Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 150
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 752640, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805308

RESUMO

Rationale: Regular active exercise is considered therapeutic for cardiovascular disease, in part by increasing mitochondrial respiratory capacity, but a significant amount of exercise capacity is determined genetically. Animal models, demonstrating either high capacity aerobic running (HCR) or low capacity aerobic running (LCR) phenotypes, have been developed to study the intrinsic contribution, with HCR rats subsequently characterized as "disease resistant" and the LCRs as "disease prone." Enhanced cardioprotection in HCRs has been variable and mutifactoral, but likely includes a metabolic component. These studies were conducted to determine the influence of intrinsic aerobic phenotype on cardiac mitochondrial function before and after ischemia and reperfusion. Methods: A total of 34 HCR and LCR rats were obtained from the parent colony at the University of Toledo, housed under sedentary conditions, and fed normal chow. LCR and HCR animals were randomly assigned to either control or ischemia-reperfusion (IR). On each study day, one HCR/LCR pair was anesthetized, and hearts were rapidly excised. In IR animals, the hearts were immediately flushed with iced hyperkalemic, hyperosmotic, cardioplegia solution, and subjected to global hypothermic ischemic arrest (80 min). Following the arrest, the hearts underwent warm reperfusion (120 min) using a Langendorff perfusion system. Following reperfusion, the heart was weighed and the left ventricle (LV) was isolated. A midventricular ring was obtained to estimate infarction size [triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC)] and part of the remaining tissue (~150 mg) was transferred to a homogenation buffer on ice. Isolated mitochondria (MITO) samples were prepared and used to determine respiratory capacity under different metabolic conditions. In control animals, MITO were obtained and prepared similarly immediately following anesthesia and heart removal, but without IR. Results: In the control rats, both resting and maximally stimulated respiratory rates were higher (32 and 40%, respectively; p < 0.05) in HCR mitochondria compared to LCR. After IR, resting MITO respiratory rates were decreased to about 10% of control in both strains, and the augmented capacity in HCRs was absent. Maximally stimulated rates also were decreased more than 50% from control and were no longer different between phenotypes. Ca++ retention capacity and infarct size were not significantly different between HCR and LCR (49.2 ± 5.6 vs. 53.7 ± 4.9%), nor was average coronary flow during reperfusion or arrhythmogenesis. There was a significant loss of mitochondria following IR, which was coupled with decreased function in the remaining mitochondria in both strains. Conclusion: Cardiac mitochondrial capacity from HCR was significantly higher than LCR in the controls under each condition. After IR insult, the cardiac mitochondrial respiratory rates were similar between phenotypes, as was Ca++ retention capacity, infarct size, and arrhythmogenicity, despite the increased mitochondrial capacity in the HCRs before ischemia. Relatively, the loss of respiratory capacity was actually greater in HCR than LCR. These data could suggest limits in the extent to which the HCR phenotype might be "protective" against acute tissue stressors. The extent to which any of these deficits could be "rescued" by adding an active exercise component to the intrinsic phenotype is unknown.

2.
J Alzheimers Dis Rep ; 5(1): 469-475, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368631

RESUMO

Background: Aerobic capacity is associated with metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurological health. Low-capacity runner (LCR) rats display low aerobic capacity, metabolic dysfuction, and spatial memory deficits. A heat treatment (HT) can improve metabolic dysfunction in LCR peripheral organs after high fat diet (HFD). Little is known about metabolic changes in the brains of these rats following HT. Objective: Our objective was to examine the extent to which high or low aerobic capacity impacts Akt (a protein marker of metabolism) and heat shock protein 72 (HSP72, a marker of heat shock response) after HFD and HT in hippocampus. Methods: We measured phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) in the striatum and hippocampus, and HSP72 in the hippocampus, of HFD-fed and chow-fed LCR and high-capacity runner (HCR) rats with and without HT. Results: pAkt was lower in the hippocampus of chow-fed LCR than HCR rats. HFD resulted in greater pAkt in LCR but not HCR rats, but HT resulted in lower pAkt in the LCR HFD group. HSP72 was greater in both HCR and LCR rat hippocampus after HT. The HFD blunted this effect in LCR compared to HCR hippocampus. Conclusion: The abnormal phosphorylation of Akt and diminished HSP response in the hippocampus of young adult LCR rats might indicate early vulnerability to metabolic challenges in this key brain region associated with learning and memory.

3.
Brain Behav Immun ; 97: 250-259, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34224822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows obesity and poor metabolic health are associated with cognitive deficits, but the mechanistic connections have yet to be resolved. We studied rats selectively bred for low and high intrinsic aerobic capacity in order to test the association between low physical fitness, a genetic predisposition for obesity, and brain health. We hypothesized that low-capacity runner (LCR) rats with concurrently greater levels of adiposity would have increased hippocampal inflammation and reduced plasticity compared to the more physically fit high-capacity runner (HCR) rats. METHODS: We examined markers for inflammation and brain plasticity in the hippocampi of LCR rats and compared them to HCR rats. The effect of age was determined by studying the rats at a young age (8 weeks) and later in life (40 weeks). We used western blots and immunohistochemistry to quantify the expression of target proteins. RESULTS: Our study showed that the number of adult-born new neurons in the hippocampus was significantly lower in LCR rats than it was in HCR rats already at a young age and that the difference became more pronounced with age. The expression of synaptic proteins was higher in young animals relative to older ones. Brain inflammation tended to be higher in LCR rats than it was in the HCR rats, and more prominent in older rats than in young ones. CONCLUSION: Our study is the first to demonstrate that low intrinsic aerobic fitness that is associated with obesity and poor metabolic health is also linked with reduced hippocampal structural plasticity at a young age. Our results also suggest that inflammation of the brain could be one factor mediating the link between obesity and poor cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Encefalite , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Adiposidade , Animais , Tolerância ao Exercício , Hipocampo , Obesidade/complicações , Ratos
4.
Physiol Genomics ; 53(9): 395-405, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297615

RESUMO

Aerobic exercise capacity is inversely related to morbidity and mortality as well as to insulin resistance. However, exercising in patients has led to conflicting results, presumably because aerobic exercise capacity consists of intrinsic (genetically determined) and extrinsic (environmentally determined) parts. The contribution of both parts to insulin sensitivity is also not clear. We investigated sedentary and exercised (aerobic interval training) high-capacity runners (HCR) and low-capacity runners (LCR) differing in their genetically determined aerobic exercise capacity to determine the contribution of both parts to insulin sensitivity. LCR and HCR differed in their untrained exercise capacity and body weight. Sedentary LCR displayed a diabetic phenotype with higher random glucose, lower glucose infusion rate during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping than HCR. Echocardiography showed equal morphological and functional parameters and no change with exercise. Four week of exercise caused significant improvements in aerobic exercise capacity, which was more pronounced in LCR. However, with respect to glucose use, exercise affected HCR only. In these animals, exercise increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake in gastrocnemius (+58.5%, P = 0.1) and in epididymal fat (+106%; P < 0.05). Citrate synthase activity also increased in these tissues (gastrocnemius 69% epididymal fat 63%). In our model of HCR and LCR, genetic predisposition for low exercise capacity is associated with impaired insulin sensitivity and impedes exercise-induced improvements in insulin response. Our results suggest that genetic predisposition for low aerobic exercise capacity impairs insulin response, which may not be overcome by exercise.

5.
Exp Physiol ; 106(8): 1731-1742, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086376

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How does intrinsic aerobic capacity impact weight loss with 50% daily caloric restriction and alternate-day fasting? What is the main finding and its importance? Intermittent fasting is effective for weight loss in rats with low fitness, which highlights the importance of how intermittent fasting interacts with aerobic fitness. ABSTRACT: Recent interest has focused on the benefits of time-restricted feeding strategies, including intermittent fasting, for weight loss. It is not yet known whether intermittent fasting is more effective than daily caloric restriction at stimulating weight loss and how each is subject to individual differences. Here, rat models of leanness and obesity, artificially selected for intrinsically high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity, were subjected to intermittent fasting and 50% calorie restrictive diets in two separate experiments using male rats. The lean, high-fitness HCR and obesity-prone, low-fitness LCR rats underwent 50% caloric restriction while body weight and composition were monitored. The low-fitness LCR rats were better able to retain lean mass than the high-fitness HCR rats, without significantly different proportional loss of weight or fat. In a separate experiment using intermittent fasting in male HCR and LCR rats, alternate-day fasting induced significantly greater loss of weight and fat mass in LCR compared with HCR rats, although the HCR rats had a more marked reduction in ad libitum daily food intake. Altogether, this suggests that intermittent fasting is an effective weight-loss strategy for those with low intrinsic aerobic fitness; however, direct comparison of caloric restriction and intermittent fasting is warranted to determine any differential effects on energy expenditure in lean and obesity-prone phenotypes.

6.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 645881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177798

RESUMO

Introduction: Assuming myokines underlie some of the health benefits of exercise, we hypothesised that 'high responder trainer' (HRT) rats would exhibit distinct myokine profiles to 'low responder trainers' (LRT), reflecting distinct health and adaptive traits. Methods: Blood was collected from LRT and HRT (N=8) rats at baseline (BL), immediately (0h), 1h, and 3h after running; repeated after 3-wks training. Myokines were analysed by ELISA (i.e. BDNF/Fractalkine/SPARC/Irisin/FGF21/Musclin/IL-6). Results: At baseline, Musclin (LRT: 84 ± 24 vs HRT: 26 ± 3 pg/ml, P=0.05) and FGF21 (LRT: 133 ± 34 vs HRT: 63.5 ± 13 pg/ml, P=0.08) were higher in LRT than HRT. Training increased Musclin in HRT (26 ± 3 to 54 ± 9 pg/ml, P<0.05) and decreased FGF21 in LRT (133 ± 34 to 60 ± 28 pg/ml, P<0.05). Training increased SPARC (LRT: 0.8 ± 0.1 to 2.1 ± 0.6 ng/ml, P<0.05; HRT: 0.7 ± 0.06 to 1.8 ± 0.3 ng/ml, P=0.06) and Irisin (LRT 0.62 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.4 ng/ml, P<0.01; HRT 0.53 ± 0.1 to 2.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml, P<0.01) while decreasing BDNF (LRT: 2747 ± 293 to 1081 ± 330 pg/ml, P<0.01; HRT: 1976 ± 328 to 797 ± 160 pg/ml, P<0.05). Acute exercise response of Musclin (AUC) was higher in LRT vs HRT (306 ± 74 vs. 88 ± 12 pg/ml×3h-1, P<0.01) and elevated in HRT after training (221 ± 31 pg/ml×3h-1, P<0.01). Training elevated SPARC (LRT: 2.4 ± 0.1 to 7.7 ± 1.3 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.05; HRT: 2.5 ± 0.13 to 11.2 ± 2.2 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.001) and Irisin (LRT: 1.34 ± 0.3 to 9.6 ± 1.7 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.001; HRT: 1.5 ± 0.5 to 12.1 ± 1.9 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.0001). Conclusion: Exercise training alters how myokines are secreted in response to acute exercise. Myokine responses were not robustly linked to adaptive potential in aerobic capacity, making them an unlikely regulator of adaptive traits.

7.
Geroscience ; 43(6): 2679-2691, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089174

RESUMO

Aerobic capacity is a strong predictor of longevity. With aging, aerobic capacity decreases concomitantly with changes in whole body metabolism leading to increased disease risk. To address the role of aerobic capacity, aging, and their interaction on metabolism, we utilized rat models selectively bred for low and high intrinsic aerobic capacity (LCRs/HCRs) and compared the metabolomics of serum, muscle, and white adipose tissue (WAT) at two time points: Young rats were sacrificed at 9 months of age, and old rats were sacrificed at 21 months of age. Targeted and semi-quantitative metabolomics analysis was performed on the ultra-pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) platform. The effects of aerobic capacity, aging, and their interaction were studied via regression analysis. Our results showed that high aerobic capacity is associated with an accumulation of isovalerylcarnitine in muscle and serum at rest, which is likely due to more efficient leucine catabolism in muscle. With aging, several amino acids were downregulated in muscle, indicating more efficient amino acid metabolism, whereas in WAT less efficient amino acid metabolism and decreased mitochondrial ß-oxidation were observed. Our results further revealed that high aerobic capacity and aging interactively affect lipid metabolism in muscle and WAT, possibly combating unfavorable aging-related changes in whole body metabolism. Our results highlight the significant role of WAT metabolism for healthy aging.

8.
Physiol Rep ; 9(10): e14799, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042295

RESUMO

The development of safe and practical strategies to prevent weakening of bone tissue is vital, yet attempts to achieve this have been hindered by a lack of understanding of the short-term (days-weeks) physiology of bone collagen turnover. To address this, we have developed a method to quantify bone collagen synthesis in vivo, using deuterium oxide (D2 O) tracer incorporation techniques combined with gas chromatography pyrolysis isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-pyrolysis-IRMS). Forty-six male and female rats from a selectively bred model ingested D2 O for 3 weeks. Femur diaphyses (FEM), tibia proximal (T-PRO), and distal (T-DIS) epiphyses-metaphyses and tibia mid-shaft diaphyses (T-MID) were obtained from all rats after necropsy. After demineralisation, collagen proteins were isolated and hydrolysed and collagen fractional synthetic rates (FSRs) determined by incorporation of deuterium into protein-bound alanine via GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. The collagen FSR for the FEM (0.131 ± 0.078%/day; 95% CI [0.106-0.156]) was greater than the FSR at T-MID (0.055 ± 0.049%/day; 95% CI [0.040-0.070]; p < 0.001). The T-PRO site had the highest FSR (0.203 ± 0.123%/day; 95% CI [0.166-0.241]) and T-DIS the lowest (0.027 ± 0.015%/day; 95% CI [0.022-0.031]). The three tibial sites exhibited different FSRs (p < 0.001). Herein, we have developed a sensitive method to quantify in vivo bone collagen synthesis and identified site-specific rates of synthesis, which could be applicable to studies of human bone collagen turnover.

9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925787

RESUMO

Low aerobic capacity is considered to be a risk factor for stroke, while the mechanisms underlying the phenomenon are still unclear. The current study looked into the impacts of different aerobic capacities on early brain injury in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model using rats bred for high and low aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR; low-capacity runners, LCR). SAH was modeled with endovascular perforation in HCR and LCR rats. Twenty-four hours after SAH, the rats underwent behavioral testing and MRI, and were then euthanized. The brains were used to investigate ventricular wall damage, blood-brain barrier breakdown, oxidative stress, and hemoglobin scavenging. The LCR rats had worse SAH grades (p < 0.01), ventricular dilatation (p < 0.01), ventricular wall damage (p < 0.01), and behavioral scores (p < 0.01). The periventricular expression of HO-1 and CD163 was significantly increased in LCR rats (p < 0.01 each). CD163-positive cells were co-localized with HO-1-positive cells. The LCR rats had greater early brain injuries than HCR rats. The LCR rats had more serious SAH and extensive ventricular wall damage that evolved more frequently into hydrocephalus. This may reflect changes in iron handling and neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Hidrocefalia/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Corrida/fisiologia , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/complicações , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ratos , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
10.
Physiol Behav ; 236: 113417, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838202

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a known risk factor for cognitive decline. Using polygenic rat models selectively bred for high and low intrinsic exercise capacity and simultaneously modelling as low and high innate risk factor for MetS respectively, we have previously shown that adult animals with lower exercise capacity/higher MetS risk perform poorly in tasks requiring flexible cognition. However, it is not known whether these deficits in cognition are present already at young age. Also, it is unclear whether the high risk genome is related also to lower-level cognition, such as sensory gating measured as prepulse inhibition. In this study, young and adult (5-8 weeks and ~9 months) rats selectively bred for 36 generations as High-Capacity Runners (HCR) or Low-Capacity Runners (LCR) were tested for behavior in an open field task, modulation of startle reflex, and spatial learning in a T-maze. HCR rats were more active in the open field than LCR rats independent of age. Responses to the startle stimulus habituated to the same extent in LCR compared to HCR rats when young, but as adults, stronger habituation was seen in the HCR animals. The prepulse inhibition of startle response was equally strong in young HCR and LCR animals but the effect was shorter lasting in HCR animals. In T-maze, adult HCR animals unexpectedly showed attenuated learning, but we interpret this finding to stem from differences in motivation rather than learning ability. Overall, in the LCR rats with the risk genome for poor aerobic fitness and MetS, indications of compromised cognitive function are present already at a young age.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Cognição , Ratos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Cell Rep ; 35(3): 109018, 2021 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882313

RESUMO

Physical exercise has profound effects on quality of life and susceptibility to chronic disease; however, the regulation of skeletal muscle function at the molecular level after exercise remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the benefits of exercise on muscle function are linked partly to microtraumatic events that result in accumulation of circulating heme. Effective metabolism of heme is controlled by Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1, Hmox1), and we find that mouse skeletal muscle-specific HO-1 deletion (Tam-Cre-HSA-Hmox1fl/fl) shifts the proportion of muscle fibers from type IIA to type IIB concomitant with a disruption in mitochondrial content and function. In addition to a significant impairment in running performance and response to exercise training, Tam-Cre-HSA-Hmox1fl/fl mice show remarkable muscle atrophy compared to Hmox1fl/fl controls. Collectively, these data define a role for heme and HO-1 as central regulators in the physiologic response of skeletal muscle to exercise.

12.
NPJ Aging Mech Dis ; 7(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398019

RESUMO

The intrinsic aerobic capacity of an organism is thought to play a role in aging and longevity. Maximal respiratory rate capacity, a metabolic performance measure, is one of the best predictors of cardiovascular- and all-cause mortality. Rats selectively bred for high-(HCR) vs. low-(LCR) intrinsic running-endurance capacity have up to 31% longer lifespan. We found that positive changes in indices of mitochondrial health in cardiomyocytes (respiratory reserve, maximal respiratory capacity, resistance to mitochondrial permeability transition, autophagy/mitophagy, and higher lipids-over-glucose utilization) are uniformly associated with the extended longevity in HCR vs. LCR female rats. Cross-sectional heart metabolomics revealed pathways from lipid metabolism in the heart, which were significantly enriched by a select group of strain-dependent metabolites, consistent with enhanced lipids utilization by HCR cardiomyocytes. Heart-liver-serum metabolomics further revealed shunting of lipidic substrates between the liver and heart via serum during aging. Thus, mitochondrial health in cardiomyocytes is associated with extended longevity in rats with higher intrinsic exercise capacity and, probably, these findings can be translated to other populations as predictors of outcomes of health and survival.

13.
Exp Physiol ; 106(3): 714-725, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486778

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The extent to which genetics determines adaptation to endurance versus resistance exercise is unclear. Previously, a divergent selective breeding rat model showed that genetic factors play a major role in the response to aerobic training. Here, we asked: do genetic factors that underpin poor adaptation to endurance training affect adaptation to functional overload? What is the main finding and its importance? Our data show that heritable factors in low responders to endurance training generated differential gene expression that was associated with impaired skeletal muscle hypertrophy. A maladaptive genotype to endurance exercise appears to dysregulate biological processes responsible for mediating exercise adaptation, irrespective of the mode of contraction stimulus. ABSTRACT: Divergent skeletal muscle phenotypes result from chronic resistance-type versus endurance-type contraction, reflecting the principle of training specificity. Our aim was to determine whether there is a common set of genetic factors that influence skeletal muscle adaptation to divergent contractile stimuli. Female rats were obtained from a genetically heterogeneous rat population and were selectively bred from high responders to endurance training (HRT) or low responders to endurance training (LRT; n = 6/group; generation 19). Both groups underwent 14 days of synergist ablation to induce functional overload of the plantaris muscle before comparison to non-overloaded controls of the same phenotype. RNA sequencing was performed to identify Gene Ontology biological processes with differential (LRT vs. HRT) gene set enrichment. We found that running distance, determined in advance of synergist ablation, increased in response to aerobic training in HRT but not LRT (65 ± 26 vs. -6 ± 18%, mean ± SD, P < 0.0001). The hypertrophy response to functional overload was attenuated in LRT versus HRT (20.1 ± 5.6 vs. 41.6 ± 16.1%, P = 0.015). Between-group differences were observed in the magnitude of response of 96 upregulated and 101 downregulated pathways. A further 27 pathways showed contrasting upregulation or downregulation in LRT versus HRT in response to functional overload. In conclusion, low responders to aerobic endurance training were also low responders for compensatory hypertrophy, and attenuated hypertrophy was associated with differential gene set regulation. Our findings suggest that genetic factors that underpin aerobic training maladaptation might also dysregulate the transcriptional regulation of biological processes that contribute to adaptation to mechanical overload.

14.
Physiol Behav ; 230: 113280, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) strategies have emerged as viable alternatives to traditional calorie-restricted diets. A key predictor of metabolic health and response to diet is cardiometabolic fitness, including intrinsic aerobic capacity. In a contrasting rat model of aerobic capacity-high- and low-capacity runners (HCR, LCR)-we found that the lean and physically active HCR were also more responsive to a standard calorie-restricted diet. Here, we assessed the ability of IF to induce weight loss on a background of high and low aerobic fitness accompanied by different levels of daily physical activity. METHODS: Female HCR and LCR (8 per line) were subjected to IF (alternate-day fasting) for 14 weeks. Outcomes included changes in body weight, fat and lean mass, daily physical activity, and food and water intake. After initial measurements, IF was continued, and measurements were repeated after one year of IF. RESULTS: All rats lost weight with IF, and LCR lost significantly more weight than HCR. This difference was primarily due to differential fat loss; loss of lean mass, on the other hand, was similar between HCR and LCR. Total food intake decreased with IF, and LCR showed lower intake than HCR only during the first 5 weeks of IF. Physical activity was suppressed by long-term IF. Physical activity increased on fed days compared to fasted days, and this pattern was more pronounced in HCR. The differential effects of IF in HCR and LCR persisted after one year of IF, with IF preventing the marked weight gain seen in ad libitum fed LCR during this time. CONCLUSION: Weight and fat loss from IF was more pronounced in obesity-prone, low-aerobic capacity LCR, despite the low activity levels seen in these rats. The possibility that aerobic capacity modulates response to IF in human participants remains unexplored.


Assuntos
Jejum , Obesidade , Animais , Exercício Físico , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Ratos , Ganho de Peso
15.
Function (Oxf) ; 2(1): zqaa029, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33363281

RESUMO

Exercise capacity is a strong predictor of all-cause morbidity and mortality in humans. However, the associated hemodynamic traits that link this valuable indicator to its subsequent disease risks are numerable. Additionally, exercise capacity has a substantial heritable component and genome-wide screening indicates a vast amount of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers are significantly associated with traits of physical performance. A long-term selection experiment in rats confirms a divide for cardiovascular risks between low- and high-capacity runners (LCR and HCR, respectively), equipping us with a preclinical animal model to uncover new mechanisms. Here, we evaluated the LCR and HCR rat model system for differences in vascular function at the arterial resistance level. Consistent with the known divide between health and disease, we observed that LCR rats present with resistance artery and perivascular adipose tissue dysfunction compared to HCR rats that mimic qualities important for health, including improved vascular relaxation. Uniquely, we show by generating conplastic strains, which LCR males with mtDNA of female HCR (LCR-mtHCR/Tol) present with improved vascular function. Conversely, HCR-mtLCR/Tol rats displayed indices for cardiac dysfunction. The outcome of this study suggests that the interplay between the nuclear genome and the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome with high intrinsic exercise capacity is a significant factor for improved vascular physiology, and animal models developed on an interaction between nuclear and mtDNA are valuable new tools for probing vascular risk factors in the offspring.

16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 591476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193103

RESUMO

Increasing exercise capacity promotes healthy aging and is strongly associated with lower mortality rates. In this study, we analyzed skeletal muscle transcriptomics coupled to exercise performance in humans and rats to dissect the inherent and response components of aerobic exercise capacity. Using rat models selected for intrinsic and acquired aerobic capacity, we determined that the high aerobic capacity muscle transcriptome is associated with pathways for tissue oxygenation and vascularization. Conversely, the low capacity muscle transcriptome indicated immune response and metabolic dysfunction. Low response to training was associated with an inflammatory signature and revealed a potential link to circadian rhythm. Next, we applied bioinformatics tools to predict potential secreted factors (myokines). The predicted secretome profile for exercise capacity highlighted circulatory factors involved in lipid metabolism and the exercise response secretome was associated with extracellular matrix remodelling. Lastly, we utilized human muscle mitochondrial respiration and transcriptomics data to explore molecular mediators of exercise capacity and response across species. Human transcriptome comparison highlighted epigenetic mechanisms linked to exercise capacity and the damage repair for response. Overall, our findings from this cross-species transcriptome analysis of exercise capacity and response establish a foundation for future studies on the mechanisms that link exercise and health.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Tolerância ao Exercício , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Transcriptoma , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Masculino , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Ratos
17.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961782

RESUMO

Exercise in humans and animals increases plasma bilirubin levels, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. In the present study, we utilized rats genetically selected for high capacity running (HCR) and low capacity running (LCR) to determine pathways in the liver that aerobic exercise modifies to control plasma bilirubin. The HCR rats, compared to the LCR, exhibited significantly higher levels of plasma bilirubin and the hepatic enzyme that produces it, biliverdin reductase-A (BVRA). The HCR also had reduced expression of the glucuronyl hepatic enzyme UGT1A1, which lowers plasma bilirubin. Recently, bilirubin has been shown to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), a ligand-induced transcription factor, and the higher bilirubin HCR rats had significantly increased PPARα-target genes Fgf21, Abcd3, and Gys2. These are known to promote liver function and glycogen storage, which we found by Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining that hepatic glycogen content was higher in the HCR versus the LCR. Our results demonstrate that exercise stimulates pathways that raise plasma bilirubin through alterations in hepatic enzymes involved in bilirubin synthesis and metabolism, improving liver function, and glycogen content. These mechanisms may explain the beneficial effects of exercise on plasma bilirubin levels and health in humans.

18.
Nat Metab ; 2(9): 902-917, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694831

RESUMO

Increased aerobic exercise capacity, as a result of exercise training, has important health benefits. However, some individuals are resistant to improvements in exercise capacity, probably due to undetermined genetic and environmental factors. Here, we show that exercise-induced improvements in aerobic capacity are blunted and aerobic remodelling of skeletal muscle is impaired in several animal models associated with chronic hyperglycaemia. Our data point to chronic hyperglycaemia as a potential negative regulator of aerobic adaptation, in part, via glucose-mediated modifications of the extracellular matrix, impaired vascularization and aberrant mechanical signalling in muscle. We also observe low exercise capacity and enhanced c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation in response to exercise in humans with impaired glucose tolerance. Our work indicates that current shifts in dietary and metabolic health, associated with increasing incidence of hyperglycaemia, might impair muscular and organismal adaptations to exercise training, including aerobic capacity as one of its key health outcomes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Aerobiose/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hiperglicemia/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto , Limiar Anaeróbio/fisiologia , Animais , Células Endoteliais/fisiologia , Ativação Enzimática , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Ratos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Physiol Behav ; 225: 113048, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628949

RESUMO

Decreases in energy stores requires negative energy balance where caloric expenditure exceeds energy intake, which can induce adaptive thermogenesis-the reduction of energy expenditure (EE) beyond that accounted for by the weight lost. Adaptive thermogenesis varies between individuals. The component of total daily EE responsible for the interindividual variation in adaptive thermogenesis was investigated in this study, using a rat model that differs in obesity propensity and physical activity. Total daily EE and physical activity were examined before and after 21 days of 50% calorie restriction in male and female rats with lean and obesity-prone phenotypes-rats selectively bred for high and low intrinsic aerobic capacity (HCR and LCR, respectively). Calorie restriction significantly decreased EE more than was predicted by loss of weight and lean mass, demonstrating adaptive thermogenesis. Within sex, HCR and LCR did not significantly differ in resting EE. However, the calorie restriction-induced suppression in non-resting EE, which includes activity EE, was significantly greater in HCR than in LCR; this phenotypic difference was significant for both male and female rats. Calorie restriction also significantly suppressed physical activity levels more in HCR than LCR. When VO2max was assessed in male rats, calorie restriction significantly decreased O2 consumption without significantly affecting running performance (running time, distance), indicating increased energy efficiency. Percent weight loss did not significantly differ between groups. Altogether, these results suggest that individual differences in calorie restriction-induced adaptive thermogenesis may be accounted for by variation in aerobic capacity. Moreover, it is likely that activity EE, not resting or basal metabolism, may explain or predict the variation in individuals' adaptive thermogenesis.


Assuntos
Corrida , Termogênese , Animais , Peso Corporal , Metabolismo Energético , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos
20.
Hypertension ; 75(6): 1386-1396, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336227

RESUMO

For over 100 years, essential hypertension has been researched from different perspectives ranging from genetics, physiology, and immunology to more recent ones encompassing microbiology (microbiota) as a previously underappreciated field of study contributing to the cause of hypertension. Each field of study in isolation has uniquely contributed to a variety of underlying mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. Even so, clinical management of essential hypertension has remained somewhat static. We, therefore, asked if there are any converging lines of evidence from these individual fields that could be amenable for a better clinical prognosis. Accordingly, here we present converging evidence which support the view that metabolic dysfunction underlies essential hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Hipertensão Essencial , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Hipertensão Essencial/imunologia , Hipertensão Essencial/metabolismo , Hipertensão Essencial/microbiologia , Hipertensão Essencial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Microbiota
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...