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3.
Seizure ; 71: 20-23, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176277

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME) is a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with myoclonic seizures and a suppression burst on electroencephalogram, which occurs during the neonatal or early infantile period and is characterized by highly intractable seizures and severe development impairment. Although multiple genetic aetiologies of EME have been identified, no SCN1A mutation has been reported. METHODS: We described a female patient with EME due to an SCN1A mutation. RESULTS: She developed frequent myoclonic and apnoeic seizures during the neonatal period. As her seizures were refractory to many antiepileptic drugs, she underwent a tracheotomy and has since been treated with continuous mechanical ventilation. Eventually, perampanel was added, which resulted in the cessation of the apnoeic seizures. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous de novo missense mutation in the SCN1A gene (c.2588 T > C:p.Leu863Ser). CONCLUSION: This is the first patient with EME due to anSCN1A mutation to be successfully treated with perampanel. Recently, perampanel was reported to be effective in treating Dravet syndrome, including cases with an SCN1A mutation. Perampanel may contribute to seizure reduction in patients with intractable epilepsy carrying the SCN1A mutation.

4.
Int J Med Educ ; 10: 106-110, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131832

RESUMO

Objectives: To investigate which extracurricular lessons medical doctors and medical students received in early childhood and to compare the results to a similarly aged representative sample. Methods: This retrospective questionnaire-based study investigated the prevalence of supplemental early education, along with professional outcomes later in life. The study compared two samples: First, as a proxy for "professional success", medical students and residents (n = 147) were asked to recall which extracurricular lessons they had taken when pre-school aged. This was contrasted to a control sample representative of the general population in Japan. Included extracurricular lessons were: "keyboard/piano", "Japanese calligraphy", "abacus use", "swimming", and "foreign language." Frequencies were compared and tested using contingency tables and the Chi-squared test. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The control sample reported a lower rate (32.7%) of extracurricular activities than medical students did (51.6%, χ2(df=1, n=147) = 13.5, p < 0.001). The proportion of medical students receiving keyboard lessons during their pre-school years was significantly higher (43.5%) than that of the general population (9.1%, χ2(df=1, n=147) = 65.2, p < 0.001). Similar, but less robust, results were observed with Japanese calligraphy (11.5% vs. 3.1%, χ2(df=1, n=147)=11.3, p=0.001), abacus use (4.1% vs. 0.4%, χ2(df=1, n=147) = 7.4, p=0.007), and swimming (33.3% vs. 22.0%, χ2(df=1, n=147) = 6.1, p = 0.013). Conclusions: Our results suggest that, in Japan, early supplementary education, including keyboard lessons, is associated with professional success later in life. Future research is warranted to elucidate whether there is a causal link between early extracurricular education and professional outcomes.

5.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 17(1): 15, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there are many reports on Juvenile Idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis (JIA-U) from various countries, especially from Europe and North America, there are few reports from Asia. Our aim was to investigate the epidemiology, characteristics and predictors of JIA-U in Japan. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected on 726 patients with JIA from medical records as of April 2016 at 15 medical centers specialized in pediatric rheumatic diseases. Of these, patients with uveitis were further investigated for the specific characteristics of this manifestation. RESULTS: The prevalence of uveitis was 6.1% in the 726 JIA patients examined. Incidence of uveitis was significantly higher in patients with an earlier arthritis onset (2.6-vs.-5.8 years, P < 0.0001), oligoarthritis (16.1%-vs.-1.6%, P < 0.001), or anti-nuclear antibodies. On the contrary, it was significantly less common in patients with rheumatoid factor or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies. A history of using methotrexate (MTX), infliximab or adalimumab was also associated with uveitis occurrence. The median age at uveitis diagnosis was 5 years, and the median time from arthritis onset to uveitis diagnosis was 2 years. The occurrence of anterior and bilateral uveitis was 79.3 and 53.7%, respectively. There were no symptoms at uveitis diagnosis in 58.5% of cases. Complications arising between the time of uveitis diagnosis and the last observation increased from 31.7 to 56.1%; in particular, cataract was increased 3-fold. While no patients lost their vision, 61.9% did not recover normal vision (≥ 1.0), and in many cases active uveitis persisted, especially in males. In addition to steroid eye drops (97.6%) and MTX (15.4%), biological agents were used for treating the uveitis in 41.5% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology, characteristics and predictors of JIA-U in Japan are described here for the first time. Although the prevalence of JIA-U in Japan is lower than in predominantly Caucasian cohorts, as reported from North America and Europe, the epidemiology, characteristics and predictors were found to be similar.


Assuntos
Artrite Juvenil/complicações , Uveíte/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reumatologia , Fatores de Risco , Uveíte/diagnóstico , Uveíte/etiologia
6.
Neuropediatrics ; 50(3): 160-163, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939600

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to assess the accurate incidence of renal stones in severely disabled children treated with topiramate (TPM). METHOD: We reviewed the medical records of severely disabled children with epilepsy under 15 years old who underwent radiological examinations to investigate urinary stones. The study enrolled 26 patients who were divided into two groups. One group had been treated with TPM for at least 1 year and the other had not been treated with TPM, zonisamide, acetazolamide, or other diuretic drugs. We collected parameters from the medical records and compared the groups. RESULTS: All participants were evaluated radiologically, with computed tomography (CT) in two patients, ultrasonography in 22 patients, and both in two. No patient had any morphological abnormality of the kidneys and history of urinary tract infection. There were no significant differences in sex, age, body weight, or feeding manner between the groups, while the incidence of renal stones or calcifications was significantly higher in the TPM-treated group (60 vs. 0%; p = 0.00241). CONCLUSION: There is a high incidence of renal stone formation in severely disabled children treated with TPM.

7.
Epilepsy Behav ; 94: 82-86, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perampanel (PER) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) with a novel mechanism of action. Investigations of the efficacy and safety of PER in pediatric and adult patients have increased recently. Although the clinical usefulness and pharmacokinetics of PER have been investigated in adolescent and adult populations, similar studies have not been performed in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients treated with PER for more than 6 months in the Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Hospital, between September 2016 and November 2018. We obtained demographic and clinical data including age, sex, epilepsy type, seizure type, seizure frequency before and after treatment initiation, adverse events, reasons for discontinuing PER treatment, doses at evaluation points, serum concentrations, concomitant AEDs, intellectual status, and epilepsy etiology. Seizure types and epilepsy syndromes were classified according to the criteria of the International League Against Epilepsy. RESULTS: The study included 44 patients (22 males) between the ages of 6 months and 16 years. Of those, 10 patients discontinued PER therapy. The 50% response rate was 52.3% in patients treated with PER, and four patients achieved complete seizure control. Perampanel was highly effective in patients with generalized and focal epilepsy (50% responder rates, 52.9% and 50.0%, respectively). Favorable response rates were observed for tonic-clonic, focal nonmotor, and absence seizures with 50% response rates of 54.5%, 50.0%, and 66.7%, respectively. The 50% responder rate was 31.3 for epileptic spasms (ES). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) included somnolence (n = 8), irritability (n = 2), ataxia (n = 2), and one case each of dizziness, compulsiveness, and enuresis. Serum concentrations of PER were compared in patients taking concomitant enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EIAEDs; carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital) and those taking concomitant non-EIAEDs. Serum PER concentrations were correlated with dose per body weight in both groups (EIAED: r = 0.765, p = 0.00000212; non-EIAED: r = 0.71, p = 0.0000158). The mean concentration-to-dose (CD) ratio was 2398.4 ng mL-1 mg-1 kg-1 (range: 800-4524.7) in the non-EIAED group and 693.7 ng mL-1 mg-1 kg-1 (range: 344-1309.7) in the EIAED group. Serum PER levels were lower in the EIAED group than in the non-EIAED group. All patients with serum PER concentrations above 400 ng/mL experienced somnolence. CONCLUSIONS: Perampanel is effective against various types of seizures, including ES, in pediatric patients with refractory epilepsy. Furthermore, PER has good tolerability when the dose is adjusted based on serum concentrations. The PER CD ratio was lower in pediatric patients than in adolescents and adults; therefore, clinicians must consider the CD ratio when treating children with PER.

8.
Int J Hematol ; 109(4): 491-498, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30694451

RESUMO

We investigated the safety and efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in the prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using a nationwide retrospective survey in Japanese children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Overall, 141 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT for hematological malignancy (n = 84), non-malignancy (n = 52), and solid tumors (n = 5) were administered MMF orally (median 8 years; range 0-15 years; 89 males and 52 females) during 1995-2011. Donors were primarily unrelated and mismatched related. In the GVHD prophylaxis group, 29% and 8.6% of patients developed grade II-IV and III-IV GVHD, respectively. Of the 32 evaluable patients, 16% developed chronic [limited (n = 4) and extensive (n = 1)] GVHD. In the acute GVHD treatment group, 61% had decreased grade. In the chronic GVHD treatment group, 36% had improved symptoms. Combined immunosuppressant was reduced or discontinued in 61% patients. Major adverse events (AEs) were neutropenia (4.3%), infection (3.5%), thrombocytopenia (2.1%), myelosuppression (2.1%), and diarrhea (1.4%). MMF dosage was reduced in two children due to grade ≥ 3 AEs; two children died from infection. MMF thus may be well tolerated in children, and may be an effective option for prophylaxis and treatment of acute and chronic GVHD.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Ácido Micofenólico/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Aloenxertos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão , Masculino , Ácido Micofenólico/efeitos adversos
9.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(8): 1227-1236, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531957

RESUMO

Reduced-intensity conditioning is widely used with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for non-malignant diseases: however, the optimal conditioning to ensure stable engraftment has not been established. In this study, we retrospectively compared the impact of low-dose (1-6 Gy) irradiation and in vivo T-cell depletion on the clinical outcome of 523 patients with non-malignant disease who underwent a first allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation using fludarabine-based reduced-intensity conditioning. Use of low-dose irradiation, but not of anti-thymocyte globulin/anti-lymphocyte globulin, showed a beneficial effect on overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.35-0.91, P = 0.018). Furthermore, use of low-dose irradiation was strongly associated with lower transplant-related mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.96, P = 0.034). The addition of low-dose irradiation to the conditioning regimen was beneficial, at least to the short-term clinical outcome. A large prospective study with long-term follow-up is now required to extend these findings and establish the optimal hematopoietic stem cell transplant conditioning for patients with at least some subgroups of non-malignant diseases.

10.
Cancer Sci ; 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387229

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms involved in the relapse of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) are not fully understood, although activating NOTCH1 signaling due to NOTCH1/FBXW7 alterations is a major oncogenic driver. To unravel the relevance of NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations associated with relapse, we performed whole exome sequencing in 30 pediatric T-ALL cases, of which 11 diagnosis-relapse paired cases were further investigated to track the clonal evolution of relapse using amplicon-based deep sequencing. NOTCH1/FBXW7 alterations were detected in 73.3% (diagnosis) and 72.7% (relapse). Single nucleotide variations in the heterodimerization domain were the most frequent (40.0%) at diagnosis, whereas PEST domain alterations were the most frequent at relapse (54.5%). Comparison between non-relapsed and relapsed cases at diagnosis showed a predominance of PEST alterations in relapsed cases (P=0.045) although we failed to validate in TARGET cohort. Based on the clonal analysis of diagnosis-relapse samples, we identified NOTCH1 "switching" characterized by different NOTCH1 mutations in a major clone between diagnosis and relapse samples in two out of eleven diagnosis-relapse paired cases analyzed. We found another NOTCH1 "switching" case in previously reported Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster cohort (n = 13), indicating NOTCH1 importance in both the development and progression of T-ALL. Despite the limitations of small sample size and non minimal residual disease-based protocol, our results suggest that the presence of NOTCH1 mutations might contribute to the disease relapse of T-ALL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Brain Dev ; 40(10): 943-946, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30227938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene, resulting in developmental regression after normal development during infancy. Transient presentation of many autistic features is also commonly seen in RTT. Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody encephalitis is an acquired relapsing demyelinating syndrome characterized by a variety of neuroinflammatory symptoms. Here, we report a case of anti-MOG antibody encephalitis in a patient with genetically confirmed RTT, which mimicked many of the features of RTT. CASE REPORT: A three-year-old girl presented with subacute verbal and motor dysfunction, along with involuntary movements and marked irritability. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extensive white matter lesions, with anti-MOG antibodies detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, resulting in an initial diagnosis of anti-MOG antibody encephalitis. However, additional testing of the MECP2 gene was performed in response to persistent involuntary hand movements in combination with progressive verbal and motor deterioration. Sequencing analysis revealed a known pathogenic mutation in MEPC2, indicating a concurrent diagnosis of RTT. CONCLUSION: Both RTT and anti-MOG antibody encephalitis are rare conditions. Similarities in disease presentation suggest that anti-MOG antibody encephalitis may mimic many of the symptoms of RTT.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Encefalite/patologia , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Síndrome de Rett/genética , Anticorpos/imunologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pré-Escolar , Encefalite/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Rett/complicações , Síndrome de Rett/imunologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Branca/patologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is a negative immune regulator. Heterozygous CTLA4 germline mutations can cause a complex immune dysregulation syndrome in human subjects. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the penetrance, clinical features, and best treatment options in 133 CTLA4 mutation carriers. METHODS: Genetics, clinical features, laboratory values, and outcomes of treatment options were assessed in a worldwide cohort of CTLA4 mutation carriers. RESULTS: We identified 133 subjects from 54 unrelated families carrying 45 different heterozygous CTLA4 mutations, including 28 previously undescribed mutations. Ninety mutation carriers were considered affected, suggesting a clinical penetrance of at least 67%; median age of onset was 11 years, and the mortality rate within affected mutation carriers was 16% (n = 15). Main clinical manifestations included hypogammaglobulinemia (84%), lymphoproliferation (73%), autoimmune cytopenia (62%), and respiratory (68%), gastrointestinal (59%), or neurological features (29%). Eight affected mutation carriers had lymphoma, and 3 had gastric cancer. An EBV association was found in 6 patients with malignancies. CTLA4 mutations were associated with lymphopenia and decreased T-, B-, and natural killer (NK) cell counts. Successful targeted therapies included application of CTLA-4 fusion proteins, mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. EBV reactivation occurred in 2 affected mutation carriers after immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: Affected mutation carriers with CTLA-4 insufficiency can present in any medical specialty. Family members should be counseled because disease manifestation can occur as late as 50 years of age. EBV- and cytomegalovirus-associated complications must be closely monitored. Treatment interventions should be coordinated in clinical trials.

13.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196848, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to clarify the factors associated with the presentation of erosive esophagitis (EE) symptoms in subjects undergoing health checkups. METHODS: We utilized baseline data from 7,552 subjects who underwent upper endoscopy for health screening in a prospective, multicenter cohort study. The subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire detailing their upper abdominal symptoms and lifestyle. Based on the heartburn and/or acid regurgitation frequency, the EE subjects were stratified into the following three groups: (1) at least one day a week (symptomatic EE [sEE]), (2) less than one day a week (mild symptomatic EE [msEE]), and (3) never (asymptomatic EE [aEE]). Postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) were defined according to the Rome III criteria. RESULTS: Of the 1,262 (16.7%) subjects (male 83.8%, mean age 52.6 years) with EE, the proportions of sEE, msEE and aEE were 15.0%, 37.2% and 47.9%, respectively. The sEE group showed significant associations with overlapping EPS (OR: 58.4, 95% CI: 25.2-160.0), overlapping PDS (OR: 9.96, 95% CI: 3.91-26.8), severe hiatal hernia (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.43-4.05), experiencing high levels of stress (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.43-3.40), atrophic gastritis (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03-2.36) and Los Angeles (LA) grade B or worse (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.12-2.60) in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-sixth of EE subjects were symptomatic. A multifactorial etiology, including factors unrelated to gastric acid secretion, was associated with the symptom presentation of EE subjects.


Assuntos
Esofagite Péptica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Doenças Assintomáticas , Comorbidade , Depressão/epidemiologia , Esofagite Péptica/epidemiologia , Esofagoscopia , Feminino , Gastrite Atrófica/epidemiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/complicações , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Hérnia Hiatal/complicações , Hérnia Hiatal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/complicações , Refluxo Laringofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Período Pós-Prandial , Estudos Prospectivos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Avaliação de Sintomas
14.
Front Immunol ; 9: 568, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675019

RESUMO

Activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, lymphoproliferation, and defective IgG production. Heterozygous mutations in PIK3CD, PIK3R1, or PTEN, which are related to the hyperactive phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, were recently presented to cause APDS1 or APDS2 (APDSs), or APDS-like (APDS-L) disorder. In this study, we examined the AKT phosphorylation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes in patients with APDSs and APDS-L by using flow cytometry. CD19+ B cells of peripheral blood in APDS2 patients showed the enhanced phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473 (pAKT) without any specific stimulation. The enhanced pAKT in CD19+ B cells was normalized by the addition of a p110δ inhibitor. In contrast, CD3+ T cells and CD14+ monocytes did not show the enhanced pAKT in the absence of stimulation. These findings were similarly observed in patients with APDS1 and APDS-L. Among CD19+ B cells, enhanced pAKT was prominently detected in CD10+ immature B cells compared with CD10- mature B cells. Enhanced pAKT was not observed in B cells of healthy controls, patients with common variable immunodeficiency, and hyper IgM syndrome due to CD40L deficiency. These results suggest that the enhanced pAKT in circulating B cells may be useful for the discrimination of APDS1, APDS2, and APDS-L from other antibody deficiencies.

15.
Transfusion ; 58(4): 884-890, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A few cases of primary autoimmune neutropenia (AIN) have been reported in adults, but cyclic primary AIN, which is characterized by the periodic oscillation of neutrophils, is uncommon in adults. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Herein, we report a 70-year-old man referred to our hospital with severe neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. He had experienced intermittent episodes of low-extremity purpura for the past 3 months, with cellulitis on the skin of the scalp 1 month previously. RESULTS: The patient presented with severely low neutrophil and platelet (PLT) counts. Myeloid progenitors and megakaryocytes were increased in the marrow, but mature neutrophils were remarkably decreased. Anti-neutrophil antibodies to specific epitopes were detected at neutropenia. Based on these findings, AIN accompanied by autoimmune thrombocytopenia was diagnosed. The patient experienced synchronous fluctuations of neutrophil and PLT counts three times. Despite no treatment, the neutrophil count fluctuated within the range of 0.06 × 109 to 1.65 × 109 /L, and the PLT count fluctuated from 0.7 × 1010 to 20.5 × 1010 /L. We identified an inverse relationship between neutrophil count and anti-neutrophil antibody titers, establishing the conclusive diagnosis of cyclic AIN. After prednisolone treatment, the neutrophil and PLT counts normalized, and the patient has maintained long-term remission. CONCLUSION: We report a rare case of cyclic AIN diagnosed from the inverse association between periodic oscillation of anti-neutrophil antibody titers and neutrophil counts. This clinical course suggests that in AIN patients, laboratory data and recurrent signs of infection should be monitored regularly, including shortly after neutrophil recovery.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Neutropenia/imunologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/sangue , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Medula Óssea/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Células Mieloides/patologia , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Pioderma/etiologia , Recidiva , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/etiologia
16.
Cell ; 172(5): 952-965.e18, 2018 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474921

RESUMO

Viruses that are typically benign sometimes invade the brainstem in otherwise healthy children. We report bi-allelic DBR1 mutations in unrelated patients from different ethnicities, each of whom had brainstem infection due to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1), influenza virus, or norovirus. DBR1 encodes the only known RNA lariat debranching enzyme. We show that DBR1 expression is ubiquitous, but strongest in the spinal cord and brainstem. We also show that all DBR1 mutant alleles are severely hypomorphic, in terms of expression and function. The fibroblasts of DBR1-mutated patients contain higher RNA lariat levels than control cells, this difference becoming even more marked during HSV1 infection. Finally, we show that the patients' fibroblasts are highly susceptible to HSV1. RNA lariat accumulation and viral susceptibility are rescued by wild-type DBR1. Autosomal recessive, partial DBR1 deficiency underlies viral infection of the brainstem in humans through the disruption of tissue-specific and cell-intrinsic immunity to viruses.

17.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192951, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29447244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association of alcohol intake with the incidence of Barrett's esophagus (BE) has been inconsistent. Although hiatal hernia and male sex are well-known risk factors of BE, its effect on the association of alcohol intake with the incidence of BE remains unknown. AIM: To investigate whether the influence of alcohol intake on the occurrence of BE might differ depending on male sex and presence of hiatal hernia. METHODS: We utilized a database of 8031 patients that underwent upper endoscopy for health screening in a prospective, multicenter, cohort study (the Upper Gastro Intestinal Disease study). The incidence of endoscopic columnar-lined esophagus (eCLE; endoscopically diagnosed BE) was the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between alcohol intake and eCLE stratified by male sex and hiatal hernia, adjusting for clinical features and other potential confounders. RESULTS: Alcohol intake (≥20 g/day) showed a marginally significant association with the incidence of eCLE in participants without hiatal hernia (0 vs. ≥20 g/day; odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-2.85, P = 0.09) but not in participants with hiatal hernia (0 vs. ≥20/day; OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.59-1.65; P = 0.95). Furthermore, alcohol intake (≥20 g/day) was significantly associated with the incidence of eCLE in male participants without hiatal hernia (0 vs. ≥20 g/day; OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.04-4.03; P = 0.04) but not in female participants without hiatal hernia (0 vs. ≥20 g/day; OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.03-2.37; P = 0.42). CONCLUSIONS: The effect of alcohol intake on the incidence of eCLE might be associated with hiatal hernia status and male sex.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Esôfago de Barrett/epidemiologia , Hérnia Hiatal/epidemiologia , Esôfago de Barrett/complicações , Esôfago de Barrett/diagnóstico por imagem , Esofagoscopia , Feminino , Hérnia Hiatal/complicações , Hérnia Hiatal/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(2): 704-717.e5, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28601685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) cause susceptibility to a range of infections, autoimmunity, immune dysregulation, and combined immunodeficiency. Disease manifestations can be mild or severe and life-threatening. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used in some patients with more severe symptoms to treat and cure the disorder. However, the outcome of HSCT for this disorder is not well established. OBJECTIVE: We sought to aggregate the worldwide experience of HSCT in patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations and to assess outcomes, including donor engraftment, overall survival, graft-versus-host disease, and transplant-related complications. METHODS: Data were collected from an international cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations who had undergone HSCT using a variety of conditioning regimens and donor sources. Retrospective data collection allowed the outcome of transplantation to be assessed. In vitro functional testing was performed to confirm that each of the identified STAT1 variants was in fact a GOF mutation. RESULTS: Primary donor engraftment in this cohort of 15 patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations was 74%, and overall survival was only 40%. Secondary graft failure was common (50%), and posttransplantation event-free survival was poor (10% by 100 days). A subset of patients had hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis before transplant, contributing to their poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that HSCT for patients with GOF-STAT1 mutations is curative but has significant risk of secondary graft failure and death.

19.
J Gastroenterol ; 53(3): 438-448, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28744823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis is an independent risk factor for mortality and liver-related events in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PNPLA3 rs738409 has been associated with fibrosis in viral and non-viral hepatitis. TLL1 rs17047200 also has been associated with developing hepatocellular carcinoma probably via hepatic fibrogenesis. We estimated the impact of these genetic polymorphisms on hepatic fibrosis in Japanese patients with NAFLD. METHODS: We analyzed the association between these genetic variants and the backgrounds of 817 individuals who received health checkups (health check cohort) from 2012 to 2014. Then, we investigated the relationship between genetic variants and liver histology in 258 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD in Japan (NAFLD cohort) from 2012 to 2017 (UMIN000027399). RESULTS: The prevalence of PNPLA3 CG/GG in the NAFLD cohort was higher than that in the health check cohort (p < 0.001). The prevalence of patients with advanced fibrosis (stages 3-4) was higher for PNPLA3 genotype CG/GG than CC (p = 0.048) and for TLL1 genotype AT/TT than AA (p = 0.044). The high-risk group which had at least two risk alleles of these variants was more likely to have advanced fibrosis (p = 0.004). Multivariate analysis identified body mass index [odds ratio (OR) 1.123, serum AST (OR 1.037, p = 0.004], serum albumin (OR 0.247, p = 0.032), and genetic high risk (OR 2.632, p = 0.026) as predictors of advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: In Japanese patients with NAFLD, individuals with risk alleles of PNPLA3 and TLL1 may have a risk of advanced fibrosis.

20.
Hinyokika Kiyo ; 64(12): 515-518, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831669

RESUMO

A 54-year-old man was admitted to internal medicine due to unidentified fever persisting for 3 months, and was examined. Then, he was referred to our department for suspected pyelonephritis. Although he was initially being treated for pyelonephritis, right epididymitis occurred during the course of treatment. Antibiotics were ineffective, and symptoms such as weakness and subctaneous nodules also appeared. We performed epididymectomy to differentiate this intractable epididymitis from other systemic diseases. Pathological findings were fibrinoid necrotic vasculitis of middle and small arteries. Of the diagnostic criteria for polyarteritis nodosa, 4 major symptoms and histological findings were satisfied. After we started oral administration of predonin, the fever went down and the creative protein level decreased immediatately.


Assuntos
Epididimite , Poliarterite Nodosa , Pielonefrite , Epididimo , Epididimite/etiologia , Febre , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poliarterite Nodosa/complicações , Poliarterite Nodosa/diagnóstico , Pielonefrite/etiologia
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