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1.
Theranostics ; 10(6): 2645-2658, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194826

RESUMO

Rationale: CD38 is a target for the therapy of multiple myeloma (MM) with monoclonal antibodies such as daratumumab and isatuximab. Since MM patients exhibit a high rate of relapse, the development of new biologics targeting alternative CD38 epitopes is desirable. The discovery of single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) has opened the way for a new generation of antitumor therapeutics. We report the generation of nanobody-based humanized IgG1 heavy chain antibodies (hcAbs) with a high specificity and affinity that recognize three different and non-overlapping epitopes of CD38 and compare their cytotoxicity against CD38-expressing hematological cancer cells in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. Methods: We generated three humanized hcAbs (WF211-hcAb, MU1067-hcAb, JK36-hcAb) that recognize three different non-overlapping epitopes (E1, E2, E3) of CD38 by fusion of llama-derived nanobodies to the hinge- and Fc-domains of human IgG1. WF211-hcAb shares the binding epitope E1 with daratumumab. We compared the capacity of these CD38-specific hcAbs and daratumumab to induce CDC and ADCC in CD38-expressing tumor cell lines in vitro and in patient MM cells ex vivo as well as effects on xenograft tumor growth and survival in vivo. Results: CD38-specific heavy chain antibodies (WF211-hcAb, MU1067-hcAb, JK36-hcAb) potently induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in CD38-expressing tumor cell lines and in primary patient MM cells, but only little if any complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). In vivo, CD38-specific heavy chain antibodies significantly reduced the growth of systemic lymphomas and prolonged survival of tumor bearing SCID mice. Conclusions: CD38-specific nanobody-based humanized IgG1 heavy chain antibodies mediate cytotoxicity against CD38-expressing hematological cancer cells in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. These promising results of our study indicate that CD38-specific hcAbs warrant further clinical development as therapeutics for multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies.

2.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013131

RESUMO

The NAD-hydrolyzing ecto-enzyme CD38 is overexpressed by multiple myeloma and other hematological malignancies. We recently generated CD38-specific nanobodies, single immunoglobulin variable domains derived from heavy-chain antibodies naturally occurring in llamas. Nanobodies exhibit high solubility and stability, allowing easy reformatting into recombinant fusion proteins. Here we explore the utility of CD38-specific nanobodies as ligands for nanobody-based chimeric antigen receptors (Nb-CARs). We cloned retroviral expression vectors for CD38-specific Nb-CARs. The human natural killer cell line NK-92 was transduced to stably express these Nb-CARs. As target cells we used CD38-expressing as well as CRISPR/Cas9-generated CD38-deficient tumor cell lines (CA-46, LP-1, and Daudi) transduced with firefly luciferase. With these effector and target cells we established luminescence and flow-cytometry CAR-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assays (CARDCCs). Finally, the cytotoxic efficacy of Nb-CAR NK-92 cells was tested on primary patient-derived CD38-expressing multiple myeloma cells. NK-92 cells expressing CD38-specific Nb-CARs specifically lysed CD38-expressing but not CD38-deficient tumor cell lines. Moreover, the Nb-CAR-NK cells effectively depleted CD38-expressing multiple myeloma cells in primary human bone marrow samples. Our results demonstrate efficacy of Nb-CARs in vitro. The potential clinical efficacy of Nb-CARs in vivo remains to be evaluated.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911635

RESUMO

ATP signaling and surface P2X4 receptors are upregulated selectively in neurons and/or glia in various CNS disorders including anxiety, chronic pain, epilepsy, ischemia, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the cell-specific functions of P2X4 in pathological contexts remain elusive. To elucidate P2X4 functions, we created a conditional transgenic knock-in P2X4 mouse line (Floxed P2X4mCherryIN) allowing the Cre activity-dependent genetic swapping of the internalization motif of P2X4 by the fluorescent mCherry protein to prevent constitutive endocytosis of P2X4. By combining molecular, cellular, electrophysiological, and behavioral approaches, we characterized two distinct knock-in mouse lines expressing noninternalized P2X4mCherryIN either exclusively in excitatory forebrain neurons or in all cells natively expressing P2X4. The genetic substitution of wild-type P2X4 by noninternalized P2X4mCherryIN in both knock-in mouse models did not alter the sparse distribution and subcellular localization of P2X4 but increased the number of P2X4 receptors at the surface of the targeted cells mimicking the pathological increased surface P2X4 state. Increased surface P2X4 density in the hippocampus of knock-in mice altered LTP and LTD plasticity phenomena at CA1 synapses without affecting basal excitatory transmission. Moreover, these cellular events translated into anxiolytic effects and deficits in spatial memory. Our results show that increased surface density of neuronal P2X4 contributes to synaptic deficits and alterations in anxiety and memory functions consistent with the implication of P2X4 in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, these conditional P2X4mCherryIN knock-in mice will allow exploring the cell-specific roles of P2X4 in various physiological and pathological contexts.

4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2041: 117-136, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646484

RESUMO

Mammalian purinoreceptors respond to extracellular nucleotides and their metabolites, for example, following the release of ATP or NAD+ from cells and their hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases. Membrane purinoreceptors are expressed as ionotropic ligand-gated ion channels designated P2X receptors, or as metabotropic G-protein coupled receptors designated P1 or P2Y receptors, on the cell surface of different cell types. In this chapter, we provide protocols to monitor the expression and activity of purinoreceptors on the cell membrane of living cells by flow cytometry.

5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(1): 197-207, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibodies against phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1) are found in 80% of patients with membranous nephropathy, and previous studies described three autoantibody-targeted PLA2R1 epitope regions. Although anti-PLA2R1 antibody levels are closely associated with treatment response and disease prognosis, the clinical role of epitope regions targeted by autoantibodies is unclear. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 150 patients with newly diagnosed PLA2R1-associated membranous nephropathy, we investigated the clinical role of epitope-recognition patterns and domain-specific PLA2R1 antibody levels by western blot and ELISA. RESULTS: We identified a fourth epitope region in the CTLD8 domain of PLA2R1, which was recognized by anti-PLA2R1 antibodies in 24 (16.0%) patients. In all study patients, anti-PLA2R1 antibodies bound both the N-terminal (CysR-FnII-CTLD1) region and the C-terminal (CTLD7-CTLD8) region of PLA2R1 at study enrollment. The total anti-PLA2R1 antibody levels of patients determined detection of domain-specific PLA2R1 antibodies, and thereby epitope-recognition patterns. A remission of proteinuria occurred in 133 (89%) patients and was not dependent on the domain-recognition profiles. A newly developed ELISA showed that domain-specific PLA2R1 antibody levels targeting CysR, CTLD1, and CTLD7 strongly correlate with the total anti-PLA2R1 antibody level (Spearman's rho, 0.95, 0.64, and 0.40; P<0.001, P<0.001, and P=0.002, respectively) but do not predict disease outcome independently of total anti-PLA2R1 antibody levels. CONCLUSIONS: All patients with PLA2R1-associated membranous nephropathy recognize at least two epitope regions in the N- and C-terminals of PLA2R1 at diagnosis, contradicting the hypothesis that PLA2R1 "epitope spreading" determines the prognosis of membranous nephropathy. Total anti-PLA2R1 antibody levels, but not the epitope-recognition profiles at the time of diagnosis, are relevant for the clinical outcome of patients with this disease.

6.
Front Cell Neurosci ; 13: 498, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798414

RESUMO

The P2X4 channel is involved in different physiological and pathological conditions and functions in the nervous system. Despite the existence of several mouse models for which the expression of the gene was manipulated, there is still little information on the expression of the protein at the cellular level. In particular, supposedly specific available antibodies have often proved to recognize unrelated proteins in P2X4-deficient mice. Here, we used an in vivo DNA vaccine approach to generate a series of monoclonal antibodies and nanobodies specific for human, mouse, and rat P2X4 channels. We further characterized these antibodies and show that they solely recognize the native form of the proteins both in biochemical and cytometric applications. Some of these antibodies prove to specifically recognize P2X4 channels by immunostaining in brain or sensory ganglia slices, as well as at the cellular and subcellular levels. Due to their clonality, these different antibodies should represent versatile tools for further characterizing the cellular functions of P2X4 in the nervous system as well as at the periphery.

7.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 15: 211-220, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687421

RESUMO

A limiting factor for the use of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) as vectors in gene therapy is the broad tropism of AAV serotypes, i.e., the parallel infection of several cell types. Nanobodies are single immunoglobulin variable domains from heavy chain antibodies that naturally occur in camelids. Their small size and high solubility allow easy reformatting into fusion proteins. Herein we show that a membrane protein-specific nanobody can be inserted into a surface loop of the VP1 capsid protein of AAV2. Using three structurally distinct membrane proteins-a multispan ion channel, a single-span transmembrane protein, and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored ectoenzyme-we show that this strategy can dramatically enhance the transduction of specific target cells by recombinant AAV2. Moreover, we show that the nanobody-VP1 fusion of AAV2 can be incorporated into the capsids of AAV1, AAV8, and AAV9 and thereby effectively redirect the target specificity of other AAV serotypes. Nanobody-mediated targeting provides a highly efficient AAV targeting strategy that is likely to open up new avenues for genetic engineering of cells.

9.
Antibodies (Basel) ; 8(1)2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544811

RESUMO

Antibody-based biologics are the corner stone of modern immunomodulatory therapy. Though highly effective in dampening systemic inflammatory processes, their large size and Fc-fragment mediated effects hamper crossing of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Nanobodies (Nbs) are single domain antibodies derived from llama or shark heavy-chain antibodies and represent a new generation of biologics. Due to their small size, they display excellent tissue penetration capacities and can be easily modified to adjust their vivo half-life for short-term diagnostic or long-term therapeutic purposes or to facilitate crossing of the BBB. Furthermore, owing to their characteristic binding mode, they are capable of antagonizing receptors involved in immune signaling and of neutralizing proinflammatory mediators, such as cytokines. These qualities combined make Nbs well-suited for down-modulating neuroinflammatory processes that occur in the context of brain ischemia. In this review, we summarize recent findings on Nbs in preclinical stroke models and how they can be used as diagnostic and therapeutic reagents. We further provide a perspective on the design of innovative Nb-based treatment protocols to complement and improve stroke therapy.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2711, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221993

RESUMO

Sepsis is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response followed by immunosuppression of the host. Metabolic defects and mitochondrial failure are common in immunocompromised patients with sepsis. The NLRP3 inflammasome is important for establishing an inflammatory response after activation by the purinergic P2X7 receptor. Here, we study a cohort of individuals with intra-abdominal origin sepsis and show that patient monocytes have impaired NLRP3 activation by the P2X7 receptor. Furthermore, most sepsis-related deaths are among patients whose NLRP3 activation is profoundly altered. In monocytes from sepsis patients, the P2X7 receptor is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, activation of the P2X7 receptor results in mitochondrial damage, which in turn inhibits NLRP3 activation by HIF-1α. We show that mortality increases in a mouse model of sepsis when the P2X7 receptor is activated in vivo. These data reveal a molecular mechanism initiated by the P2X7 receptor that contributes to NLRP3 impairment during infection.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Sepse/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/imunologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/imunologia , Monócitos/citologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/imunologia , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
11.
Purinergic Signal ; 15(2): 155-166, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016551

RESUMO

ATP and its metabolites are important extracellular signal transmitters acting on purinergic P2 and P1 receptors. Most cells can actively secrete ATP in response to a variety of external stimuli such as gating of the P2X7 receptor. We used Yac-1 murine lymphoma cells to study P2X7-mediated ATP release. These cells co-express P2X7 and ADP-ribosyltransferase ARTC2, permitting gating of P2X7 by NAD+-dependent ADP-ribosylation without the need to add exogenous ATP. Yac-1 cells released ATP into the extracellular space within minutes after stimulation with NAD+. This was blocked by pre-incubation with the inhibitory P2X7-specific nanobody 13A7. Gating of P2X7 for 3 h significantly decreased intracellular ATP levels in living cells, but these had returned to normal by 20 h. P2X7-mediated ATP release was dependent on a rise in cytosolic calcium and the depletion of intracellular potassium, but was not blocked by inhibitors of pannexins or connexins. We used genetically encoded FRET-based ATP sensors targeted to the cytosol to image P2X7-mediated changes in the distribution of ATP in 3T3 fibroblasts co-expressing P2X7 and ARTC2 and in Yac-1 cells. In response to NAD+, we observed a marked depletion of ATP in the cytosol. This study demonstrates the potential of ATP sensors as tools to study regulated ATP release by other cell types under other conditions.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Células 3T3 , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citosol/metabolismo , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , Camundongos
12.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 47: 110-118, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986625

RESUMO

Targeting the P2X7 ion channel, a danger sensor for extracellular nucleotides, improves outcomes in models of inflammation, cancer, and brain-diseases. Antibodies and nanobodies have been developed that antagonize or potentiate gating of P2X7. Their potential advantages over small-molecule drugs include high specificity, lower off-target effects, and tunable in vivo half-life. Genetic fusion of P2X7-specific biologics to binding modules may enable targeting of specific cell subsets. Besides directly modulating P2X7 function, antibodies can also initiate specific depletion of P2X7-expressing cells. Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) can be used to express P2X7-specific antibodies in vivo to achieve long-lasting biological effects. Furthermore, if successfully targeted to P2X7-expressing cells, AAVs may enable modulation of the function of P2X7-expressing immune cells via encoded transgenic RNA or proteins.

13.
Mol Cancer Ther ; 18(4): 823-833, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30824613

RESUMO

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ectodomain variants mediating primary resistance or secondary treatment failure in cancer patients treated with cetuximab or panitumumab support the need for more resistance-preventive or personalized ways of targeting this essential pathway. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the EGFR nanobody 7D12 fused to an IgG1 Fc portion (7D12-hcAb) would overcome EGFR ectodomain-mediated resistance because it targets a very small binding epitope within domain III of EGFR. Indeed, we found that 7D12-hcAb bound and inhibited all tested cell lines expressing common resistance-mediating EGFR ectodomain variants. Moreover, we assessed receptor functionality and binding properties in synthetic mutants of the 7D12-hcAb epitope to model resistance to 7D12-hcAb. Because the 7D12-hcAb epitope almost completely overlaps with the EGF-binding site, only position R377 could be mutated without simultaneous loss of receptor functionality, suggesting a low risk of developing secondary resistance toward 7D12-hcAb. Our binding data indicated that if 7D12-hcAb resistance mutations occurred in position R377, which is located within the cetuximab and panitumumab epitope, cells expressing these receptor variants would retain sensitivity to these antibodies. However, 7D12-hcAb was equally ineffective as cetuximab in killing cells expressing the cetuximab/panitumumab-resistant aberrantly N-glycosylated EGFR R521K variant. Yet, this resistance could be overcome by introducing mutations into the Fc portion of 7D12-hcAb, which enhanced immune effector functions and thereby allowed killing of cells expressing this variant. Taken together, our data demonstrate a broad range of activity of 7D12-hcAb across cells expressing different EGFR variants involved in primary and secondary EGFR antibody resistance.


Assuntos
Cetuximab/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Panitumumabe/farmacologia , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cetuximab/imunologia , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Receptores ErbB/química , Receptores ErbB/genética , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/química , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/genética , Imunoglobulina G/química , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Mutação , Panitumumabe/imunologia , Panitumumabe/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , Transdução Genética
14.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 47(1): 329-337, 2019 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30674608

RESUMO

Adenine nucleotides (AdNs) play important roles in immunity and inflammation. Extracellular AdNs, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and their metabolites, act as paracrine messengers by fine-tuning both pro- and anti-inflammatory processes. Moreover, intracellular AdNs derived from ATP or NAD play important roles in many cells of the immune system, including T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and others. These intracellular AdNs are signaling molecules that transduce incoming signals into meaningful cellular responses, e.g. activation of immune responses against pathogens.


Assuntos
Nucleotídeos de Adenina/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Sistemas do Segundo Mensageiro , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , NAD/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Comunicação Parácrina , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
15.
Annu Rev Immunol ; 37: 325-347, 2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676821

RESUMO

ATP, NAD+, and nucleic acids are abundant purines that, in addition to having critical intracellular functions, have evolved extracellular roles as danger signals released in response to cell lysis, apoptosis, degranulation, or membrane pore formation. In general ATP and NAD+ have excitatory and adenosine has anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of purine release mechanisms, ectoenzymes that metabolize purines (CD38, CD39, CD73, ENPP1, and ENPP2/autotaxin), and signaling by key P2 purinergic receptors (P2X7, P2Y2, and P2Y12). In addition to metabolizing ATP or NAD+, some purinergic ectoenzymes metabolize other inflammatory modulators, notably lysophosphatidic acid and cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Also discussed are extracellular signaling effects of NAD+ mediated by ADP-ribosylation, and epigenetic effects of intracellular adenosine mediated by modification of S-adenosylmethionine-dependent DNA methylation.

16.
Kidney Int ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033781

RESUMO

The phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R1) is the major autoantigen in patients suffering from membranous nephropathy. To date, the lack of endogenous glomerular expression of PLA2R1 in mice and rats has impeded the establishment of PLA2R1-dependent animal models of this disease. Here, we generated a transgenic mouse line expressing murine full-length PLA2R1 in podocytes. Furthermore, expression of murine PLA2R1 did not result in any morphological disturbance as high-resolution confocal microscopy demonstrated an intact nephrin distribution with normal foot processes. Transfer of rabbit anti-mPLA2R1 antibodies to these mice induced nephrotic range proteinuria, hypercholesterolemia, and histomorphological signs of membranous nephropathy. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses revealed enhanced staining for murine PLA2R1 in the presence of unaffected staining for murine thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A in the diseased mice, resembling what is classically found in patients with PLA2R1-associated membranous nephropathy Thus, our mouse model of membranous nephropathy will allow investigation of PLA2R1-specific pathomechanisms and may help to develop and assess antigen-specific treatments in vivo.

17.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552101

RESUMO

Tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM) are noncirculating immune cells that contribute to the first line of local defense against reinfections. Their location at hotspots of pathogen encounter frequently exposes TRM to tissue damage. This history of danger-signal exposure is an important aspect of TRM-mediated immunity that has been overlooked so far. RNA profiling revealed that TRM from liver and small intestine express P2RX7, a damage/danger-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) receptor that is triggered by extracellular nucleotides (ATP, NAD+). We confirmed that P2RX7 protein was expressed in CD8+ TRM but not in circulating T cells (TCIRC) across different infection models. Tissue damage induced during routine isolation of liver lymphocytes led to P2RX7 activation and resulted in selective cell death of TRM P2RX7 activation in vivo by exogenous NAD+ led to a specific depletion of TRM while retaining TCIRC The effect was absent in P2RX7-deficient mice and after P2RX7 blockade. TCR triggering down-regulated P2RX7 expression and made TRM resistant to NAD-induced cell death. Physiological triggering of P2RX7 by sterile tissue damage during acetaminophen-induced liver injury led to a loss of previously acquired pathogen-specific local TRM in wild-type but not in P2RX7 KO T cells. Our results highlight P2RX7-mediated signaling as a critical pathway for the regulation of TRM maintenance. Extracellular nucleotides released during infection and tissue damage could deplete TRM locally and free niches for new and infection-relevant specificities. This suggests that the recognition of tissue damage promotes persistence of antigen-specific over bystander TRM in the tissue niche.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/imunologia , Animais , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Linfócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos
18.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2553, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524421

RESUMO

CD38 is overexpressed by multiple myeloma cells and has emerged as a target for therapeutic antibodies. Nanobodies are soluble single domain antibody fragments derived from the VHH variable domain of heavy chain antibodies naturally occurring in camelids. We previously identified distinct llama nanobodies that recognize three non-overlapping epitopes of the extracellular domain of CD38. Here, we fused these VHH domains to the hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains of human IgG1, yielding highly soluble chimeric llama/human heavy chain antibodies (hcAbs). We analyzed the capacity of these hcAbs to mediate complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) to CD38-expressing human multiple myeloma and Burkitt lymphoma cell lines. Combinations of two hcAbs that recognize distinct, non-overlapping epitopes of CD38 mediated potent CDC, in contrast to the hcAb monotherapy with only weak CDC capacity. Similarly, combining daratumumab with a hcAb that recognizes a non-overlapping epitope resulted in dramatically enhanced CDC. Further, introducing the E345R HexaBody mutation into the CH3 domain strongly enhanced the CDC potency of hcAbs to CD38-expressing cells. Exploiting their high solubility, we genetically fused two distinct nanobodies into heteromeric dimers via a flexible peptide linker and then fused these nanobody dimers to the hinge, CH2 and CH3 domains of human IgG1, yielding highly soluble, biparatopic hcAbs. These biparatopic hcAbs elicited CDC toward CD38-expressing myeloma cells more effectively than daratumumab. Our results underscore the advantage of nanobodies vs. pairs of VH and VL domains for constructing bispecific antibodies. Moreover, the CD38-specific biparatopic heavy chain antibodies described here represent potential new powerful therapeutics for treatment of multiple myeloma.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/imunologia , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/farmacologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Citotoxicidade Celular Dependente de Anticorpos , Camelídeos Americanos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Humanos , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética
19.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2559, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30459772

RESUMO

The NAD+-metabolizing ectoenzyme CD38 is an established therapeutic target in multiple myeloma. The CD38-specific monoclonal antibodies daratumumab and isatuximab show promising results in the clinic. Nanobodies correspond to the single variable domains (VHH) derived from heavy chain antibodies that naturally occur in camelids. VHHs display high solubility and excellent tissue penetration in vivo. We recently generated a panel of CD38-specific nanobodies, some of which block or enhance the enzymatic activity of CD38. Fusion of such a nanobody to the hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains of human IgG1 generates a chimeric llama/human hcAb of about half the size of a conventional moAb (75 vs. 150 kDa). Similarly, a fully human CD38-specific hcAb can be generated using a CD38-specific human VH3 instead of a CD38-specific camelid nanobody. Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of CD38-specific hcAbs vs. conventional moAbs and provide an outlook for the potential use of CD38-specific hcAbs as novel therapeutics for multiple myeloma.


Assuntos
ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1/imunologia , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/uso terapêutico , Cadeias Pesadas de Imunoglobulinas/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Mieloma Múltiplo/terapia , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Camelidae/imunologia , Humanos , Mieloma Múltiplo/imunologia
20.
Cell Rep ; 24(11): 2946-2956, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208319

RESUMO

Lysine glutarylation (Kglu) of mitochondrial proteins is associated with glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) deficiency, which impairs lysine/tryptophan degradation and causes destruction of striatal neurons during catabolic crisis with subsequent movement disability. By investigating the role of Kglu modifications in this disease, we compared the brain and liver glutarylomes of Gcdh-deficient mice. In the brain, we identified 73 Kglu sites on 37 mitochondrial proteins involved in various metabolic degradation pathways. Ultrastructural immunogold studies indicated that glutarylated proteins are heterogeneously distributed in mitochondria, which are exclusively localized in glial cells. In liver cells, all mitochondria contain Kglu-modified proteins. Glutarylation reduces the catalytic activities of the most abundant glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and the brain-specific carbonic anhydrase 5b and interferes with GDH-protein interactions. We propose that Kglu contributes to the functional heterogeneity of mitochondria and may metabolically adapt glial cells to the activity and metabolic demands of neighboring GCDH-deficient neurons.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Encefalopatias Metabólicas/metabolismo , Glutaril-CoA Desidrogenase/deficiência , Glutaril-CoA Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Ligação Proteica , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
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