Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 49
Filtrar
1.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791137

RESUMO

Worldwide life expectancy has increased dramatically in recent years. Also on the rise are incidents of pathologies related to aging, such as Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's Disease (AD). An inaccurate diagnosis impairs the well-being and the quality of life of patients and their relatives, as well as being a financial burden on the health system. Continued education pertaining to the neuropsychological field is uncommon for health workers involved in general practice. This article aims to present the process of development and content validity of the "CENEES Program - Psychoeducation for Health Staff on The Neuropsychology of Aging". The CENEES Program was developed in six steps which include: literature review, first draft, focal group, adjustments after focal group, judgment analysis (n = 4), and finally the last version. The inter-rater reliability index after judgment analysis was 0.785. The final version of the CENEES Program contains eight meetings, divided into 4 modules: 1) Fundamentals of Neuroscience; 2) Memory; 3) Executive Functions; and 4) Communication. The final meeting was called "Review". The CENEES Program is a new resource to help professionals who work within the general practice field, especially community health workers. As far as we know, there is no psychoeducation program on aging which contains the four subjects that are covered in the CENEES Program. The CENEES Program could assist the workers' daily activities and make them comfortable to offer and build actions in the community. A pilot and follow-up studies are suggested.

2.
Crit Care Med ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To identify the frequency, causes, and risk factors of early and late mortality among general adult patients discharged from ICUs. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective cohort study. SETTING: ICUs of 10 tertiary hospitals in Brazil. PATIENTS: One-thousand five-hundred fifty-four adult ICU survivors with an ICU stay greater than 72 hours for medical and emergency surgical admissions or greater than 120 hours for elective surgical admissions. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main outcomes were early (30 d) and late (31 to 365 d) mortality. Causes of death were extracted from death certificates and medical records. Twelve-month cumulative mortality was 28.2% (439 deaths). The frequency of early mortality was 7.9% (123 deaths), and the frequency of late mortality was 22.3% (316 deaths). Infections were the leading cause of death in both early (47.2%) and late (36.4%) periods. Multivariable analysis identified age greater than or equal to 65 years (hazard ratio, 1.65; p = 0.01), pre-ICU high comorbidity (hazard ratio, 1.59; p = 0.02), pre-ICU physical dependence (hazard ratio, 2.29; p < 0.001), risk of death at ICU admission (hazard ratio per 1% increase, 1.008; p = 0.03), ICU-acquired infections (hazard ratio, 2.25; p < 0.001), and ICU readmission (hazard ratio, 3.76; p < 0.001) as risk factors for early mortality. Age greater than or equal to 65 years (hazard ratio, 1.30; p = 0.03), pre-ICU high comorbidity (hazard ratio, 2.28; p < 0.001), pre-ICU physical dependence (hazard ratio, 2.00; p < 0.001), risk of death at ICU admission (hazard ratio per 1% increase, 1.010; p < 0.001), and ICU readmission (hazard ratios, 4.10, 4.17, and 1.82 for death between 31 and 60 days, 61 and 90 days, and greater than 90 days after ICU discharge, respectively; p < 0.001 for all comparisons) were associated with late mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Infections are the main cause of death after ICU discharge. Older age, pre-ICU comorbidities, pre-ICU physical dependence, severity of illness at ICU admission, and ICU readmission are associated with increased risk of early and late mortality, while ICU-acquired infections are associated with increased risk of early mortality.

3.
JAMA ; 322(3): 216-228, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310297

RESUMO

Importance: The effects of intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours remain uncertain. Objective: To determine whether a flexible family visitation policy in the ICU reduces the incidence of delirium. Design, Setting and Participants: Cluster-crossover randomized clinical trial involving patients, family members, and clinicians from 36 adult ICUs with restricted visiting hours (<4.5 hours per day) in Brazil. Participants were recruited from April 2017 to June 2018, with follow-up until July 2018. Interventions: Flexible visitation (up to 12 hours per day) supported by family education (n = 837 patients, 652 family members, and 435 clinicians) or usual restricted visitation (median, 1.5 hours per day; n = 848 patients, 643 family members, and 391 clinicians). Nineteen ICUs started with flexible visitation, and 17 started with restricted visitation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcome was incidence of delirium during ICU stay, assessed using the CAM-ICU. Secondary outcomes included ICU-acquired infections for patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed using the HADS (range, 0 [best] to 21 [worst]) for family members; and burnout for ICU staff (Maslach Burnout Inventory). Results: Among 1685 patients, 1295 family members, and 826 clinicians enrolled, 1685 patients (100%) (mean age, 58.5 years; 47.2% women), 1060 family members (81.8%) (mean age, 45.2 years; 70.3% women), and 737 clinicians (89.2%) (mean age, 35.5 years; 72.9% women) completed the trial. The mean daily duration of visits was significantly higher with flexible visitation (4.8 vs 1.4 hours; adjusted difference, 3.4 hours [95% CI, 2.8 to 3.9]; P < .001). The incidence of delirium during ICU stay was not significantly different between flexible and restricted visitation (18.9% vs 20.1%; adjusted difference, -1.7% [95% CI, -6.1% to 2.7%]; P = .44). Among 9 prespecified secondary outcomes, 6 did not differ significantly between flexible and restricted visitation, including ICU-acquired infections (3.7% vs 4.5%; adjusted difference, -0.8% [95% CI, -2.1% to 1.0%]; P = .38) and staff burnout (22.0% vs 24.8%; adjusted difference, -3.8% [95% CI, -4.8% to 12.5%]; P = .36). For family members, median anxiety (6.0 vs 7.0; adjusted difference, -1.6 [95% CI, -2.3 to -0.9]; P < .001) and depression scores (4.0 vs 5.0; adjusted difference, -1.2 [95% CI, -2.0 to -0.4]; P = .003) were significantly better with flexible visitation. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients in the ICU, a flexible family visitation policy, vs standard restricted visiting hours, did not significantly reduce the incidence of delirium. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02932358.


Assuntos
Delírio/prevenção & controle , Família/psicologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Visitas a Pacientes , Ansiedade , Brasil , Esgotamento Profissional , Cuidados Críticos/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Depressão , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 213, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As more patients are surviving intensive care, mental health concerns in survivors have become a research priority. Among these, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can have an important impact on the quality of life of critical care survivors. However, data on its burden are conflicting. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in adult critical care patients after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Web of Science, PsycNET, and Scopus databases from inception to September 2018. We included observational studies assessing the prevalence of PTSD symptoms in adult critical care survivors. Two reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Studies were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model to estimate PTSD symptom prevalence at different time points, also estimating confidence and prediction intervals. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were performed to explore heterogeneity. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool and the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Of 13,267 studies retrieved, 48 were included in this review. Overall prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 19.83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.72-23.13; I2 = 90%, low quality of evidence). Prevalence varied widely across studies, with a wide range of expected prevalence (from 3.70 to 43.73% in 95% of settings). Point prevalence estimates were 15.93% (95% CI, 11.15-21.35; I2 = 90%; 17 studies), 16.80% (95% CI, 13.74-20.09; I2 = 66%; 13 studies), 18.96% (95% CI, 14.28-24.12; I2 = 92%; 13 studies), and 20.21% (95% CI, 13.79-27.44; I2 = 58%; 7 studies) at 3, 6, 12, and > 12 months after discharge, respectively. CONCLUSION: PTSD symptoms may affect 1 in every 5 adult critical care survivors, with a high expected prevalence 12 months after discharge. ICU survivors should be screened for PTSD symptoms and cared for accordingly, given the potential negative impact of PTSD on quality of life. In addition, action should be taken to further explore the causal relationship between ICU stay and PTSD, as well as to propose early measures to prevent PTSD in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42017075124 , Registered 6 December 2017.

5.
J Crit Care ; 52: 115-125, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035186

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize data on subject outcomes associated with post-ICU follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, and EMBASE databases were searched according to pre-specified criteria (PROSPERO- CRD42017074734). Non-randomized and randomized studies assessing patient and family outcomes associated with post-ICU follow-up were included. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were included. Sixteen (61%) were randomized trials; of these, 15 were meta-analyzed. Non-randomized studies reported benefits in survival, functional status, anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and satisfaction. In randomized trials, post-ICU follow-up models focusing on physical therapy were associated with fewer depression symptoms (mean difference [MD], -1.21 (see Fig. 2); 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.31 to -0.11; I2 = 0%) and better mental health-related quality of life scores (standardized MD [SMD], 0.26; 95%CI, 0.02 to 0.51; I2 = 6%) in the short term. Post-ICU follow-up models focusing on psychological or medical management interventions were associated with fewer PTSD symptoms (SMD, -0.21; 95%CI, -0.37 to -0.05; I2 = 0%) in the medium term. CONCLUSIONS: Post-ICU follow-up may improve depression symptoms and mental health-related quality of life in the short term for models focusing on physical therapy and PTSD symptoms in the medium term for models focusing on psychological or medical management interventions.

6.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 13(1): 53-71, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989678

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Conversational discourse (CD) is among the most complex tasks in everyday life and relies on multiple cognitive domains (communicative and executive abilities). Alterations in discourse comprehension and production are often present in pathological aging. However, there is still a need to identify changes in healthy aging. Objective: This study aimed to compare young and older adults for the frequency of impaired communicative behaviors on a CD task. Performance was scored according to the Complementary Procedure of Conversational Discourse Analysis (CPCDA), developed based on the CD task from the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery. Methods: A total of 95 participants (54 young-adults and 41 older adults) were evaluated. The frequency of communicative behaviors was compared between groups using MANCOVA and Chi-square tests. Results: Young adults showed fewer impairments in expression, pragmatics, cohesion, coherence, comprehension and emotional prosody. Older adults showed higher levels of verbal initiative and had fewer word finding difficulties. Communicative behaviors associated with planning and self-monitoring (e.g. repetition of information and syllabic false starts) appear to be common in the speech of healthy individuals in general. Conclusion: Studies which evaluate both discursive and cognitive skills are required to identify age-related changes. This would allow for the development of screening tools for CD assessment and preventive programs.


RESUMO: O discurso conversacional (DC) está entre as tarefas diárias mais complexas e dependentes de múltiplos domínios cognitivos (habilidades comunicativas e executivas). Alterações na compreensão e produção do discurso são relatadas classicamente durante o envelhecimento patológico. No entanto, ainda é necessário esclarecer mudanças no envelhecimento saudável. Objetivo: Este estudo tem como objetivo comparar jovens adultos e idosos quanto à frequência de comportamento comunicativo desviante em uma tarefa de DC utilizando o Procedimento Complementar de Análise do Discurso Conversacional (PCADC), inspirado na tarefa de DC da Bateria Montreal de Avaliação da Comunicação. Métodos: Um total de 95 indivíduos (54 adultos jovens e 41 idosos) foram avaliados. A frequência dos comportamentos comunicativos desviantes foi comparadas entre os grupos usando análise MANCOVA e Qui-quadrado. Resultados: Adultos jovens apresentaram melhor desempenho nas habilidades comunicativas referentes à: expressão, pragmática, coesão, coerência, compreensão e linguística prosódica e emocional. O grupo de idosos obteve melhor desempenho nas variáveis: "falta de iniciativa verbal" e "procura ou troca palavra" do que os jovens. Itens associados ao planejamento da fala e auto-monitoramento (ex: "repete informações" e "realiza false start"), parecem estar associados a um comportamento comum na fala de indivíduos saudáveis em geral. Conclusão: Estudos que avaliem habilidades discursivas e cognitivas são necessários para identificar mudanças ​​influenciadas pela idade. Dessa forma, seria possível propor uma ferramenta de triagem para avaliação discursiva, bem como programas de intervenção preventiva.


Assuntos
Humanos , Envelhecimento Saudável , Comportamento Verbal , Idoso , Transtornos da Comunicação/prevenção & controle
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624724

RESUMO

Objectives: Assessing late-life anxiety using an instrument with sound psychometric properties including cross-cultural invariance is essential for cross-national aging research and clinical assessment. To date, no cross-national research studies have examined the psychometric properties of the frequently used Geriatric Anxiety Inventory (GAI) in depth. Method: Using data from 3,731 older adults from 10 national samples (Australia, Brazil, Canada, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Singapore, Thailand, USA), this study used bifactor modelling to analyze the dimensionality of the GAI. We evaluated the "fitness" of individual items based on the explained common variance for each item across all nations. In addition, a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) was applied, testing for measurement invariance across the samples. Results: Across samples, the presence of a strong G factor provides support that a general factor is of primary importance, rather than subfactors. That is, the data support a primarily unidimensional representation of the GAI, still acknowledging the presence of multidimensional factors. A GAI score in one of the countries would be directly comparable to a GAI score in any of the other countries tested, perhaps with the exception of Singapore. Discussion: Although several items demonstrated relatively weak common variance with the general factor, the unidimensional structure remained strong even with these items retained. Thus, it is recommended that the GAI be administered using all items.

8.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 12(4): 360-367, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-984338

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Verbal fluency (VF) is a widely used tool in neuropsychological assessment. Objective: We aimed to investigate the influence of age and educational level on clustering and switching in three VF modalities: phonemic (PVF), semantic (SVF) and unconstrained (UVF). We evaluated type of cluster, mean cluster size, and quantity of clusters, intersections, and returns. A total of 260 healthy subjects were assessed. Methods: Participants were divided into three age groups: young adults (18 to 39 years), middle-aged adults (40 to 59 years) and older adults (60 to 80 years) and into two groups of educational level: 1-8 years (low), 9 years or more (high). A two-way ANOVA analysis was conducted to analyze the effect of age and educational level and its interactions. A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to verify the performance during the task. Results: A main effect of age was detected on the UVF and SVF scores for total switches, taxonomic clusters, and for the total semantic clusters on the SVF. There was a greater effect of educational level on total switches (UVF, PFV and SVF), taxonomic clusters (UVF and SVF), thematic clusters and total semantic cluster (UVF), phonemic and mixed clusters (PVF), mean cluster size (UVF and SVF) and intersections (SVF). Educational level had a greater effect on all three VF tasks.


RESUMO Fluência verbal (FV) são ferramentas amplamente utilizadas na avaliação neuropsicológica. Objetivo: Nosso objetivo foi investigar a influência da idade e do nível de escolaridade no agrupamento e alternância em três modalidades de fluência verbal: fonêmica (FVF), semântica (FVS) e livre (FVL). Métodos: Avaliamos o tipo, tamanho médio e quantidade de agrupamentos, alternâncias, intersecções e retornos. Foram divididos 260 indivíduos, em três grupos etários: jovens adultos (18 a 39 anos), adultos de idade intermediária (40 a 59 anos) e idosos (60 a 80 anos) e dois grupos de escolaridade 1-8 (baixa), 9 ou mais (alto). Uma análise ANOVA de dois fatores foi conduzida para analisar o efeito da idade e do nível educacional e suas interações, além de uma ANOVA de medidas repetidas para verificar o desempenho ao longo da tarefa. Resultados: Encontrou-se efeito principal da idade nas tarefas de FVL e FVS nos seguintes escores: total de alternâncias, agrupamento taxonômicos e no total de agrupamentos semânticos na FVS. Houve um efeito principal do nível educacional no total de alternâncias (FVL, FVF e FVS), agrupamento taxonômicos (FVL e FVS), agrupamento temáticos e cluster semântico total (FVL), clusters fonêmicos e mistos (FVF), tamanho médio de cluster (FVL e FVS) e, finalmente, interseções (FVS). O nível educacional teve efeito maior nas três tarefas de FV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Comportamento Verbal , Escolaridade , Grupos Etários
9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, out.-dez. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977985

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de incapacidades físicas, cognitivas e psiquiátricas, fatores associados e sua relação com qualidade de vida em pacientes sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Métodos: Um estudo de coorte prospectivo multicêntrico está sendo conduzido em dez unidades de terapia intensiva adulto clínico-cirúrgicas representativas das cinco regiões geopolíticas do Brasil. Pacientes com idade ≥ 18 anos que receberam alta das unidades de terapia intensiva participantes e permaneceram internados na unidade de terapia intensiva por 72 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação clínica ou cirúrgica de urgência, e por 120 horas ou mais, nos casos de internação cirúrgica eletiva, serão incluídos de forma consecutiva. Estes pacientes serão seguidos por 1 ano, por meio de entrevistas telefônicas estruturadas 3, 6 e 12 meses pós-alta da unidade de terapia intensiva. Dependência funcional, disfunção cognitiva, sintomas de ansiedade e depressão, sintomas de estresse pós-traumático, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, re-hospitalizações e mortalidade em longo prazo serão avaliados como desfechos. Discussão: O presente estudo tem o potencial de contribuir para o conhecimento a respeito da prevalência e dos fatores associados à síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos na população de pacientes adultos sobreviventes de internação em unidades de terapia intensiva brasileiras. Ademais, a associação entre síndrome pós-cuidados intensivos e qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde poderá ser estabelecida.


ABSTRACT Objective: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. Methods: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. Discussion: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.

10.
Trials ; 19(1): 636, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most adult intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide adopt restrictive family visitation models (RFVMs). However, evidence, mostly from non-randomized studies, suggests that flexible adult ICU visiting hours are safe policies that can result in benefits such as prevention of delirium and increase in satisfaction with care. Accordingly, the ICU Visits Study was designed to compare the effectiveness and safety of a flexible family visitation model (FFVM) vs. an RFVM on delirium prevention among ICU patients, and also to analyze its potential effects on family members and ICU professionals. METHODS/DESIGN: The ICU Visits Study is a cluster-randomized crossover trial which compares an FFVM (12 consecutive ICU visiting hours per day) with an RFVM (< 4.5 ICU visiting hours per day) in 40 Brazilian adult ICUs. Participant ICUs are randomly assigned to either an FFVM or RFVM in a 1:1 ratio. After enrollment and follow-up of 25 patients, each ICU is crossed over to the other visitation model, until 25 more patients per site are enrolled and followed. The primary outcome is the cumulative incidence of delirium measured by the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Secondary and tertiary outcomes include relevant measures of effectiveness and safety of ICU visiting policies among patients, family members, and ICU professionals. Herein, we describe all primary statistical procedures that will be used to evaluate the results and perform exploratory and sensitivity analyses of this study. This pre-specified statistical analysis plan was written and submitted without knowledge of the study data. DISCUSSION: This a priori statistical analysis plan aims to enhance the transparency of our study, facilitating unbiased analyses of ICU visit study data, and provide guidance for statistical analysis for groups conducting studies in the same field. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02932358 . Registered on 11 October 2016.

11.
Trends Psychol ; 26(4): 1907-1919, out.-dez. 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-986174

RESUMO

Resumo Estabelecer o continuum de declínio cognitivo e funcional no envelhecimento normal para o patológico é desafiador. Nesta transição está o Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve (CCL), definido por prejuízo sutil na cognição e funcionalidade. Quando o prejuízo funcional aumenta preenche critérios para demência. Assim, determinar a acurácia diagnóstica da avaliação funcional é imprescindível. Com isso o objetivo foi comparar o desempenho funcional através da avaliação direta versus indireta e avaliar a acurácia do desempenho destas avaliações entre controles, pacientes com CCL e com doença de Alzheimer (DA). Participaram 90 indivíduos (n=27 controles, n=35 pacientes com CCL e n=28 com DA). Foram utilizadas a Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADL-Q) e a Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS-R). Foram realizadas MANCOVA para comparar o desempenho funcional direto entre os participantes e curvas ROC para verificar a acurácia diagnóstica das escalas entre os grupos. O desempenho da avaliação direta demonstrou diferenciar controles de CCL e CCL de DA. Ambas as escalas mostraram diferenciar CCL e DA, e a DAFS-R controles de CCL. Assim, a DAFS-R evidenciou melhor acurácia do desempenho funcional nestes grupos.


Resumen Establecer el deterioro cognitivo y funcional en el envejecimiento normal y de la enfermedad es desafiador. Esta transición es el Deterioro Cognitivo Leve (DCL), definido por deterioro sutil en la cognición y la funcionalidad. Cuando aumenta el deterioro funcional cumple con los criterios para la demencia. Por lo tanto, para determinar la exactitud diagnóstica de evaluación funcional es esencial. Por lo tanto, el objetivo fue comparar el rendimiento funcional a través de directa frente a la evaluación indirecta, verificar la relación de estas actuaciones, evaluar la exactitud de los resultados de estas evaluaciones entre los controles, los pacientes con DCL y enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA). Participaron 90 sujetos (n = 27 controles, n = 35 pacientes DCL y n = 28 EA). Se utilizaron Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADL-Q) y Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS-R). Se realizaron MANCOVA para comparar el rendimiento funcional directo entre los participantes y las curvas ROC para verificar la precisión diagnóstica de las escalas entre los grupos. El rendimiento de la evaluación directa mostró diferenciar los controles de DCL, y DCL de EA. Ambas escalas mostraron diferenciar DCL y EA, y DAFS-R controles de DCL. Por lo tanto, DAFS-R mostró una mejor precisión del rendimiento funcional en estos grupos.


Abstract It is challenging to establish the continuum of cognitive and functional decline in normal to pathological aging. In this transition is the Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), defined by subtle impairment in cognition and functionality. When functional impairment increases, it meets the criteria for dementia. Thus, it is essential to determine an accurate diagnosis from the functional evaluation. The aim of this study was to compare functional performance through direct versus indirect assessments, verify the relationship between them, and evaluate the accuracy of it within the control group, MCI and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Ninety subjects (n = 27 controls, n = 35 MCI and n = 28 AD) participated in the study. We used the Activities of the Daily Living Questionnaire (ADL-Q) and the Direct Assessment of Functional Status (DAFS-R). MANCOVA was performed to compare the direct functional performance, and ROC curves were used to verify the diagnostic accuracy of the scales among groups. The performance of the direct assessment showed differences between the controls and MCI, and between MCI and AD subjects. Both scales showed differences between MCI and AD, and DAFS-R showed differences between controls and MCI. Thus, DAFS-R demonstrated better accuracy of functional performance in these groups.

12.
BMJ Open ; 8(4): e021193, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29654049

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Flexible intensive care unit (ICU) visiting hours have been proposed as a means to improve patient-centred and family-centred care. However, randomised trials evaluating the effects of flexible family visitation models (FFVMs) are scarce. This study aims to compare the effectiveness and safety of an FFVM versus a restrictive family visitation model (RFVM) on delirium prevention among ICU patients, as well as to analyse its potential effects on family members and ICU professionals. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A cluster-randomised crossover trial involving adult ICU patients, family members and ICU professionals will be conducted. Forty medical-surgical Brazilian ICUs with RFVMs (<4.5 hours/day) will be randomly assigned to either an RFVM (visits according to local policies) or an FFVM (visitation during 12 consecutive hours per day) group at a 1:1 ratio. After enrolment and follow-up of 25 patients, each ICU will be switched over to the other visitation model, until 25 more patients per site are enrolled and followed. The primary outcome will be the cumulative incidence of delirium among ICU patients, measured twice a day using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Secondary outcome measures will include daily hazard of delirium, ventilator-free days, any ICU-acquired infections, ICU length of stay and hospital mortality among the patients; symptoms of anxiety and depression and satisfaction among the family members; and prevalence of burnout symptoms among the ICU professionals. Tertiary outcomes will include need for antipsychotic agents and/or mechanical restraints, coma-free days, unplanned loss of invasive devices and ICU-acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infection or bloodstream infection among the patients; self-perception of involvement in patient care among the family members; and satisfaction among the ICU professionals. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the research ethics committee of all participant institutions. We aim to disseminate the findings through conferences and peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02932358.

14.
Appl Neuropsychol Child ; 7(3): 277-285, 2018 Jul-Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426248

RESUMO

Cognitive development in children presents peculiarities according to groups of age, gender, and type of school. Few studies have been investigating the effects of all these factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the main effects and the interactions of age, gender, and type of school in 419 children from ages 6 to 12 years old evaluated by the Child Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NEUPSILIN-Inf). Older children, children in private schools and girls presented better results. Interactions between all three independent variables were observed in different cognitive domains. The results highlight both the heterogeneity and the influence of multiple factors in children's neuropsychological development.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Fatores Sexuais , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
15.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 30(4): 405-413, 2018.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the prevalence of physical, cognitive and psychiatric disabilities, associated factors and their relationship with the qualities of life of intensive care survivors in Brazil. METHODS: A prospective multicenter cohort study is currently being conducted at 10 adult medical-surgical intensive care units representative of the 5 Brazilian geopolitical regions. Patients aged ≥ 18 years who are discharged from the participating intensive care units and stay 72 hours or more in the intensive care unit for medical or emergency surgery admissions or 120 hours or more for elective surgery admissions are consecutively included. Patients are followed up for a period of one year by means of structured telephone interviews conducted at 3, 6 and 12 months after discharge from the intensive care unit. The outcomes are functional dependence, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety and depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, health-related quality of life, rehospitalization and long-term mortality. DISCUSSION: The present study has the potential to contribute to current knowledge of the prevalence and factors associated with postintensive care syndrome among adult intensive care survivors in Brazil. In addition, an association might be established between postintensive care syndrome and health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Qualidade de Vida , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Aval. psicol ; 17(1): 111-120, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-963746

RESUMO

Avaliação das praxias construtivas, embora tradicional, tem sido insuficientemente explorada no exame neurocognitivo. O objetivo foi verificar efeito de idade e escolaridade, assim como interação entre os itens de praxias construtivas no Instrumento de Avaliação Neuropsicológica Breve ­ NEUPSILIN, obtendo-se normas de referência por desempenho. Participaram 613 adultos e idosos entre 19 até 90 anos. Realizou-se quatro tarefas, três de cópia (quadrado, margarida e cubo) e uma produção espontânea (relógio). Conduziu-se MANCOVA para avaliar efeito da idade e escolaridade nos grupos; post hoc Bonferroni para normas nos desenhos. Houve efeito de idade no quadrado e no relógio e efeito de escolaridade no relógio. Ocorreu interação entre idade e escolaridade no cubo e na margarida em que o desempenho aumentou nos grupos de maior escolaridade e diminuíram com aumento da idade. Percebe-se a influência da idade e escolaridade como variáveis relevantes para dados normativos de desempenho em praxias construtivas. (AU)


Constructive praxis evaluation, although traditional, has been insufficiently explored in the neurocognitive examination. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of age and schooling, as well as interaction between the items of constructive praxis in the Brief Neuropsychological Assessment Instrument (NEUPSILIN), obtaining performance benchmarks. A total of 613 adults and elderly between 19 and 90 years of age participated. There were four tasks: three copying (square, daisy and cube) and one spontaneous production (clock). MANCOVA was conducted to evaluate effects of age and schooling in the groups; post hoc Bonferroni for standards in drawings. Age had an effect on the drawings of the square and the clock, schooling had an effect on the drawings of the clock. There was interaction between age and schooling in the cube and daisy drawings, in which performance increased in the groups with higher schooling and decreased with increasing age. We can see the influence of age and schooling as relevant variables for normative performance data in constructive praxis. (AU)


La evaluación de las praxias constructivas, aunque tradicional, no ha sido suficientemente investigada en el examen neurocognitivo. El objetivo fue verificar la interacción entre edad y escolaridad, así como la interacción entre los ítems de praxias constructivas en el Instrumento de Evaluación Neuropsicológica Breve ­ NEUPSILIN, obteniéndose normas de referencia por rendimiento. Participaron 613 adultos y ancianos con edades entre 19 y 90 años. Fueron realizadas cuatro tareas, tres copias (cuadrado, margarita y cubo) y una producción espontánea (reloj). Se llevó a cabo MANCOVA para evaluar el efecto de edad y escolaridad en los grupos; post hoc Bonferroni para las normas en los dibujos. Hubo efecto de edad en el cuadrado y en el reloj; también hubo efecto de escolaridad en el reloj. Hubo interacción entre edad y escolaridad en el cubo y la margarita donde el rendimiento aumentó en los grupos con más escolaridad y disminuyó en los grupos de edad más avanzada. La influencia de edad y escolaridad parecen ser variables relevantes para datos normativos de rendimiento en praxias constructivas. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Escolaridade , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Destreza Motora , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo
17.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 11(4): 426-433, Oct,-Dec. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-891029

RESUMO

ABSTRACT. Background: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly associated with vascular dementia and poor executive functioning. Notwithstanding, recent findings have associated WMH with Alzheimer's disease as well as other cognitive functions, but there is no consensus. Objective: This study aimed to verify the relationship between WMH and cognitive performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The study also sought to identify cognitive and demographic/cultural factors that might explain variability of WMH. Methods: The sample was composed of 40 participants (18 MCI and 22 AD patients) aged ≥ 65 years. Spearman's correlation was performed among cognitive performance (memory, language, visuospatial ability, and executive function) and WMH evaluated by the Fazekas and ARWMC scales. Two stepwise linear regressions were carried out, one with cognitive and the other with demographic/cultural variables as predictors. Results: Only naming showed significant correlation with ARWMC. Fazekas score exhibited significant correlation with all cognitive domains evaluated. Fazekas score was better predicted by episodic visual memory and age. Conclusion: This study found that the most relevant cognitive profile in MCI and AD patients with WMH was related to episodic memory. And, without taking clinical aspects into consideration, age was the best predictor of WMH.


RESUMO. Introdução: Hiperintensidades de substância branca (HSB) são comumente associadas à demência vascular e ao mau funcionamento executivo. Contudo, descobertas recentes relacionam-no com a doença de Alzheimer, bem como com outros funcionamentos cognitivos, mas não há um consenso. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a relação entre HSB e desempenho cognitivo em pacientes com Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve (CCL) e doença de Alzheimer (DA). Assim como, identificar fatores cognitivos e demográficos / culturais que poderiam explicar a variabilidade da HSB. Métodos: A amostra foi composta por 40 participantes (18 CCL e 22 pacientes com DA) com ≥ 65 anos de idade. A correlação de Spearman foi realizada entre o desempenho cognitivo (memória, linguagem, capacidade visoespacial e função executiva) e HSB avaliada através das escalas Fazekas e ARWMC. Dois modelos de regressão linear stepwise foram realizados, um com variáveis cognitivas e outro com variáveis demográficas / culturais como preditores. Resultados: Somente nomeação apresentou correlação significativa com ARWMC. Fazekas apresentou correlação significativa com todos os domínios cognitivos avaliados. Fazekas foi melhor predito pela memória episódica visual e idade. Conclusão: Este estudo foi capaz de identificar que em pacientes com CCL e DA com HSB o perfil cognitivo mais relevante está relacionado à memória episódica. E, sem levar em consideração os aspectos clínicos, a idade foi o melhor preditor da HSB.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Substância Branca
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 252: 256-261, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28285254

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the predictive role of clinical and demographic variables on the three core executive functions (EF) - working memory (WM), inhibitory control (IC) and cognitive flexibility (CF) - in bipolar disorder (BD). The sample consisted of 38 patients with BD type I, 39 with BD type II, and 106 control participants with no mood disorders. Subjects completed the Hayling Test, Trail Making Test, Digit Span Backwards, Sentence Word Span Test, and Stroop Color-Word Test. Composite scores for WM, IC and CF were calculated, and their correlations with clinical and demographic variables were analyzed. Stepwise hierarchical regression models including all significant correlates, gender, and diagnosis, revealed that the frequency of reading and writing habits (FRWH), IQ and diagnosis predicted 38.1% of the variance in IC. Diagnosis and IQ predicted 24.9% of the variance in WM scores. CF was predicted by the FRWH only, which accounted for 7.6% of the variance in this construct. These results suggest that daily cognitive stimulation through reading and writing make a significant positive contribution to executive functioning in BD, even in the absence of continued education. These and other forms of routine cognitive stimulation should be further emphasized in intervention programs for BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Cognição , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Função Executiva , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Inibição (Psicologia) , Inteligência , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Leitura , Análise de Regressão
19.
Dement Neuropsychol ; 11(4): 426-433, 2017 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29354224

RESUMO

Background: White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are commonly associated with vascular dementia and poor executive functioning. Notwithstanding, recent findings have associated WMH with Alzheimer's disease as well as other cognitive functions, but there is no consensus. Objective: This study aimed to verify the relationship between WMH and cognitive performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The study also sought to identify cognitive and demographic/cultural factors that might explain variability of WMH. Methods: The sample was composed of 40 participants (18 MCI and 22 AD patients) aged ≥ 65 years. Spearman's correlation was performed among cognitive performance (memory, language, visuospatial ability, and executive function) and WMH evaluated by the Fazekas and ARWMC scales. Two stepwise linear regressions were carried out, one with cognitive and the other with demographic/cultural variables as predictors. Results: Only naming showed significant correlation with ARWMC. Fazekas score exhibited significant correlation with all cognitive domains evaluated. Fazekas score was better predicted by episodic visual memory and age. Conclusion: This study found that the most relevant cognitive profile in MCI and AD patients with WMH was related to episodic memory. And, without taking clinical aspects into consideration, age was the best predictor of WMH.

20.
Dement. neuropsychol ; 10(3): 227-231, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-795281

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a brief cognitive screening tool for dementia. Several different presentation formats and scoring methods for the CDT are available in the literature. Objective: In this study we aimed to compare performance on the free-drawn and "incomplete-copy" versions of the CDT using the same short scoring method in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and dementia patients, and healthy elderly participants. Methods: 90 participants (controlled for age, sex and education) subdivided into control group (n=20), MCI group (n=30) and dementia group (n=40) (Alzheimer's disease - AD=20; Vascular Dementia - VD=20) were recruited for this study. The participants performed the two CDT versions at different times and a blinded neuropsychologist scored the CDTs using the same scoring system. Results: The scores on the free-drawn version were significantly lower than the incomplete-copy version for all groups. The dementia group had significantly lower scores on the incomplete-copy version of the CDT than the control group. MCI patients did not differ significantly from the dementia or control groups. Performance on the free-drawn copy differed significantly among all groups. Conclusion: The free-drawn CDT version is more cognitively demanding and sensitive for detecting mild/early cognitive impairment. Further evaluation of the diagnostic value (accuracy) of the free-drawn CDT in Brazilian MCI patients is needed.


RESUMO Introdução: O Teste do Desenho do Relógio (TDR) é um instrumento breve de triagem cognitiva para demência. A literatura apresenta diferentes formas de aplicação deste instrumento, assim como diferentes métodos de escore. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a performance da versão desenho-livre do TDR com a versão cópia-incompleta, utilizando o mesmo método breve de escore, no Comprometimento Cognitivo Leve (CCL), em pacientes com demência e em participantes idosos saudáveis. Métodos: foram recrutados para este estudo 90 participantes subdivididos em grupo controle (n=20), grupo CCL (n=30) e grupo demência (n=40) (Doença de Alzheimer - DA=20; Demência Vascular - DV=20), controlados para a idade, sexo e educação. Os participantes realizaram as duas versões do TDR em diferentes momentos e um neuropsicólogo cego para o estudo realizou o escore utilizando o mesmo método de escore. Resultados: Os escores da versão desenho-livre foram significativamente inferiores que os da versão cópia-incompleta em todos os grupos. O grupo demência apresentou escores significativamente inferiores que o grupo controle na versão cópia-incompleta. Os participantes com CCL não diferiram dos com demência e do grupo controle. A versão desenho-livre foi significativamente diferente entre todos os grupos estudados. Conclusão: A versão desenho-livre do TDR é mais cognitivamente exigente e sensível para detectar prejuízo cognitivo leve ou precoce. São necessárias avaliações adicionais a respeito do valor diagnóstico (acurácia) do TDR versão desenho-livre, em pacientes Brasileiros com CCL.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA