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1.
Kardiologiia ; 59(11): 56-65, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849300

RESUMO

Blood pressure variability (BPV) is the fluctuations of blood pressure over a certain period of time under the influence of various factors. The issue of increased BPV is of particular clinical importance due to high predictive value of this parameter as a risk factor for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal events. It is proved that in the BPV increasing, the key role is played by impairments in arterial baroreflexes, which, in turn, are mediated by increased vascular stiffness, impact of angiotensin II and the sympathetic nervous system, endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide deficiency and aging, including the vascular aging. Antihypertensive drugs that targeting largest amount of pathophysiological mechanisms in BPV increasing have a most advantages in correcting excessive pressure fluctuations. In this regard such drugs are perindopril and amlodipine, which can eliminate almost the entire spectrum of increased BPV causes and, therefore, optimally reduce the cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão , Pressão Sanguínea , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851178

RESUMO

There is a growing interest to the problem of drug-induced epileptic seizures (ES) due to their relatively high prevalence, poor prognosis, a large number of different drugs associated with the development of drug-induced ES, and low awareness among general practitioners. Drug-induced ES are most often associated with the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, antiepileptic drugs (overdose or as a result of discontinuation), antibiotics, immunosuppressants and immunomodulators, antitumor agents, analgesics, central nervous system stimulators, anesthetics etc. The prevalence of drug-induced ES varies with different drugs. It is estimated that about 6.1% of the first occurring ES are drug-induced. Risk factors for drug-induced ES include a history of epilepsy or ES, cancer, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, several concomitant neurological diseases, mental disorders, childhood, old and very old age, fever, impaired liver metabolism in patients with liver diseases, impaired drug excretion in patients with kidney diseases, polypharmacy, pharmacokinetic properties of the drugs themselves, allowing them to penetrate the blood-brain barrier in the central nervous system (lipophilicity, transport and communication with blood plasma proteins), drug concentration in blood serum, method and frequency of drug administration, single and daily doses of drugs. No clinical guidelines for the management of patients with drug-induced ES are available. It is recommended to identify patients at risk: elderly patients, patients with impaired liver and kidney function and patients receiving drugs that can cause ES and/or lower the seizure threshold. Benzodiazepines are the first-line treatment in drug-induced status epilepticus, barbiturates and propofol are the second-line treatment. The general principles for the prevention of drug-induced ES include careful selection of the optimal dose of drugs that can cause ES, especially in patients with impaired liver and/or kidney function, monitoring of several parameters in blood serum (for example, liver enzymes, electrolytes, glucose etc.), monitoring of the blood plasma concentration of certain drugs, avoiding the simultaneous administration of several drugs that stimulate the central nervous system, and a rapid discontinuation of such drugs.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Convulsões , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente
3.
Kardiologiia ; 59(3): 18-26, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to investigate the impact of indapamide / perindopril single-pill combination (I / P SPC) on arterial stiffness parameters, blood pressure (BP) level and BP variability (BPV) in middle-aged patients with stage II grade 1-2 essential arterial hypertension (EAH). Materials and methods. We retrospectively formed a group of patients with stage II grade 1-2 EAH who had not previously received regular antihypertensive therapy (AHT) (n=52, mean age 52.9±6.0 years). All patients were treated with I / P SPC and all of them achieved target office BP level (less than 140 / 90 mm Hg). After 12 weeks of follow-up (from the time of reaching the target BP) assessment of AHT effectiveness (general clinical data, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring [ABPM], volume sphygmography, echocardiography), and vascular stiffness evaluation were performed. RESULTS: At the end of follow-up office systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), pulse BP, day-time, night-time and 24­hour SBP and DBP significantly (p<0.001 for all) decreased. According to the ABPM data day-time, nighttime, and 24­hour systolic BPV significantly decreased (p=0.029, p=0.006 and p<0.001, respectively); day-time and 24­hour diastolic BPV also significantly decreased (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Day-night standard deviation (SDdn) significantly decreased too (p=0.002 and p<0.001, respectively). Volumetric sphygmography showed significant decrease of right cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) (from 8.20±1.29 to 7.58±1.44, p=0.001) and of left CAVI (from 8.13±1.40 to 7.46±1.43, p<0.001), as well as reduction of the number o f patients with a right- and / or left-CAVI >9.0 (from 32.7 to 11.5 %, p=0.018). According to assessment of arterial stiffness using the Vasotens24 software package, the arterial stiffness index (ASI) significantly (p<0.001) decreased from 153.5±29.9 to 138.3±20.0 (by -9.2±13.1 %). Transthoracic echocardiography data demonstrated significant decrease (p<0.001) in effective arterial elastance (from 1.82±0.43 to 1.58±0.36 mm Hg; by -11.85±16.29 %) and significant (p<0.001) increase in the arterial compliance - from 1.27±0.34 to 1.54±0.38 mm Hg / ml (+26.95±38.06 %). CONCLUSION: In AHT naive patients 40-65 years old with stage II grade 1-2 EAH therapy with I / P SPC provided effective 24­hour BP control, reduced BPV and improved arterial stiffness parameters.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Indapamida/uso terapêutico , Perindopril/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos , Arginina , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Kardiologiia ; (5): 23-31, 2018 May.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29870321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the cognitive functions and cerebral blood flow measured with arterial spin labeling (ASL) and their possible correlations with vascular age in untreated middle-aged patients with grade 1-2 essential arterial hypertension (EAH). METHODS: We examined 73 subjects aged 40-59 years (33 with EAH and 40 healthy volunteers [controls]). Neuropsychological assessment included Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Trail Making test (part A and part B), Stroop Color and Word Test, verbal fluency test (phonemic verbal fluency and semantic verbal fluency), 10­item word list learning task. All subjects underwent brain MRI. MRI protocol included ASL. Vascular age was calculated by two techniques - using Framingham Heart Study risk tables and SCORE project scales. RESULTS: Patients with EAH had lower performance on phonemic verbal fluency test and lower mean MoCA score (29.2±1.4 vs. 28.1±1.7 points) compared to controls (13.4±3.2, р=0.002; 29.2±1.4, p=0.001, respectively). White matter hyperintensities (WMH) were present in 7.5 % controls and in 51.5 % EAH patients (р=0.0002). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) in EAH patients was lower in both right (39.1±5.6 vs. 45.8±3.2 ml / 100 g / min) and left frontal lobes of the brain (39.2±6.2 и 45.2±3.6 ml / 100 g / min, respectively) compared to controls (р.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Cognição , Adulto , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marcadores de Spin
5.
Kardiologiia ; (3): 63-72, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29782273

RESUMO

The article discusses various mechanisms of developmentt and progression of arterial hypertension in young and middle aged adults. It emphasizes the predominant role of hypersympathicotonia in the development of the disease in this category of patients. Various mechanisms are considered, by means of which the increase of activity of the sympathetic nervous system leads to elevation of arterial pressure and potentiates early damage of target organs, first of all, damage of the heart. The data of numerous studies demonstrating pronounced cardioprotective effects of a highly selective representative of the class of ß-blockers bisoprolol in young and middle aged hypertensive patients are presented.


Assuntos
Bisoprolol/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Nervoso Simpático
6.
Kardiologiia ; 58(11): 72-81, 2018 Nov 24.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625080

RESUMO

In the review, the clinical significance of increased myocardial stiffness and strain impairment in the settings of arterial hypertension is considered. The mechanisms of increasing myocardial stiffness as a part of hypertensive heart disease are presented. Particular attention is paid to the role of the sympathetic nervous system activation as one of the triggers that induce the connective tissue alteration of cardiac interstitium. The possibilities of echocardiography in the early noninvasive detection of myocardial strain abnormalities are discussed. New ultrasound parameters for describing stiffness properties of the heart are presented. From the evidence-based medicine point of view, the prognostic significance of increasing myocardial stiffness as a risk factor of the adverse cardiovascular events, as well as the possibility of its management with different antihypertensive drugs, is considered. Finally, there are presented clinical trials data, indicating high potential of the highly selective ^1-adrenoblocker bisoprolol for of correction myocardial stiffness and strain impairment.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão , Rigidez Vascular , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Miocárdio , Sistema Nervoso Simpático
7.
Ter Arkh ; 90(9): 123-132, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701746

RESUMO

The review presents a modern view on stress as a risk factor for the development of arterial hypertension (AH). A variety pathogenic mechanisms responsible for increase of blood pressure during stress exposure are described in detail. The importance of the sympathetic activation as a key link in the development of stress-induced AH and initiation of a cascade of pathophysiological reactions that realize their adverse effects at the level of the whole organism is underlined. Particular attention is paid to worksite AH as a variant of stress-induced hypertension due to its wide prevalence and association with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, primarily myocardial infarction and stroke. Epidemiological data and results of recent metanalysis are presented, indicating the high significance of job strain as a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. The actual psychological stress reduction programs are described. Possibilities of using ß-blockers in patients with stress-induced hypertension as drugs affecting the central pathogenetic trigger of this disease are considered. The advantages of using bisoprolol as a highly selective ß-blocker are considered taking into account the available body of evidence for its effectiveness in patients with worksite AH, as well as its metabolic neutrality and target-organ protective properties.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Hipertensão , Estresse Ocupacional/fisiopatologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Ciências Biocomportamentais , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/psicologia , Estresse Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiopatologia
8.
Kardiologiia ; 57(12): 62-72, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466213

RESUMO

We discuss in this article problems of prognostic significance of 24­hour arterial pressure variability (24hAPV), as well as the role of 24hAPV in development and progression of various target organs damage by arterial hypertension. We also present literature data on impact of various regimens of antihypertensive therapy on 24hAPV, and on ability of fixed-dose perindopril/amlodipine to lower 24­hAPV.


Assuntos
Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Anlodipino , Anti-Hipertensivos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Perindopril , Prognóstico
9.
Kardiologiia ; 56(11): 27-37, 2016 12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28290816

RESUMO

AIM: To assess effects of 12 weeks treatment with the amlodipine/lisinopril fixed-dose combination (ALFDC) on the left ventricular (LV) mass index (LVMI), parameters of LV and left atrial stiffness. METHODS: At phase 1 of the study we examined 44 healthy subjects (21 men, 23 women, mean age 51.5+/-1.0 years) and 60 untreated patients (31 men, 29 women, mean age 53.6+/-0.8 years) with stage II grade 1-2hypertension. Myocardial stiffness parameters, LVMI were calculated using data of transthoracic echocardiography. 2-D speckle tracking echocardiography was used for determination of LV myocardial global longitudinal peak strain (GLPS). All participants underwent ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring, and office BP measurement. At phase 2 a subgroup of 30 untreated patients (16 men, 14 women; mean age 52.7+/-1.11years) received ALFDC in a start dose of 5 mg/10 mg titrated every 14 days to achieve BP<140/90 mm Hg. Therapy in selected doses was continued for 12 weeks thereafter. RESULTS: In hypertensive patients LV GLPS was significantly lower while LA stiffness index higher compared with controls (17.08+/-0.38 vs. 19.91+/-0.41%, p<0.001, and 0.20+/-0.01 vs. 0.16+/-0.01, p<0.01, respectively). There were no significant differences in the LA tissue Doppler derived strain, LV end-systolic elastance, LA expansion index between hypertensive and control groups. After ALFDC therapy BP was significantly (p<0.001) reduced: systolic (S)BP from 154.4+/-2.7 to 130.6+/-1.2, diastolic (D)BP from 96.5+/-1.3 to 83.0+/-0.5 mm Hg. After therapy LV GLPS, LA expansion index, LV diastolic elastance significantly increased (from 17.10+/-0.57 to 18.29+/-0.35%, p<0.01; from 1.47+/-0.08 to 1.68+/-0.08, p<0.001; from 9.25+/-0.99 [10-2] to 10.88+/-1.0 8 [10-2], p<0.05, respectively) while LVMI, LV end-diastolic stiffness, and LA stiffness index significantly (p<0.001) decreased (from 129.4+/-4.5 to 111.8+/-3.3 g/m2, from 0.16+/-0.01 to 0.12+/-0.01 mm Hg/ml, from 0.21+/-0.02 to 0.15+/-0.01, respectively). Change in the LA tissue Doppler derived strain correlated with the change in dynamics of nighttime SBP (r=-0.410, p<0.05). There was direct relationship between change in LV diastolic elastance and nighttime DBP (r=0.424; p<0.05); and an inverse correlation between changes in LV end-diastolic stiffness and dynamics of the daytime SBP and DBP (r=-0.404; p<0.05 and r=-0.364; p<0.05, respectively). Change of LVMI after ALFDC treatment correlated with dynamics of 24-hour, daytime SBP, and daytime pulse pressure (r=0.382, p<0.05, r=0.478, p<0.01, and r=0.364, p<0.05, respectively). CONCLUSION: In untreated patients with stage II, 1-2 degree hypertension 12-week therapy with ALFDC allowed to achieve target BP levels, reduced severity of LV hypertrophy and improved stiffness parameters of the myocardium.


Assuntos
Anlodipino/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Lisinopril/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
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