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1.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131989, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450366

RESUMO

Thermally enhanced bioremediation is a promising approach to shorten the bioremediation period of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE). To clarify the influence that temperature has on stepwise PCE dechlorination and associated microorganisms, this study conducted dechlorination experiments using contaminated soil and groundwater under five distinct temperature conditions (i.e., 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C). PCE and TCE were dechlorinated most rapidly at 25-35 °C, whereas the preferable temperatures for the dechlorination of cis-1,2- dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) were 25-30 °C and 25 °C, respectively. Microbial community analysis revealed that Sulfurospirillum and Geobacter may have a dominant contribution to the dechlorination of PCE to cis-1,2-DCE, whereas Dehalococcoides harboring VC reductase genes are likely major contributors to the dechlorination of cis-1,2-DCE and VC. These results suggest that temperature influences various microbial groups, including major dechlorinating microorganisms, resulting in the different extent of PCE dechlorination. In addition, the microbial community structure greatly changed after the onset of the experiment, whereas the temperature influence of 15-30 °C on the microbial community structure was minor; however, the microbial community was significantly impacted at 35 °C. Collectively, these results suggest that thermally enhanced anaerobic dechlorination at 25 °C is useful for successful dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes in a short period.


Assuntos
Tetracloroetileno , Tricloroetileno , Cloreto de Vinil , Etilenos , Temperatura
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(42)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635593

RESUMO

The family Reoviridae is a nonenveloped virus group with a double-stranded (ds) RNA genome comprising 9 to 12 segments. In the family Reoviridae, the genera Cardoreovirus, Phytoreovirus, Seadornavirus, Mycoreovirus, and Coltivirus contain virus species having 12-segmented dsRNA genomes. Reverse genetics systems used to generate recombinant infectious viruses are powerful tools for investigating viral gene function and for developing vaccines and therapeutic interventions. Generally, this methodology has been utilized for Reoviridae viruses such as Orthoreovirus, Orbivirus, Cypovirus, and Rotavirus, which have genomes with 10 or 11 segments, respectively. However, no reverse genetics system has been developed for Reoviridae viruses with a genome harboring 12 segments. Herein, we describe development of an entire plasmid-based reverse genetics system for Tarumizu tick virus (TarTV) (genus Coltivirus, family Reoviridae), which has a genome of 12 segments. Recombinant TarTVs were generated by transfection of 12 cloned complementary DNAs encoding the TarTV genome into baby hamster kidney cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase. Using this technology, we generated VP12 mutant viruses and demonstrated that VP12 is an N-glycosylated protein. We also generated a reporter virus expressing the HiBiT-tagged VP8 protein. This reverse genetics system will increase our understanding of not only the biology of the genus Coltivirus but also the replication machinery of the family Reoviridae.

4.
Clin Lab ; 67(10)2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is the most common cause of illness and death in infants and young children worldwide. Rotaviruses (RVs) are the major viruses that cause acute gastroenteritis in young children, especially in developing countries in Asia and Africa. METHODS: The presence of rotavirus antigens in sera of four unvaccinated pediatric patients, aged between 4 and 6 years with severe diarrhea and dehydration, were detected by using three immunochromatographic (IC) kits. In addition, the presence of anti-rotavirus IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies and their concentrations in patient sera were also determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). RESULTS: All three kits could detect rotavirus antigen in patient sera with different intensity of the test lines. When patient sera were pretreated with anti-VP6 rotavirus mouse monoclonal antibody prior to testing, the rotavirus positive test lines disappeared, suggesting that all patient sera contained VP6 protein antigen of rotavirus. Assessment of antibody concentration in these patient sera revealed that all patient sera contained IgG, IgA, and IgM antibodies against rotavirus antigen at different concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of rotavirus protein detection in the patient sera of one IC kit brand was comparable to those of the EIA, suggesting this IC kit could be an alternative screening method for rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite , Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Antígenos Virais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactente , Camundongos , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico
5.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628500

RESUMO

Rotavirus is a leading cause of pediatric diarrheal mortality. The rotavirus outer capsid consists of VP7 and VP4 proteins, which respectively determine viral G and P type and are primary targets of neutralizing antibodies. To elucidate VP7-specific neutralizing antibody responses, we engineered monoreassortant rotaviruses each containing a human VP7 segment from a sequenced clinical specimen or a vaccine strain in an identical genetic background. We quantified replication and neutralization of engineered viruses using sera from infants vaccinated with monovalent ROTARIX® or multivalent RotaTeq® vaccines. Immunization with RotaTeq® induced broader neutralizing antibody responses than ROTARIX®. Inclusion of a single dose of RotaTeq® in the schedule enhanced G-type neutralization breadth of vaccinated infant sera. Cell type-specific differences in infectivity, replication, and neutralization were detected for some monoreassortant viruses. These findings suggest that rotavirus VP7, independent of VP4, can contribute to cell tropism and the breadth of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibody responses.

6.
Int J Hematol ; 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652634

RESUMO

Fludarabine with intravenous busulfan (6.4 mg/kg; FB2) and fludarabine with intermediate-dose melphalan (140 mg/m2; FM140) are the most widely used reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. FM140 generally has a lower relapse rate and higher non-relapse mortality (NRM), resulting in overall survival (OS) comparable to that seen with FB2. To evaluate the effect of reducing the melphalan dose, we retrospectively compared transplant outcomes in 156 patients who received FB2 (n = 103) or FM80 (n = 53) at our center (median age: 63 years; range 27-72 years). All patients received 4-Gy total body irradiation. Three-year OS, the cumulative incidence of relapse, and NRM were comparable between groups (FB2 vs. FM80, 58% vs. 47%, p = 0.24; 30% vs. 36%, p = 0.57; 17% vs. 21%, p = 0.44, respectively). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at day 100, chronic GVHD at 3 years, or the 3-year GVHD-free/relapse-free survival rate. In the high-risk disease group, patients receiving FM80 tended to have lower 3-year OS (FB2 vs. FM80, 48% vs. 17%, p = 0.06). In summary, transplant outcomes following FB2 or FM80 were comparable except in patients with high-risk disease.

7.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(12): 3008-3015, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489555

RESUMO

Myeloablative conditioning with fludarabine/busulfan (Flu/Bu4) prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is effective for acute myeloid leukemia. However, the effectiveness of Flu/Bu4 for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) remains poorly understood. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed nationwide registry data in Japan from 2006 to 2018 and compared transplant outcomes of adult MDS patients receiving Flu/Bu4 and busulfan/cyclophosphamide (Bu4/Cy) using propensity score (PS) matching. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Among 2,482 MDS patients, 153 patients were assigned each to the Flu/Bu4 and Bu4/Cy groups. The 3-year OS rates were 52.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.8-60.8%) and 49.5% (95% CI, 40.8-57.6%) in the Flu/Bu4 and Bu4/Cy group, respectively (P = 0.548). The 3-year progression-free survival (P = 0.858), the cumulative incidence of relapse (P = 0.536), and cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (P = 0.684) were not significantly different between the two groups. According to the findings of subgroup analyses, no patient had a favorable OS when using either of the two regimens. In conclusion, although our PS-matched cohort mainly comprised older patients who had a low hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index and low-risk disease status, Flu/Bu4 could be an alternative to Bu4/Cy for MDS patients prior to allo-HSCT.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(49): 25688-25694, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582075

RESUMO

Perfluorinated covalent triazine frameworks (F-CTFs) have shown unique features and attractive performance in separation and catalysis. However, state-of-the-art F-CTFs synthesized via the ZnCl2 -promoted procedure have quite low fluorine contents due to C-F bond cleavage induced by chloride (a Lewis base) and the harsh conditions deployed (400-700 °C). Fabricating F-CTFs with high fluorine contents (>30 wt %) remains challenging. Herein, we present a low-temperature ionothermal approach (275 °C) to prepare F-CTFs, which is achieved via polymerization of tetrafluoroterephthalonitrile (TFPN) over the Lewis superacids, e.g., zinc triflimide [Zn(NTf2 )2 ] without side reactions. With low catalyst loading (equimolar), F-CTFs are afforded with high fluorine content (31 wt %), surface area up to 367 m2 g-1 , and micropores around 1.1 nm. The highly hydrophobic F-CTF-1 exhibits good capability to boost electroreduction of CO2 to CO, with faradaic efficiency of 95.7 % at -0.8 V and high current density (-141 mA cm-2 ) surpassing most of the metal-free electrocatalysts.

9.
Annu Rev Virol ; 8(1): 515-536, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586868

RESUMO

Reverse genetics systems for viruses, the technology used to generate gene-engineered recombinant viruses from artificial genes, enable the study of the roles of the individual nucleotides and amino acids of viral genes and proteins in infectivity, replication, and pathogenicity. The successful development of a reverse genetics system for poliovirus in 1981 accelerated the establishment of protocols for other RNA viruses important for human health. Despite multiple efforts, rotavirus (RV), which causes severe gastroenteritis in infants, was refractory to reverse genetics analysis, and the first complete reverse genetics system for RV was established in 2017. This novel technique involves use of the fusogenic protein FAST (fusion-associated small transmembrane) derived from the bat-borne Nelson Bay orthoreovirus, which induces massive syncytium formation. Co-transfection of a FAST-expressing plasmid with complementary DNAs encoding RV genes enables rescue of recombinant RV. This review focuses on methodological insights into the reverse genetics system for RV and discusses applications and potential improvements to this system.

10.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372516

RESUMO

Although viruses infect various organs and are associated with diseases, there may be many unidentified pathogenic viruses. The recent development of next-generation sequencing technologies has facilitated the establishment of an environmental viral metagenomic approach targeting the intracellular viral genome. However, an efficient method for the detection of a viral genome derived from an RNA virus in animal or human samples has not been established. Here, we established a method for the efficient detection of RNA viruses in human clinical samples. We then tested the efficiency of the method compared to other conventional methods by using tissue samples collected from 57 recipients of living donor liver transplantations performed between June 2017 and February 2019 at Kyushu University Hospital. The viral read ratio in human clinical samples was higher by the new method than by the other conventional methods. In addition, the new method correctly identified viral RNA from liver tissues infected with hepatitis C virus. This new technique will be an effective tool for intracellular RNA virus surveillance in human clinical samples and may be useful for the detection of new RNA viruses associated with diseases.

11.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440595

RESUMO

High interstitial level of ATP and its lysate adenosine in the cancer microenvironment are considered a halo mark of cancer. Adenosine acts as a strong immune suppressor. However, the source of ATP release is unclear. We clarified the release of ATP via volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs) in breast cell lines using an ATP luminescence imaging system. We detected a slowly rising diffuse pattern of ATP release that was only observed in undifferentiated cells, not in differentiated primary cultured cells. This was confirmed by suppression with DCPIB, a blocker of VRACs, and shRNA for LRRC8A, an indispensable subunit of VRACs. We herein demonstrated that the inflammatory mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which exists abundantly in the cancer microenvironment, induced a diffuse pattern of ATP release isovolumetrically. The response was dose-dependent and suppressed by the knock-down of LRRC8A. It was also suppressed by blockers of S1P receptor 1 and 2 (W146 and JTE013, respectively). RTqPCR demonstrated the prominent presence of S1PR1 and S1PR2 mRNAs. We discussed the roles of S1P-induced ATP release in the cancer microenvironment.

12.
Ann Hematol ; 100(11): 2745-2754, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333665

RESUMO

The Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) is a well-studied simplified frailty screening tool for elderly patients in the oncology setting. We conducted a prospective clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dose-adjusted treatment based on the VES-13 in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). In the Fit group (VES-13 <3), patients were treated with 4 cycles of standard-dose VCD (bortezomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone) followed by 4 cycles of standard-dose VTD (bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone). In the Frail group (VES-13 ≥3), patients were treated with 4 cycles of reduced-dose VCD followed by 4 cycles of reduced-dose VTD. The median age was 75 years (66-86 years), and 34% of the cases were classified as PS 3. Among the Fit group (n=16), the overall response rate (ORR) was 87.5%. Among the Frail group (n=31), the ORR was 87.1%. There were no significant differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between the Fit and Frail groups (3-year PFS: 68.8% vs 53.3%, P = 0.658; 3-year OS: 70.0% vs 77.6%, P = 0.919). Personalized VCD-VTD sequential therapy based on the VES-13 was associated with high response rates and showed acceptable safety in elderly frail patients with MM. The study is registered as UMIN000011235.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Idoso Fragilizado , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bortezomib/administração & dosagem , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Dexametasona/administração & dosagem , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hiponatremia/induzido quimicamente , Japão , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Medicina de Precisão , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Talidomida/administração & dosagem , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(6): 562-569, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has been recommended even for clinical stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In spite of the progress in the screening procedure, and revisions to TNM classification, there is no evidence to support brain imaging screening of patients assessed with the current staging protocol including PET/CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the frequency of extrathoracic metastasis in 466 consecutive patients with clinical stage T1-2 N0 NSCLC with the complete staging assessment comprised of thin-section CT, PET/CT, and brain contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging between 2008 and 2016. All patients were reclassified according to the eighth edition of the tumor, node, and metastasis (TNM) classification. RESULTS: Among all patients, 70% of the tumors were pure solid and 30% had part-solid ground-glass opacity on thin-section CT, and 388 (83%) and 78 (17%) were classified into clinical stages T1 and T2, respectively. Eight patients (1.7%) had extrathoracic metastasis, including 3 (0.6%) with brain metastasis, and all showed pure-solid tumors. The frequency of extrathoracic and brain metastasis was 1.0% and 0.5% in 388 T1 patients, and 5.0% and 3.0% in 78 T2 patients. Although brain metastases were detected in 2 of 7 patients (29%) with PET/CT detectable extrathoracic metastases and 1 of 459 patients (0.2%) without PET/CT detectable extrathoracic metastasis, there were no neurologically asymptomatic brain metastases in patients with early-stage NSCLC confirmed by PET/CT. CONCLUSION: Routine screening of brain imaging is unnecessary in patients with early-stage NSCLC, assessed with the current staging protocol including PET/CT.

14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300550

RESUMO

Recent progress in printable electronics has enabled the fabrication of printed strain sensors for diverse applications. These include the monitoring of civil infrastructure, the gradual aging of which raises concerns about its effective maintenance and safety. Therefore, there is a need for automated sensing systems that provide information on the performance and behavior of engineering structures that are subjected to dynamic and static loads. The application of printed strain sensors in structural health monitoring is of growing interest owing to its large-area and cost-effective fabrication process. Previous studies have proven the suitability of printable strain sensors for dynamic strain measurements on bridges; however, the analysis of the long-term stability of printed sensors during static strain measurements is still lacking. Thus, this study aims to assess the long-term stability of printed strain sensor arrays and their suitability for the static strain analysis of large civil structures. The developed sensors and a dedicated wireless data acquisition system were deployed inside a gravity dam, which was selected as the field test environment. This test environment was chosen owing to the relatively stable temperature inside the dam and the very slow static strain changes associated with periodic water level changes. The results exhibited an average signal drift of 20 µÏµ over 127 days. One of the sensor arrays was installed on a small crack in the dam structure; it showed that the sensors can track static strain changes owing to variations in the crack opening, which are related to the water level changes in the dam. Overall, the results of the developed sensors exhibit good strain sensitivity and low signal drift. This indicates the potential suitability of printed sensors for applications in the static strain analysis of engineering structures.


Assuntos
Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Eletrônica , Temperatura
15.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(11): 2771-2778, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267354

RESUMO

How to select optimal cord blood (CB) remains an important clinical question. We developed and validated an index of CB engraftment, the cord blood index (CBI), which uses three weighted variables representing cell doses and HLA mismatches. We modeled the neutrophil engraftment time with competing events by random survival forests for competing risks as a function of the predictors: total nucleated cells, CD34, colony-forming units for granulocytes/macrophages, and the number of HLA mismatches at the antigen and allele levels. The CBI defined three groups that had different neutrophil engraftment rates at day 30 (High, 83.7% [95% CI, 79.2-88.1%]; Intermediate, 77.0% [95% CI, 73.7-80.2%]; Low, 68.4% [95% CI, 63.6-73.2%]), platelet engraftment rates at day 60 (High, 70.4% [95% CI, 64.9-75.9%]; Intermediate, 62.3% [95% CI, 58.5-66.0%]; Low, 49.3% [95% CI, 44.2-54.5%]), and non-relapse mortality at day 100 (High, 14.1% [95% CI, 9.9-18.3%]; Intermediate, 16.4% [95% CI, 13.5-19.3%]; Low, 21.3% [95% CI, 17.1-25.5%]). This novel approach is clinically beneficial and can be adopted immediately because it uses easily obtained pre-freeze data of CB.

17.
Intern Med ; 60(22): 3615-3620, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092729

RESUMO

A 70-year-old man with multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) was admitted to our hospital with jaundice and ascites. Elevations in his bilirubin and interleukin-6 levels were noted, and computed tomography revealed hepatic atrophy and portal vein and bile duct disorders. Steroid therapy was started for MCD, but he died of hepatic failure. An autopsy revealed that the MCD activity was mild, but advanced fibrosis and cholestasis were observed in the liver. Mild infiltration of interleukin-6-positive plasma cells was noted in the highly fibrotic area of the liver. Although rare, liver and biliary tract damage may be also considered organ disorders of MCD.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante , Icterícia , Falência Hepática , Idoso , Autopsia , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/complicações , Hiperplasia do Linfonodo Gigante/diagnóstico , Humanos , Icterícia/etiologia , Masculino
18.
Acta Haematol ; 144(6): 698-705, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062545

RESUMO

Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is the depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes to <300 cells/mm3 without human immunodeficiency virus infection or other causes of lymphocytopenia. ICL causes fatal infections; its etiology remains unclear and it lacks consensus regarding therapeutic options. We report the first patient with ICL who had a successful clinical course following a cord blood transplant (CBT). A 45-year-old woman was diagnosed with ICL and underwent partial hepatectomy for an abscess caused by the Mycobacterium avium complex. No specific gene alterations were detected through next generation sequencing-based evaluation. Following a reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen consisting of fludarabine, busulfan, and 4 Gy total body irradiation, a single-unit CBT was performed. Neutrophils were engrafted on day +14. CD4+ lymphocyte counts increased to over 300 cells/mm3 on day +436. After 75 months, she was alive without any sequelae. CBT with an RIC regimen could be a curable treatment option for ICL.

19.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1422, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The UICC 8th TNM classification of lung cancer has been changed dramatically, especially in measuring methods of T-desriptors. Different from squamous- or small-cell carcinomas, in which the solid- and the invasive-diameter mostly agree with each other, the diameter of the radiological solid part and that of pathological invasive part in adenocarcinomas often does not match. AIM: We aimed to determine radiological and pathological tumor diameters of pulmonary adenocarcinomas with clinicopathological factors and evaluate the validity of the 8th edition in comparison with the 7th edition. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed clinicopathological factors of 429 patients with surgically resected pulmonary adenocarcinomas. The maximum tumor and their solid-part diameters were measured using thin-sectioned computed tomography and compared with pathological tumor and invasive diameters. Overall survival (OS) rate was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method for different subgroups of clinicopathological factors. Akaike's information criteria (AIC) was used as a discriminative measure for the univariate Cox model for the 7th and 8th editions. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to explore independent prognostic factors. Correlation coefficients between radiological and pathological diameters in the 7th and 8th editions were 0.911 and 0.888, respectively, without a significant difference. The major reasons for the difference in the 8th edition were the presence of intratumoral fibrosis and papillary growth pattern. The weighted kappa coefficients in the 8th edition were superior those in the 7th edition for both the T and Stage classifications. In the univariate Cox model, AIC levels were the lowest in the 8th edition. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, lymphovascular invasion, pT(8th), and stage were the most important determinants for OS. CONCLUSION: The UICC 8th edition is a more discriminative classification than the 7th edition. For subsolid nodules, continuous efforts are necessary to increase the universality of the measurement of solid and invasive diameters.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3726, 2021 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140500

RESUMO

High-throughput, high-accuracy detection of emerging viruses allows for the control of disease outbreaks. Currently, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is currently the most-widely used technology to diagnose the presence of SARS-CoV-2. However, RT-PCR requires the extraction of viral RNA from clinical specimens to obtain high sensitivity. Here, we report a method for detecting novel coronaviruses with high sensitivity by using nanopores together with artificial intelligence, a relatively simple procedure that does not require RNA extraction. Our final platform, which we call the artificially intelligent nanopore, consists of machine learning software on a server, a portable high-speed and high-precision current measuring instrument, and scalable, cost-effective semiconducting nanopore modules. We show that artificially intelligent nanopores are successful in accurately identifying four types of coronaviruses similar in size, HCoV-229E, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva specimen is achieved with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 96% with a 5-minute measurement.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Nanoporos , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/instrumentação , Coronavirus Humano 229E/genética , Desenho de Equipamento/economia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Nanopartículas/química , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Saliva/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Software
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