateral LN dissection were performed. The pathological findings indicated that two of the 18 LNs in the mesorectum were metastatic, and all the LLNs on the left side were negative. In contrast, 1 of the 6 LLNs on the right side was metastatic. Early-stage rectal NETs can metastasize to the LLNs, and it is very difficult to detect LLN metastasis based on size alone. TME alone may be insufficient to treat rectal NETs, and additional LLN dissection may be an important treatment strategy. However, it is increasingly difficult to determine the surgical indications for optimally timed LLN dissection.

16.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771888

RESUMO

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) that promote tumor immune evasion are enriched in certain tumors and correlate with poor prognosis. However, mechanisms for Treg enrichment remain incompletely understood. We described a mechanism for Treg enrichment in mouse and human tumors mediated by the αvß8 integrin. Tumor cell αvß8 bound to latent transforming growth factor-ß (L-TGF-ß) presented on the surface of T cells, resulting in TGF-ß activation and immunosuppressive Treg differentiation in vitro. In vivo, tumor cell αvß8 expression correlated with Treg enrichment, immunosuppressive Treg gene expression, and increased tumor growth, which was reduced in mice by αvß8 inhibition or Treg depletion. Structural modeling and cell-based studies suggested a highly geometrically constrained complex forming between αvß8-expressing tumor cells and L-TGF-ß-expressing T cells, facilitating TGF-ß activation, independent of release and diffusion, and providing limited access to TGF-ß inhibitors. These findings suggest a highly localized tumor-specific mechanism for Treg enrichment.


Assuntos
Integrinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Evasão Tumoral , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4001, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597570

RESUMO

Linkage logic theory provides a mathematical criterion to control network dynamics by manipulating activities of a subset of network nodes, which are collectively called a feedback vertex set (FVS). Because many biological functions emerge from dynamics of biological networks, this theory provides a promising tool for controlling biological functions. By manipulating the activity of FVS molecules identified in a gene regulatory network (GRN) for fate specification of seven tissues in ascidian embryos, we previously succeeded in reproducing six of the seven cell types. Simultaneously, we discovered that the experimentally reconstituted GRN lacked information sufficient to reproduce muscle cells. Here, we utilized linkage logic theory as a tool to find missing edges in the GRN. Then, we identified a FVS from an updated version of the GRN and confirmed that manipulating the activity of this FVS was sufficient to induce all seven cell types, even in a multi-cellular environment. Thus, linkage logic theory provides tools to find missing edges in experimentally reconstituted networks, to determine whether reconstituted networks contain sufficient information to fulfil expected functions, and to reprogram cell fate.


Assuntos
Cordados/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Células Musculares , Reprodução , Transdução de Sinais , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos
18.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 259(7): 1741-1750, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409679

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Visual function and treatment response after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monotherapy were compared between polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) with and without hemorrhage. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study (mean, 26 months) for 49 eyes of 49 treatment-naive patients with PCV. Patients were classified into PCV with hemorrhage (26 eyes) or without hemorrhage (23 eyes). PCV with massive hemorrhage subgroup has four or more disc-hemorrhagic areas and included five eyes. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in patient age, sex, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, presence of choroidal vascular hyperpermeability, number of polyps, maximum polyp size, lesion area, and presence of pigment epithelium detachment (PED) between the two groups. Except for the course of PCV-related hemorrhage, treatment number and its response were similar between the groups. Best-corrected visual acuity at the last visit in PCV with hemorrhage was 0.33 ± 0.51 logMAR (20/41) comparable with 0.28 ± 0.41 logMAR (20/38) without hemorrhage at the last visit (p = 0.944). Maximum polyp size in massive hemorrhagic PCV was significantly larger (314.6 ± 111.4 µm) than that of small hemorrhagic PCV (229.0 ± 119.1 µm; p = 0.037). All PCV with massive hemorrhage was accompanied by large hemorrhagic PED. CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics, treatment intervention, or suppression of disease activity between PCV with and without hemorrhage. Final visual acuity of PCV did not differ with or without hemorrhage. Development of massive hemorrhaging in PCV may be associated with both large polyps and hemorrhagic PED.


Assuntos
Doenças da Coroide , Pólipos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Corioide , Doenças da Coroide/diagnóstico , Doenças da Coroide/tratamento farmacológico , Angiofluoresceinografia , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Pólipos/diagnóstico , Pólipos/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(2): 998-1003, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981223

RESUMO

The synthesis of a cyclohexa-2,7-(4,5-diaryl)anthrylene ethynylene (1) was achieved for the first time by using 1,8-diaryl-3,6-diborylanthracene and 1,8-diaryl-3,6-diiodoanthracene as key synthetic intermediates. Macrocycle 1 possesses a planar conformation of approximately D6h symmetry, because of the triple-bond linker between the anthracene units at the 2,7-positions. It was confirmed that macrocycle 1, bearing bulky substituents at the outer peripheral positions, behaves as a monomeric form in solution without π-stacking self-association. Macrocycle 1 has an inner-cavity size that allows specific inclusion of [9]cycloparaphenylene ([9]CPP), but not [8]CPP or [10]CPP, through an aromatic edge-to-face CH-π interaction.

20.
Acad Med ; 96(2): 232-235, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003032

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Medical schools have implemented various ways to engage students in improving medical curricula. These systems, however, usually focus on the preclerkship curriculum, perhaps because medical students move through this phase of medical education synchronously, making it easier to collect student input. In contrast, clerkship and postclerkship curricula often lack similar levels of student engagement in program evaluation. APPROACH: To increase communication among students, faculty, and administration during the clinical years of medical education, the Student Curricular Board (SCB) at the University of Illinois College of Medicine's Chicago campus (UICOM-Chicago) developed a student-driven feedback model in 2016 that aimed to parallel the system previously implemented in the preclerkship years. Interested fourth-year students were selected by their peers to represent individual core clerkships, and they communicated regularly with clerkship directors about concerns from current clerkship students. Third-year students applied and were selected to represent their cohort of peers moving through clerkship tracks. Proposed changes and improvements were tracked via novel, student-driven SOAP-Education (SOAP-Ed) progress notes written throughout the academic year. OUTCOMES: In response to a program evaluation survey conducted after implementation of this pilot, third-year students said they felt that their feedback was taken seriously by faculty and administration. Furthermore, student feedback led to meaningful changes in core clerkship curricula and in the system used to gather clerkship feedback. Clerkship directors expressed appreciation for this partnership, and students said they gained valuable leadership experience and knowledge of curricular development. NEXT STEPS: Current SCB members and curricular leadership plan to assess student and faculty perceptions of this system and its efficacy and work toward expansion to all UICOM campuses. Lessons learned from this student-driven model of feedback in third-year core clerkships will likely add to the conversation on how to better engage medical students as active stakeholders in their own education.


Assuntos
Estágio Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Currículo/normas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Chicago/epidemiologia , Comunicação , Educação Médica/métodos , Educação Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes/organização & administração , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Conhecimento , Liderança , Projetos Piloto , Participação dos Interessados/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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