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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18766, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822744

RESUMO

The anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (APB) are an active component of aquatic microbial communities. While DNA-based studies have delivered a detailed picture of APB diversity, they cannot provide any information on the activity of individual species. Therefore, we focused on the expression of a photosynthetic gene by APB communities in two freshwater lakes (Cep lake and the Rímov Reservoir) in the Czech Republic. First, we analyzed expression levels of pufM during the diel cycle using RT-qPCR. The transcription underwent a strong diel cycle and was inhibited during the day in both lakes. Then, we compared DNA- (total) and RNA-based (active) community composition by sequencing pufM amplicon libraries. We observed large differences in expression activity among different APB phylogroups. While the total APB community in the Rímov Reservoir was dominated by Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria prevailed in the active library. A different situation was encountered in the oligotrophic lake Cep where Betaproteobacteria (order Burkholderiales) dominated both the DNA and RNA libraries. Interestingly, in Cep lake we found smaller amounts of highly active uncultured phototrophic Chloroflexi, as well as phototrophic Gemmatimonadetes. Despite the large diversity of APB communities, light repression of pufM expression seems to be a common feature of all aerobic APB present in the studied lakes.

2.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 64(5): 705-710, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346963

RESUMO

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are a common component of freshwater microbial communities. They harvest light energy using bacteriochlorophyll a-containing reaction centers to supplement their predominantly heterotrophic metabolism. We used epifluorescence microscopy, HPLC, and infrared fluorometry to examine the dynamics of AAP bacteria in the mesotrophic lake Vlkov during the seasonal cycle. The mortality of AAP bacteria was estimated from diel changes of bacteriochlorophyll a fluorescence. The AAP abundance correlated with water temperature and DOC concentration. Its maximum was registered during late summer, when AAP bacteria made up 20% of total bacteria. The novel element of this study is the seasonal measurements of AAP mortality rates. The rates ranged between 1.15 and 4.56 per day with the maxima registered in early summer coinciding with the peak of primary production, which documents that AAP bacteria are a highly active component of freshwater microbial loop.

3.
Photosynth Res ; 142(2): 181-193, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267356

RESUMO

The influence of temperature on photosynthetic reactions was investigated by a combination of time-resolved bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence, steady-state and differential absorption spectroscopy, and polarographic respiration measurements in intact cells of purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. Using variable bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence, it was found that the electron-transport activity increased with the increasing temperature up to 41 °C. The fast and medium components of the fluorescence decay kinetics followed the ideal Arrhenius equation. The calculated activation energy for the fast component was Ea1 = 16 kJ mol-1, while that of the medium component was more than double, with Ea2 = 38 kJ mol-1. At temperatures between 41 and 59 °C, the electron transport was gradually, irreversibly inhibited. Interestingly, the primary charge separation remained fully competent from 20 to 59 °C as documented by both BChl fluorescence and differential absorption spectroscopy of the P870+ signal. At temperatures above 60 °C, the primary photochemistry became reversibly inhibited, which was manifested by an increase in minimal fluorescence, F0, whereas maximal fluorescence, FM, slowly declined. Finally, above 71 °C, the photosynthetic complexes began to disassemble as seen in the decline of all fluorometric parameters and the disappearance of the LH1 absorption band at 880 nm. The extended optimal temperature of photosynthetic reaction centre in a model species of Rhodospirillales adds on the evidence that the good thermostability of the photosynthetic reaction centres is present across all Alphaproteobacteria.

4.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(8): 2208-2217, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273387

RESUMO

In Bacteria, chromosome replication starts at a single origin of replication and proceeds on both replichores. Due to its asymmetric nature, replication influences chromosome structure and gene organization, mutation rate, and expression. To date, little is known about the distribution of highly conserved genes over the bacterial chromosome. Here, we used a set of 101 fully sequenced Rhodobacteraceae representatives to analyze the relationship between conservation of genes within this family and their distance from the origin of replication. Twenty-two of the analyzed species had core genes clustered significantly closer to the origin of replication with representatives of the genus Celeribacter being the most apparent example. Interestingly, there were also eight species with the opposite organization. In particular, Rhodobaca barguzinensis and Loktanella vestfoldensis showed a significant increase of core genes with distance from the origin of replication. The uneven distribution of low-conserved regions is in particular pronounced for genomes in which the halves of one replichore differ in their conserved gene content. Phage integration and horizontal gene transfer partially explain the scattered nature of Rhodobacteraceae genomes. Our findings lay the foundation for a better understanding of bacterial genome evolution and the role of replication therein.

5.
Environ Microbiol ; 21(10): 3896-3908, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299137

RESUMO

Sulphide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis is an ancient microbial metabolism that contributes significantly to inorganic carbon fixation in stratified, sulphidic water bodies. Methods commonly applied to quantify inorganic carbon fixation by anoxygenic phototrophs, however, cannot resolve the contributions of distinct microbial populations to the overall process. We implemented a straightforward workflow, consisting of radioisotope labelling and flow cytometric cell sorting based on the distinct autofluorescence of bacterial photopigments, to discriminate and quantify contributions of co-occurring anoxygenic phototrophic populations to in situ inorganic carbon fixation in environmental samples. This allowed us to assign 89.3% ± 7.6% of daytime inorganic carbon fixation by anoxygenic phototrophs in Lake Rogoznica (Croatia) to an abundant chemocline-dwelling population of green sulphur bacteria (dominated by Chlorobium phaeobacteroides), whereas the co-occurring purple sulphur bacteria (Halochromatium sp.) contributed only 1.8% ± 1.4%. Furthermore, we obtained two metagenome assembled genomes of green sulphur bacteria and one of a purple sulphur bacterium which provides the first genomic insights into the genus Halochromatium, confirming its high metabolic flexibility and physiological potential for mixo- and heterotrophic growth.

6.
Extremophiles ; 23(1): 35-48, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284641

RESUMO

Genotypic and morphological diversity of cyanobacteria in the Rupite hot spring (Bulgaria) was investigated by means of optical microscopy, cultivation, single-cell PCR, and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Altogether, 34 sites were investigated along the 71-39 °C temperature gradient. Analysis of samples from eight representative sites shown that Illumina, optical microscopy, and Roche 454 identified 72, 45 and 19% respective occurrences of all cumulatively present taxa. Optical microscopy failed to detect species of minor occurrence; whereas, amplicon sequencing technologies suffered from failed primer annealing and the presence of species with extensive extracellular polysaccharides production. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V5-V6 region performed by Illumina identified the cyanobacteria most reliably to the generic level. Nevertheless, only the combined use of optical microscopy, cultivation and sequencing methods allowed for reliable estimate of the cyanobacterial diversity. Here, we show that Rupite hot-spring system hosts one of the richest cyanobacterial flora reported from a single site above 50 °C. Chlorogloeopsis sp. was the most abundant at the highest temperature (68 °C), followed by Leptolyngbya boryana, Thermoleptolyngbya albertanoae, Synechococcus bigranulatus, Oculatella sp., and Desertifilum sp. thriving above 60 °C, while Leptolyngbya geysericola, Geitlerinema splendidum, and Cyanobacterium aponinum were found above 50 °C.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/genética , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Microbiota , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/citologia , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
Extremophiles ; 22(6): 839-849, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30022245

RESUMO

Soda lakes, with their high salinity and high pH, pose a very challenging environment for life. Microorganisms living in these harsh conditions have had to adapt their physiology and gene inventory. Therefore, we analyzed the complete genome of the haloalkaliphilic photoheterotrophic bacterium Rhodobaca barguzinensis strain alga05. It consists of a 3,899,419 bp circular chromosome with 3624 predicted coding sequences. In contrast to most of Rhodobacterales, this strain lacks any extrachromosomal elements. To identify the genes responsible for adaptation to high pH, we compared the gene inventory in the alga05 genome with genomes of 17 reference strains belonging to order Rhodobacterales. We found that all haloalkaliphilic strains contain the mrpB gene coding for the B subunit of the MRP Na+/H+ antiporter, while this gene is absent in all non-alkaliphilic strains, which indicates its importance for adaptation to high pH. Further analysis showed that alga05 requires organic carbon sources for growth, but it also contains genes encoding the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway for CO2 fixation. Remarkable is the genetic potential to utilize organophosphorus compounds as a source of phosphorus. In summary, its genetic inventory indicates a large flexibility of the alga05 metabolism, which is advantageous in rapidly changing environmental conditions in soda lakes.


Assuntos
Genoma Bacteriano , Lagos/microbiologia , Rhodobacteraceae/genética , Adaptação Fisiológica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Rhodobacteraceae/fisiologia
8.
ISME J ; 12(11): 2640-2654, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980795

RESUMO

The growth rate is a fundamental characteristic of bacterial species, determining its contributions to the microbial community and carbon flow. High-throughput sequencing can reveal bacterial diversity, but its quantitative inaccuracy precludes estimation of abundances and growth rates from the read numbers. Here, we overcame this limitation by normalizing Illumina-derived amplicon reads using an internal standard: a constant amount of Escherichia coli cells added to samples just before biomass collection. This approach made it possible to reconstruct growth curves for 319 individual OTUs during the grazer-removal experiment conducted in a freshwater reservoir Rímov. The high resolution data signalize significant functional heterogeneity inside the commonly investigated bacterial groups. For instance, many Actinobacterial phylotypes, a group considered to harbor slow-growing defense specialists, grew rapidly upon grazers' removal, demonstrating their considerable importance in carbon flow through food webs, while most Verrucomicrobial phylotypes were particle associated. Such differences indicate distinct life strategies and roles in food webs of specific bacterial phylotypes and groups. The impact of grazers on the specific growth rate distributions supports the hypothesis that bacterivory reduces competition and allows existence of diverse bacterial communities. It suggests that the community changes were driven mainly by abundant, fast, or moderately growing, and not by rare fast growing, phylotypes. We believe amplicon read normalization using internal standard (ARNIS) can shed new light on in situ growth dynamics of both abundant and rare bacteria.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Bactérias/genética , Cadeia Alimentar , Água Doce/microbiologia , Microbiota , Padrões de Referência
9.
ISME J ; 12(8): 1994-2010, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795276

RESUMO

The capacity for anoxygenic photosynthesis is scattered throughout the phylogeny of the Proteobacteria. Their photosynthesis genes are typically located in a so-called photosynthesis gene cluster (PGC). It is unclear (i) whether phototrophy is an ancestral trait that was frequently lost or (ii) whether it was acquired later by horizontal gene transfer. We investigated the evolution of phototrophy in 105 genome-sequenced Rhodobacteraceae and provide the first unequivocal evidence for the horizontal transfer of the PGC. The 33 concatenated core genes of the PGC formed a robust phylogenetic tree and the comparison with single-gene trees demonstrated the dominance of joint evolution. The PGC tree is, however, largely incongruent with the species tree and at least seven transfers of the PGC are required to reconcile both phylogenies. The origin of a derived branch containing the PGC of the model organism Rhodobacter capsulatus correlates with a diagnostic gene replacement of pufC by pufX. The PGC is located on plasmids in six of the analyzed genomes and its DnaA-like replication module was discovered at a conserved central position of the PGC. A scenario of plasmid-borne horizontal transfer of the PGC and its reintegration into the chromosome could explain the current distribution of phototrophy in Rhodobacteraceae.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Fotossíntese , Plasmídeos/genética , Rhodobacteraceae/genética , Replicação do DNA , Genoma Bacteriano , Família Multigênica , Óperon , Processos Fototróficos , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Rhodobacteraceae/classificação , Rhodobacteraceae/metabolismo
10.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 84(1)2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030444

RESUMO

The genus Limnohabitans (Comamonadaceae, Betaproteobacteria) is a common and a highly active component of freshwater bacterioplanktonic communities. To date, the genus has been considered to contain only heterotrophic species. In this study, we detected the photosynthesis genes pufLM and bchY in 28 of 46 strains from three Limnohabitans lineages. The pufM sequences obtained are very closely related to environmental pufM sequences detected in various freshwater habitats, indicating the ubiquity and potential importance of photoheterotrophic Limnohabitans in nature. Additionally, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 5 potentially photoheterotrophic Limnohabitans strains, to gain further insights into their phototrophic capacity. The structure of the photosynthesis gene cluster turned out to be highly conserved within the genus Limnohabitans and also among all potentially photosynthetic Betaproteobacteria strains. The expression of photosynthetic complexes was detected in a culture of Limnohabitans planktonicus II-D5T using spectroscopic and pigment analyses. This was further verified by a novel combination of infrared microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization.IMPORTANCE The data presented document that the capacity to perform anoxygenic photosynthesis is common among the members of the genus Limnohabitans, indicating that they may have a novel role in freshwater habitats.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Comamonadaceae/genética , Genes Bacterianos/fisiologia , Família Multigênica/fisiologia , Fotossíntese/genética , Aerobiose , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Comamonadaceae/metabolismo , Filogenia
11.
Environ Microbiol ; 20(2): 724-733, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159858

RESUMO

Aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria are an important component of marine microbial communities. They produce energy in light using bacteriochlorophyll a containing photosystems. This extra energy provides an advantage over purely heterotrophic bacteria. One of the most intensively studied AAP bacteria is Dinoroseobacter shibae, a member of the environmentally important Roseobacter clade. Light stimulates its growth and metabolism, but the effect of light intensity remains unclear. Here, we show that an increase in biomass along an irradiance gradient followed the exponential rise to the maximum curve, with saturation at about 300 µmol photons m-2 s-1 , without any inhibition at light intensities up to 600 µmol photons m-2 s-1 . The cells adapted to higher irradiance by reducing pigmentation and increasing the electron transfer rate. This additional energy allowed D. shibae to redirect the metabolism of organic carbon sources such as glucose, leucine, glutamate, acetate and pyruvate toward anabolism, resulting in a twofold increase of their assimilation rates. We provide equations that can be feasibly incorporated into the existing model of D. shibae metabolism to further advance our understanding of the role of photoheterotrophy in the ocean.


Assuntos
Bacterioclorofila A/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Roseobacter/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Biomassa , Luz
12.
PLoS Biol ; 15(12): e2003943, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29253871

RESUMO

The majority of life on Earth depends directly or indirectly on the sun as a source of energy. The initial step of photosynthesis is facilitated by light-harvesting complexes, which capture and transfer light energy into the reaction centers (RCs). Here, we analyzed the organization of photosynthetic (PS) complexes in the bacterium G. phototrophica, which so far is the only phototrophic representative of the bacterial phylum Gemmatimonadetes. The isolated complex has a molecular weight of about 800 ± 100 kDa, which is approximately 2 times larger than the core complex of Rhodospirillum rubrum. The complex contains 62.4 ± 4.7 bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a molecules absorbing in 2 distinct infrared absorption bands with maxima at 816 and 868 nm. Using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, we determined the energy transfer time between these spectral bands as 2 ps. Single particle analyses of the purified complexes showed that they were circular structures with an outer diameter of approximately 18 nm and a thickness of 7 nm. Based on the obtained, we propose that the light-harvesting complexes in G. phototrophica form 2 concentric rings surrounding the type 2 RC. The inner ring (corresponding to the B868 absorption band) is composed of 15 subunits and is analogous to the inner light-harvesting complex 1 (LH1) in purple bacteria. The outer ring is composed of 15 more distant BChl dimers with no or slow energy transfer between them, resulting in the B816 absorption band. This completely unique and elegant organization offers good structural stability, as well as high efficiency of light harvesting. Our results reveal that while the PS apparatus of Gemmatimonadetes was acquired via horizontal gene transfer from purple bacteria, it later evolved along its own pathway, devising a new arrangement of its light harvesting complexes.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Filogenia
13.
Mar Environ Res ; 130: 134-141, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760621

RESUMO

The spatial patterns of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs abundances were investigated, for the first time, in the Adriatic Sea. Also, the spatial patterns of the whole picoplankton community as well as the environmental factors that potentially influence these patterns were highlighted. AAP abundances was in average 66.9 ± 66.8 × 103 cell mL-1, and their proportion in total bacteria was 7.3 ± 4.3%. These values are in the upper range of AAP abundances observed in marine environments. Multivariate analyses proved that environmental factors influenced the picoplankton community interdependently. Chl a was the main driving factor for the picoplankton community, accounting for 33.3% of picoplankton community variance, followed by NO2- (17.9% of variance explained) and temperature (14.2% of variance explained). Chl a showed stronger correlation with AAPs, non-pigmented bacteria and Picoeucaryotes than with cyanobacteria. Abundance of cyanobacteria was stronger correlated to salinity and the N:P ratio than to nutrient concentrations.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Temperatura Ambiente , Salinidade , Água do Mar , Microbiologia da Água
14.
Genome Biol Evol ; 9(7): 1950-1962, 2017 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28810712

RESUMO

A characteristic feature of the order Rhodobacterales is the presence of a large number of photoautotrophic and photoheterotrophic species containing bacteriochlorophyll. Interestingly, these phototrophic species are phylogenetically mixed with chemotrophs. To better understand the origin of such variability, we sequenced the genomes of three closely related haloalkaliphilic species, differing in their phototrophic capacity and oxygen preference: the photoheterotrophic and facultatively anaerobic bacterium Rhodobaca barguzinensis, aerobic photoheterotroph Roseinatronobacter thiooxidans, and aerobic heterotrophic bacterium Natronohydrobacter thiooxidans. These three haloalcaliphilic species are phylogenetically related and share many common characteristics with the Rhodobacter species, forming together the Rhodobacter-Rhodobaca (RR) group. A comparative genomic analysis showed close homology of photosynthetic proteins and similarity in photosynthesis gene organization among the investigated phototrophic RR species. On the other hand, Rhodobaca barguzinensis and Roseinatronobacter thiooxidans lack an inorganic carbon fixation pathway and outer light-harvesting genes. This documents the reduction of their photosynthetic machinery towards a mostly photoheterotrophic lifestyle. Moreover, both phototrophic species contain 5-aminolevulinate synthase (encoded by the hemA gene) incorporated into their photosynthesis gene clusters, which seems to be a common feature of all aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria. Interestingly, the chrR-rpoE (sigma24) operon, which is part of singlet oxygen defense in phototrophic species, was found in the heterotrophic strain Natronohydrobacter thiooxidans. This suggests that this organism evolved from a photoheterotrophic ancestor through the loss of its photosynthesis genes. The overall evolution of phototrophy among the haloalkaliphilic members of the RR group is discussed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Evolução Molecular , Processos Fototróficos , Rhodobacter/genética , Aerobiose , Genômica , Luz , Fotossíntese , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
15.
ISME J ; 11(10): 2391-2393, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28534877

RESUMO

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are microorganisms that can harvest light energy using bacteriochlorophyll a to supplement their predominantly organotrophic metabolism. Growth enhancement by light has repeatedly been demonstrated in laboratory experiments with AAP isolates. However, the ecological advantage of light utilization is unclear, as it has never been proven in the natural environment. Here, we conducted manipulation experiments in the NW Mediterranean and found that AAP bacteria display high growth rates which are controlled to a large extent by intense grazing pressure and phosphorous availability. Foremost, we found that, contrarily to the bulk bacterioplakton, AAP bacteria display higher growth rates when incubated under light-dark cycles than in complete darkness. These results represent the first direct evidence that natural populations of marine AAP bacteria can be stimulated by light.


Assuntos
Bactérias Aeróbias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Aeróbias/efeitos da radiação , Bactérias Aeróbias/química , Bactérias Aeróbias/metabolismo , Ecologia , Meio Ambiente , Luz , Oxigênio/análise , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Processos Fototróficos
16.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 9(3): 300-309, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28401694

RESUMO

Estimation of growth rates is crucial to understand the ecological role of prokaryotes and their contribution to marine biogeochemical cycling. However, there are only a few estimates for individual taxa. Two top-down (grazing) and bottom-up (phosphorus (P) availability) manipulation experiments were conducted under different light regimes in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Growth rate of different phylogenetic groups, including the Bacteroidetes, Rhodobacteraceae, SAR11, Gammaproteobacteria and its subgroups Alteromonadaceae and the NOR5/OM60 clade, were estimated from changes in cell numbers. Maximal growth rates were achieved in the P-amended treatments but when comparing values between treatments (response ratios), the response to predation removal was in general larger than to P-amendment. The Alteromonadaceae displayed the highest rates in both experiments followed by the Rhodobacteraceae, but all groups largely responded to filtration and P-amendment, even the SAR11 which presented low growth rates. Comparing light and dark treatments, growth rates were on average equal or higher in the dark than in the light for all groups, except for the Rhodobacteraceae and particularly the NOR5 clade, groups that contain photoheterotrophic species. These results are useful to evaluate the potential contributions of different bacterial types to biogeochemical processes under changing environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Alteromonadaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Luz , Fósforo/metabolismo , Plâncton/microbiologia , Rhodobacteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alteromonadaceae/metabolismo , Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Meio Ambiente , Mar Mediterrâneo , Microbiota/fisiologia , Rhodobacteraceae/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia
18.
Environ Microbiol ; 18(12): 5063-5071, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27485742

RESUMO

Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a -containing organisms which use light energy to supplement their predominantly heterotrophic metabolism. Here, we investigated mortality and growth rates of AAP bacteria in three different freshwater lakes in Central Europe: the mountain lake Plesné, the oligo-mesotrophic Lake Stechlin and the forest pond Huntov. The mortality of AAP bacteria was estimated from diel changes of BChl a fluorescence. Net and gross growth rates were calculated from the increases in AAP cell numbers. The gross growth rates of AAP bacteria ranged from 0.38 to 5.6 d-1 , with the highest values observed during summer months. Simultaneously, the rapidly growing AAP cells have to cope with an intense grazing pressure by both zooplankton and protists. The presented results document that during the day, gross growth usually surpased mortality. Our results indicate that AAP bacteria utilize light energy under natural conditions to maintain rapid growth rates, which are balanced by a generally intense grazing pressure.


Assuntos
Bactérias Aeróbias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lagos/microbiologia , Aerobiose , Bactérias Aeróbias/classificação , Bactérias Aeróbias/genética , Bactérias Aeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Europa (Continente) , Processos Fototróficos , Estações do Ano
19.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(18): 5587-94, 2016 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27401973

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Anoxygenic phototrophs represent an environmentally important and phylogenetically diverse group of organisms. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll-containing reaction centers. Recently, a novel phototrophic bacterium, Gemmatimonas phototrophica, belonging to a rarely studied phylum, Gemmatimonadetes, was isolated from a freshwater lake in the Gobi Desert. To obtain more information about the environmental distribution of phototrophic Gemmatimonadetes, we collected microbial samples from the water column, upper sediment, and deeper anoxic sediment of Lake Taihu, China. MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA, pufM, and bchY genes was carried out to assess the diversity of local phototrophic communities. In addition, we designed new degenerate primers of aerobic cyclase gene acsF, which serves as a convenient marker for both phototrophic Gemmatimonadetes and phototrophic Proteobacteria Our results showed that most of the phototrophic species in Lake Taihu belong to Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria Sequences of green sulfur and green nonsulfur bacteria (phototrophic Chlorobi and Chloroflexi, respectively) were found in the sediment. Using the newly designed primers, we identified a diverse community of phototrophic Gemmatimonadetes forming 30 operational taxonomic units. These species represented 10.5 and 17.3% of the acsF reads in the upper semiaerobic sediment and anoxic sediment, whereas their abundance in the water column was <1%. IMPORTANCE: Photosynthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes on Earth. Recently, the presence of photosynthetic reaction centers has been reported from a rarely studied bacterial phylum, Gemmatimonadetes, but almost nothing is known about the diversity and environmental distribution of these organisms. The newly designed acsF primers were used to identify phototrophic Gemmatimonadetes from planktonic and sediment samples collected in Lake Taihu, China. The Gemmatimonadetes sequences were found mostly in the upper sediments, documenting the preference of Gemmatimonadetes for semiaerobic conditions. Our results also show that the phototrophic Gemmatimonadetes present in Lake Taihu were relatively diverse, encompassing 30 operational taxonomic units.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biota , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Lagos/microbiologia , Bactérias/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , China , Primers do DNA , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(14): 13853-63, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032635

RESUMO

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) are photoheterotrophic prokaryotes that are widespread in many limnic and marine environments. So far, little is known about their distribution in peat-bog lakes. Seventeen peat-bog lakes were sampled during three summer seasons 2009, 2011, and 2012, and the vertical distribution of AAPs was determined by infrared epifluorescence microscopy. The analysis demonstrated that in the surface layers of the studied lakes, AAP abundance ranged from 0.3 to 12.04 × 10(5) cells mL(-1), which represents <1 to 18.3 % of the total bacteria. The vertical distribution of AAPs confirmed their presence in the upper parts of the water column with minimum numbers in the anoxic bottom waters. We have shown that the AAP abundance was significantly positively correlated with the water pH, and the highest proportion of photoheterotrophs was found in peat-bog lakes with a pH between 6.7 and 7.6. Our results demonstrated an influence of water acidity on the abundance of AAPs, which may reflect a fundamental difference in the microbial composition between acidic and pH neutral peat-bog lakes.


Assuntos
Bactérias Aeróbias/fisiologia , Solo , Áreas Alagadas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/microbiologia , Oxigênio , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia da Água
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