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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079286

RESUMO

The sustenance of humans and livestock depends on the protection of the soil. Consequently, the pollution of the soil with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is of great concern to humanity. The objective of this study is to investigate the source apportionment, concentration levels and spatial distribution of PTEs in selected soils in Frýdek-Místek District of the Czech Republic. The total number of soil samples was 70 (topsoil 49 and 21 subsoils) and was analysed using a portable XRF machine. Contamination factor and the pollution index load were used for the assessment and interpreting the pollution and distribution of PTEs in the soils. The inverse distance weighting was used for the spatial evaluation of the PTEs. The results of the analysis showed that the area is composed of low-to-high pollution site. PTEs displayed spatial variation patterns. The average PTE concentration decreases in this Fe > Ti > Ba > Zr > Rb > Sr > Cr > Y>Cu > Ni > Th order for the topsoil and also decreases in this Fe > Ti > Zr > Ba > Rb > Sr > Cr > Y > Cu > Ni > and Th order for the subsoil. These PTEs Cr, Ni, Cu, Rb, Y, Zr, Ba, Th, and Fe were far above the baseline European average value and the World average value level, respectively. The source apportionment showed the dominance of Cr, Ni, Rb, Ti, Th, Zr, Cu, Fe in the topsoil, while the subsoil was dominated by all the PTEs (factor 1 to 6) except Ba. The study concludes that indiscriminate human activities have an enormous effect on soil pollution.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 746: 141134, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768780

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals may enter soils due to the application of treated wastewater or biosolids. Their leakage from soils towards the groundwater, and their uptake by plants is largely controlled by sorption and degradation of those compounds in soils. Standard laboratory batch degradation and sorption experiments were performed using soil samples obtained from the top horizons of seven different soil types and 6 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, irbesartan, fexofenadine, clindamycin and sulfamethoxazole), which were applied either as single-solute solutions or as mixtures (not for sorption). The highest dissipation half-lives were observed for citalopram (average DT50,S for a single compound of 152 ±â€¯53.5 days) followed by carbamazepine (106.0 ±â€¯17.5 days), irbesartan (24.4 ±â€¯3.5 days), fexofenadine (23.5 ±â€¯20.9 days), clindamycin (10.8 ±â€¯4.2 days) and sulfamethoxazole (9.6 ±â€¯2.0 days). The simultaneous application of all compounds increased the half-lives (DT50,M) of all compounds (particularly carbamazepine, citalopram, fexofenadine and irbesartan), which is likely explained by the negative impact of antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and clindamycin) on soil microbial community. However, this trend was not consistent in all soils. In several cases, the DT50,S values were even higher than the DT50,M values. Principal component analyses showed that while knowledge of basic soil properties determines grouping of soils according sorption behavior, knowledge of the microbial community structure could be used to group soils according to the dissipation behavior of tested compounds in these soils. The derived multiple linear regression models for estimating dissipation half-lives (DT50,S) for citalopram, clindamycin, fexofenadine, irbesartan and sulfamethoxazole always included at least one microbial factor (either amount of phosphorus in microbial biomass or microbial biomarkers derived from phospholipid fatty acids) that deceased half-lives (i.e., enhanced dissipations). Equations for citalopram, clindamycin, fexofenadine and sulfamethoxazole included the Freundlich sorption coefficient, which likely increased half-lives (i.e., prolonged dissipations).


Assuntos
Microbiota , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Adsorção , Solo , Sulfametoxazol , Águas Residuárias/análise
3.
J Contam Hydrol ; 234: 103680, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682147

RESUMO

Sorption of pharmaceuticals, which can occur in soils, may differ when present in a soil solution as a single compound or in a solution with other pharmaceuticals. Therefore, the sorption isotherms described by the Freundlich equations were evaluated for 6 compounds, which were applied in solutions of a single pharmaceutical, two pharmaceuticals or all pharmaceuticals to seven soils. Study mainly focused on a behavior of fexofenadine and irbesartan that occurred in soils in 3 forms (cationic, zwitter-ionic or neutral, anionic). Sorption of both compounds slightly increased (in some soils) when applied together, largely increased when applied with carbamazepine (neutral), and extremely increased when applied in solutions with citalopram (strongly sorbed cation), which could be explained by a cooperative multilayer sorption on soil constituents. On the other hand, sorption of both compounds moderately decreased when applied with clindamycin (cation and neutral) or sulfamethoxazole (neutral or anion). The magnitude of an increase or decrease in the Freundlich sorption coefficient (KF) for a particular compound depended on soil conditions, a form of compound's molecule and its interaction with molecules of other compounds. Despite sorption being influenced by other compound(s) in solution, the KF coefficients evaluated for a particular compound under the different conditions were mostly correlated with the same soil properties: KF,CAR with an organic carbon content, KF,CIT and KF,CLI with a base cation saturation, KF,SUL with hydrolytic acidity, and KF,FEX and KF,IRB with sorption complex saturation.

4.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109407, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472377

RESUMO

Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants, which may contain various contaminants including pharmaceuticals, is often used as a soil amendment. These contaminants may subsequently be taken up by plants. In the present study we examined uptake of select pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge applied to soils by spinach plants. Seven soils were amended with sewage sludge from two wastewater treatment plants (A and B). Concentrations of compounds in plant tissues (roots and leaves) of spinach planted 45 days in these soils under greenhouse conditions were evaluated after harvest. The largest bioaccumulation in the roots and leaves was observed for sertraline (bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of 3.3-37.9 and 1-13.4, respectively), tramadol (1.3-10.0 and 4.8-30.0), and carbamazepine (2.2-17.2 and 6.1-48.8) and its metabolite carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide (not-quantified to 7.3 and 9.3-96.7). Elevated bioaccumulation in spinach roots was also identified for telmisartan (3.0-20.3) and miconazole (4.3-15.1), and leaves for metoprolol acid (not-quantified to 24.3). BAF values resulting from application of sludge B were similar to or moderately higher than BAFs from sludge A. The BAF values of carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide in all tissues were negatively correlated with soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). This negative correlation between BAF and CEC was also observed for tramadol (A-roots and B-leaves), citalopram (B-roots), and telmisartan (B-roots) or between BAF and clay content for metoprolol acid (A-leaves and B-roots), tramadol (B-roots and A-leaves) and venlafaxine (B-roots). However, in the case of some other compounds (i.e. sertraline, amitriptyline, mirtazapine, metoprolol), uptake and the subsequent translocation and transformation from 3 soils of a higher pH and base cation saturation (Stagnic Chernozem Siltic, Haplic Chernozem and Greyic Phaeozem) significantly differed from 4 soils with a lower pH and base cation saturation (Haplic Luvisol, Haplic Cambisol, Dystric Cambisol and Arenosol Epieutric). Such observations proved strong compound dependent influences of soil conditions on various compounds bioaccumulations in plants and necessity of studying these processes always in diverse soils.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Esgotos , Spinacia oleracea , Águas Residuárias
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(10): 9876-9891, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734257

RESUMO

Soils can be contaminated by pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of soil conditions (influencing sorption and persistence of pharmaceuticals in soils) and plant type on the root uptake of selected pharmaceuticals and their transformation in plant-soil systems. Four plants (lamb's lettuce, spinach, arugula, radish) planted in 3 soils were irrigated for 20 days (26) with water contaminated by one of 3 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfamethoxazole) or their mixture. The concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in soils and plant tissues were evaluated after the harvest. Sulfamethoxazole and atenolol dissipated rapidly from soils. The larger concentrations of both compounds and an atenolol metabolite were found in roots than in leaves. Sulfamethoxazole metabolites were below the limits of quantifications. Carbamazepine was stable in soils, easily uptaken, accumulated, and metabolized in plant leaves. The efficiency of radish and arugula (both family Brassicaceae) in metabolizing was very low contrary to the high and moderate efficiencies of lamb's lettuce and spinach, respectively. Compounds' transformations mostly masked the soil impact on their accumulation in plant tissues. The negative relationships were found between the carbamazepine sorption coefficients and its concentrations in roots of radish, lamb's lettuce, and spinach.


Assuntos
Atenolol/metabolismo , Carbamazepina/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Sulfametoxazol/metabolismo , Carbamazepina/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raphanus/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 354: 266-274, 2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775953

RESUMO

Adjuvants are used to improve pesticides' performance. It is expected that adjuvants should increase sorption and persistence, as well as decrease mobility of pesticides in soils. Impact of the "Grounded" brand adjuvant on the behaviour of two herbicides, pendimethalin and dimethenamid-P, was investigated in a Haplic Chernozem. Both herbicides were tested in a laboratory batch sorption experiment with and without adjuvant. The sorption experiment showed that adjuvant negligibly increased dimethenamid-P sorption (KF = 2.12 and 2.15 cm3/n µg1 - 1/n g-1) but significantly increased pendimethalin sorption (KF = 270.1 and 3096.4 cm3/n µg1 - 1/n g-1). In field conditions, both herbicides were retained mainly in the topsoil layer (0-5 cm). The pendimethalin dissipation half-lives were similar for all treatments (ranging from 43.0 to 44.6 days) and were not influenced by either irrigation (p = 0.86) or adjuvant (p = 0.9). The dimethenamid-P dissipation half-lives ranged from 8.8 days for irrigated treatment without adjuvant to 12.9 days for non-irrigated treatment with adjuvant. Dimethenamid-P dissipation half-life in treatments with adjuvant was significantly longer (p = 0.049) than was half-life in a treatment without adjuvant. Significantly longer dissipation half-life was observed also in non-irrigated treatments than in irrigated treatments (p = 0.044).

7.
Chemosphere ; 195: 615-623, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29287270

RESUMO

The sorption of 3 pharmaceuticals, which may exist in 4 different forms depending on the solution pH (irbesartan in cationic, neutral and anionic, fexofenadine in cationic, zwitter-ionic and anionic, and citalopram cationic and neutral), in seven different soils was studied. The measured sorption isotherms were described by Freundlich equations, and the sorption coefficients, KF (for the fixed n exponent for each compound), were related to the soil properties to derive relationships for estimating the sorption coefficients from the soil properties (i.e., pedotransfer rules). The largest sorption was obtained for citalopram (average KF value for n = 1 was 1838 cm3 g-1) followed by fexofenadine (KF = 35.1 cm3/n µg1-1/n g-1, n = 1.19) and irbesartan (KF = 3.96 cm3/n µg1-1/n g-1, n = 1.10). The behavior of citalopram (CIT) in soils was different than the behaviors of irbesartan (IRB) and fexofenadine (FEX). Different trends were documented according to the correlation coefficients between the KF values for different compounds (RIRB,FEX = 0.895, p-value<0.01; RIRB,CIT = -0.835, p-value<0.05; RFEX,CIT = -0.759, p-value<0.05) and by the reverse relationships between the KF values and soil properties in the pedotransfer functions. While the KF value for citalopram was positively related to base cation saturation (BCS) or sorption complex saturation (SCS) and negatively correlated to the organic carbon content (Cox), the KF values of irbesartan and fexofenadine were negatively related to BCS, SCS or the clay content and positively related to Cox. The best estimates were obtained by combining BCS and Cox for citalopram (R2 = 93.4), SCS and Cox for irbesartan (R2 = 96.3), and clay content and Cox for fexofenadine (R2 = 82.9).


Assuntos
Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Citalopram/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Terfenadina/análogos & derivados , Tetrazóis/metabolismo , Adsorção/fisiologia , Agricultura , Silicatos de Alumínio/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/análise , Citalopram/análise , Argila , Irbesartana , Solo/química , Terfenadina/análise , Terfenadina/metabolismo , Tetrazóis/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Águas Residuárias/química
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 73(5): 1024-1030, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27558779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a crop that is very sensitive to herbicide contamination owing to its short growing season. The use of long-residual herbicides and non-woven fabric coverings could therefore influence pendimethalin concentrations in soil and lettuce. RESULTS: The pendimethalin half-life in soil ranged between 18 and 85 days and was mainly affected by season (i.e. weather), and especially by soil moisture. Pendimethalin degradation in soil was slowest under dry conditions. A longer pendimethalin half-life was observed under the non-woven fabric treatment, but the effect of varying application rate was not significant. Pendimethalin residue concentrations in lettuce heads were significantly influenced by pendimethalin application rate and by non-woven fabric cover, especially at the lettuce's early growth stages. The highest pendimethalin concentration at final harvest was determined in lettuce grown on uncovered plots treated with pendimethalin at an application rate of 1200 g ha-1 (7-38 µg kg-1 ). Depending on growing season duration and weather conditions, pendimethalin concentrations in lettuce grown under non-woven fabric ranged from 0 to 21 µg kg-1 . CONCLUSION: Use of transparent non-woven fabric cover with lettuce can help to reduce application rates of soil herbicides and diminish the risk of herbicide contamination in the harvested vegetables. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/análise , Alface/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Solo/química , Têxteis
9.
Environ Pollut ; 218: 563-573, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27460901

RESUMO

Soils may be contaminated by human or veterinary pharmaceuticals. Their behaviour in soil environment is largely controlled by sorption of different compounds in a soil solution onto soil constituents. Here we studied the sorption affinities of 4 pharmaceuticals (atenolol, trimethoprim, carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole) applied in solute mixtures to soils taken from different horizons of 3 soil types (Greyic Phaeozem on loess, Haplic Luvisol on loess and Haplic Cambisol on gneiss). In the case of the carbamazepine (neutral form) and sulfamethoxazole (partly negatively charged and neutral), sorption affinity of compounds decreased with soil depth, i.e. decreased with soil organic matter content. On the other hand, in the case of atenolol (positively charged) and trimethoprim (partly positively charged and neutral) compound sorption affinity was not depth dependent. Compound sorption affinities in the four-solute systems were compared with those experimentally assessed in topsoils, and were estimated using the pedotransfer rules proposed in our previous study for single-solute systems. While sorption affinities of trimethoprim and carbamazepine in topsoils decreased slightly, sorption affinity of sulfamethoxazole increased. Decreases in sorption of the two compounds could be attributed to their competition between each other and competition with atenolol. Differences between carbamazepine and atenolol behaviour in the one- and four-solute systems could also be explained by the slightly different soil properties in this and our previous study. A great increase of sulfamethoxazole sorption in the Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Luvisol was observed, which was attributed to elimination of repulsion between negatively charged molecules and particle surfaces due to cation sorption (atenolol and trimethoprim) on soil particles. Thus, our results proved not only an antagonistic but also a synergic affect of differently charged organic molecules on their sorption to soil constituents.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Adsorção , Atenolol/análise , Carbamazepina/análise , Íons , Sulfametoxazol/análise , Trimetoprima/análise
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 544: 369-81, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657382

RESUMO

The presence of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment is recognized as a potential threat. Pharmaceuticals have the potential to contaminate soils and consequently surface and groundwater. Knowledge of contaminant behavior (e.g., sorption onto soil particles and degradation) is essential when assessing contaminant migration in the soil and groundwater environment. We evaluated the dissipation half-lives of 7 pharmaceuticals in 13 soils. The data were evaluated relative to the soil properties and the Freundlich sorption coefficients reported in our previous study. Of the tested pharmaceuticals, carbamazepine had the greatest persistence (which was mostly stable), followed by clarithromycin, trimethoprim, metoprolol, clindamycin, sulfamethoxazole and atenolol. Pharmaceutical persistence in soils was mostly dependent on the soil-type conditions. In general, lower average dissipation half-lives and variability (i.e., trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, metoprolol and atenolol) were found in soils of better quality (well-developed structure, high nutrition content etc.), and thus, probably better microbial conditions (i.e., Chernozems), than in lower quality soil (Cambisols). The impact of the compound sorption affinity onto soil particles on their dissipation rate was mostly negligible. Although there was a positive correlation between compound dissipation half-life and Freundlich sorption coefficient for clindamycin (R=0.604, p<0.05) and sulfamethoxazole (R=0.822, p<0.01), the half-life of sulfamethoxazole also decreased under better soil-type conditions. Based on the calculated dissipation and sorption data, carbamazepine would be expected to have the greatest potential to migrate in the soil water environment, followed by sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim and metoprolol. The transport of clindamycin, clarithromycin and atenolol through the vadose zone seems less probable.


Assuntos
Modelos Químicos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbamazepina/análise , Meia-Vida , Sulfametoxazol/análise , Trimetoprima/análise
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 511: 435-43, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25569579

RESUMO

Transport of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals in soils and consequent ground-water contamination are influenced by many factors, including compound sorption on soil particles. Here we evaluate the sorption isotherms for 7 pharmaceuticals on 13 soils, described by Freundlich equations, and assess the impact of soil properties on various pharmaceuticals' sorption on soils. Sorption of ionizable pharmaceuticals was, in many cases, highly affected by soil pH. The sorption coefficient of sulfamethoxazole was negatively correlated to soil pH, and thus positively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity. Sorption coefficients for clindamycin and clarithromycin were positively related to soil pH and thus negatively related to hydrolytic acidity and exchangeable acidity, and positively related to base cation saturation. The sorption coefficients for the remaining pharmaceuticals (trimethoprim, metoprolol, atenolol, and carbamazepine) were also positively correlated with the base cation saturation and cation exchange capacity. Positive correlations between sorption coefficients and clay content were found for clindamycin, clarithromycin, atenolol, and metoprolol. Positive correlations between sorption coefficients and organic carbon content were obtained for trimethoprim and carbamazepine. Pedotransfer rules for predicting sorption coefficients of various pharmaceuticals included hydrolytic acidity (sulfamethoxazole), organic carbon content (trimethoprimand carbamazepine), base cation saturation (atenolol and metoprolol), exchangeable acidity and clay content (clindamycin), and soil active pH and clay content (clarithromycin). Pedotransfer rules, predicting the Freundlich sorption coefficients, could be applied for prediction of pharmaceutical mobility in soils with similar soil properties. Predicted sorption coefficients together with pharmaceutical half-lives and other imputes (e.g., soil-hydraulic, geological, hydro-geological, climatic) may be used for assessing potential ground-water contamination.


Assuntos
Absorção Fisico-Química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Modelos Químicos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 186(1): 540-50, 2011 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21144657

RESUMO

Study was focused on the evaluation of pesticide adsorption in soils, as one of the parameters, which are necessary to know when assessing possible groundwater contamination caused by pesticides commonly used in agriculture. Batch sorption tests were performed for 11 selected pesticides and 13 representative soils. The Freundlich equations were used to describe adsorption isotherms. Multiple-linear regressions were used to predict the Freundlich adsorption coefficients from measured soil properties. Resulting functions and a soil map of the Czech Republic were used to generate maps of the coefficient distribution. The multiple linear regressions showed that the K(F) coefficient depended on: (a) combination of OM (organic matter content), pH(KCl) and CEC (cation exchange capacity), or OM, SCS (sorption complex saturation) and salinity (terbuthylazine), (b) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM, SCS and salinity (prometryne), (c) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM and ρ(z) (metribuzin), (d) combination of OM, CEC and clay content, or clay content, CEC and salinity (hexazinone), (e) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM and SCS (metolachlor), (f) OM or combination of OM and CaCO(3) (chlorotoluron), (g) OM (azoxystrobin), (h) combination of OM and pH(KCl) (trifluralin), (i) combination of OM and clay content (fipronil), (j) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM, pH(KCl) and CaCO(3) (thiacloprid), (k) combination of OM, pH(KCl) and CEC, or sand content, pH(KCl) and salinity (chlormequat chloride).


Assuntos
Praguicidas/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Adsorção , Termodinâmica
13.
J Contam Hydrol ; 104(1-4): 107-25, 2009 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19062128

RESUMO

When soil structure varies in different soil types and the horizons of these soil types, it has a significant impact on water flow and contaminant transport in soils. This paper focuses on the effect of soil structure variations on the transport of pesticides in the soil above the water table. Transport of a pesticide (chlorotoluron) initially applied on soil columns taken from various horizons of three different soil types (Haplic Luvisol, Greyic Phaeozem and Haplic Cambisol) was studied using two scenarios of ponding infiltration. The highest infiltration rate and pesticide mobility were observed for the Bt(1) horizon of Haplic Luvisol that exhibited a well-developed prismatic structure. The lowest infiltration rate was measured for the Bw horizon of Haplic Cambisol, which had a poorly developed soil structure and a low fraction of large capillary pores and gravitational pores. Water infiltration rates were reduced during the experiments by a soil structure breakdown, swelling of clay and/or air entrapped in soil samples. The largest soil structure breakdown and infiltration decrease was observed for the Ap horizon of Haplic Luvisol due to the low aggregate stability of the initially well-aggregated soil. Single-porosity and dual-permeability (with matrix and macropore domains) flow models in HYDRUS-1D were used to estimate soil hydraulic parameters via numerical inversion using data from the first infiltration experiment. A fraction of the macropore domain in the dual-permeability model was estimated using the micro-morphological images. Final soil hydraulic parameters determined using the single-porosity and dual-permeability models were subsequently used to optimize solute transport parameters. To improve numerical inversion results, the two-site sorption model was also applied. Although structural changes observed during the experiment affected water flow and solute transport, the dual-permeability model together with the two-site sorption model proved to be able to approximate experimental data.


Assuntos
Solo , Movimentos da Água , Filtração , Porosidade , Pressão
14.
J Inorg Biochem ; 97(1): 8-15, 2003 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14507455

RESUMO

Labile Al forms and species can be a threat in acid soils due to their potential toxicity to plants. However, there is no universally accepted extraction method. Several extraction reagents for Al release from soil have been tested. KCl (0.5 or 1 M) is recommended for extraction of exchangeable Al, while 0.5 or 0.3 M CuCl(2) is suggested for extraction of 'weakly organically bound Al'. Both 0.1 and 0.05 M Na(4)P(2)O(7) are shown to be suitable for the extraction of 'total organically bound Al'. These extractions are relatively simple, robust, and applicable to different soils and soil horizons. In the second part of the paper, detailed speciation of exchangeable soil Al by means of an HPLC instrument equipped with an ion column (IC) is presented. An experimental set-up is described and tested on a set of samples. Interpretation of the speciation results is proposed, based on the separation of Al ions and Al complexes according to their charge. Speciation is shown to be dependent mainly on soil pH and organic matter quality. A general scheme of Al fractionation and speciation in soil is proposed.


Assuntos
Alumínio/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Árvores , Alumínio/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cobre/química , Difosfatos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cloreto de Potássio/química
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