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1.
Surg Endosc ; 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941304

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with moderate-severe cholangitis require urgent/early biliary drainage and failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) warrants use of percutaneous drainage. While endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has evolved as an effective salvage modality but its safety and efficacy data in moderate-severe cholangitis are limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All consecutive moderate-severe cholangitis patients, with failed/technically non-feasible ERCP requiring EUS-BD in two tertiary care centers were included. Baseline laboratory and demographic parameters were documented. Technical and clinical success were primary outcome measures. Additionally, effective biliary drainage, adverse events due to procedure, hospital stay, ICU stay, and mortality were noted. RESULTS: Of the 49 patients (23 male; 46.9%) presenting with moderate/severe cholangitis, 23 (46.9%) had severe cholangitis. The median Charleston comorbidity index was 7.0 (IQR 2.0). Majority had malignant disease (87.8%) and 25 (51.0%) had inaccessible papilla. Technical success was achieved in 48 cases (98.0%), while clinical success with improvement of cholangitis was noted in 44 of 48 cases (91.7%). Effective biliary drainage was noted in 85.4% (41/48) cases. Adverse events in the form of mostly bleeding and bile leak were noted in 5 cases (10.2%) but managed conservatively. Distal obstruction exhibited significantly better clinical success (100% vs. 78.9%; p = 0.02) than hilar obstruction. Severe cholangitis had significantly lower clinical success (81.8% vs. 100%; p = 0.04) than moderate cholangitis. CONCLUSION: EUS-BD can be a safe and effective alternative option for patients with moderate to severe cholangitis, even with significant pre-morbid conditions, with acceptable adverse events rate.

3.
Pancreatology ; 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35872074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis remains the most common and morbid complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The use of rectal indomethacin and pancreatic duct stenting has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP), but these interventions have limitations. Recent clinical and translational evidence suggests a role for calcineurin inhibitors in the prevention of pancreatitis, with multiple retrospective case series showing a reduction in PEP rates in tacrolimus users. METHODS: The INTRO trial is a multicenter, international, randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. A total of 4,874 patients undergoing ERCP will be randomized to receive either oral tacrolimus (5 mg) or oral placebo 1-2 h before ERCP, and followed for 30 days post-procedure. Blood and pancreatic aspirate samples will also be collected in a subset of patients to quantify tacrolimus levels. The primary outcome of the study is the incidence of PEP. Secondary endpoints include the severity of PEP, ERCP-related complications, adverse drug events, length of hospital stay, cost-effectiveness, and the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of tacrolimus immune modulation in the pancreas. CONCLUSIONS: The INTRO trial will assess the role of calcineurin inhibitors in PEP prophylaxis and develop a foundation for the clinical optimization of this therapeutic strategy from a pharmacologic and economic standpoint. With this clinical trial, we hope to demonstrate a novel approach to PEP prophylaxis using a widely available and well-characterized class of drugs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05252754, registered on February 14, 2022.

4.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 37(8): 1571-1578, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Prompt and accurate diagnosis of gastrointestinal tuberculosis (GITB) along with simultaneous detection of drug resistance is inevitable for tuberculosis elimination. Truenat MTB Plus (TruPlus), a chip-based real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, was evaluated for the first time for diagnosing GITB and detecting rifampicin resistance. METHODS: Fifty ileocecal biopsy specimens (5 microbiologically confirmed GITB [culture-positive], 25 clinically confirmed GITB [culture-negative], and 20 control patients) processed in the Department of Microbiology between 2011 and 2021 were subjected to TruPlus assay, Xpert MTB RIF assay multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Their performance was evaluated against both culture and composite reference standard. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of TruPlus in diagnosing GITB was 70% (21/30) and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity was 60% (3/5) for microbiologically confirmed cases and 72% (18/25) for clinically confirmed cases. Performance of TruPlus was superior to Xpert (sensitivity = 30%; P = 0.001) and comparable with MPCR (sensitivity = 83.33%; P = 0.13). Both TruPlus and MPCR had moderate agreement with reference standards, and MPCR detected additional three cases. Both TruPlus and Xpert correctly reported Rifampicin resistance in three cases. CONCLUSIONS: TruPlus, with its greater portability and higher sensitivity than Xpert, could serve as an important tool for diagnosing GITB and rifampicin resistance at outreach endemic areas.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampina/farmacologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico
5.
Eur Radiol ; 2022 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35587829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis of solid pancreatic head lesions (SPHL). METHODS: This prospective study comprised consecutive patients with SPHL who underwent CEUS evaluation of the pancreas. Findings recorded at CEUS were enhancement patterns (degree, completeness, centripetal enhancement, and percentage enhancement) and presence of central vessels. In addition, time to peak (TTP) and washout time (WT) were recorded. The final diagnosis was based on histopathology or cytology. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify parameters that were significantly associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients (median age 53.8 years, 59 males) were evaluated. The final diagnosis was PDAC (n = 64, 65.3%), inflammatory mass (n = 16, 16.3%), neuroendocrine tumor (NET, n = 14, 14.3%), and other tumors (n = 4, 4.1%). Hypoenhancement, incomplete enhancement, and centripetal enhancement were significantly more common in PDAC than non-PDAC lesions (p = 0.001, p = 0.031, and p = 0.002, respectively). Central vessels were present in a significantly greater number of non-PDAC lesions (p = 0.0001). Hypoenhancement with < 30% enhancement at CEUS had sensitivity and specificity of 80.6% and 67.7%, respectively, for PDAC. There was no significant difference in the TTP and WT between PDAC and non - PDAC lesions. However, the WT was significantly shorter in PDAC compared to NET (p = 0.011). In multivariate analysis, lack of central vessels was significantly associated with a PDAC diagnosis. CONCLUSION: CEUS is a useful tool for the evaluation of SPHL. CEUS can be incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm to differentiate PDAC from non-PDAC lesions. KEY POINTS: • Hypoenhancement and incomplete enhancement at CEUS were significantly more common in PDAC than in non-PDAC. • Central vessels at CEUS were significantly associated with PDAC. • There was no difference in TTP and WT between PDAC and non-PDAC lesions.

6.
J Clin Exp Hepatol ; 12(2): 287-292, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535076

RESUMO

Background: There is limited literature on the role of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) as an adjunct to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This study evaluates the role of PTBD in patients with failed ERCP or post-ERCP cholangitis. Methods: Retrospective evaluation of clinical and intervention records of patients with biliary obstruction referred for PTBD following failed ERCP or post-ERCP cholangitis was performed. The cause of biliary obstruction, baseline serum bilirubin, white blood cell (WBC) count, serum creatinine, and procalcitonin were recorded. Technical success and clinical success (resolution of cholangitis, reduction in bilirubin levels, WBC count, creatinine, and procalcitonin) were assessed. Results: Sixty-three patients (35 females, mean age 51.4 years) were included. Indications for ERCP included malignant causes in 47 (74.6%) cases and benign causes in 16 (25.4%) cases. Indications for PTBD were failed ERCP in 21 (33.3%) and post-ERCP cholangitis in 42 (66.7%). PTBD was technically successful in all patients. Clinical success rate was 68.2% in the overall group. Mild hemobilia was noted in five (7.9%) patients. There were no major complications or PTBD related mortality. Cholangitis and acute kidney injury resolved following PTBD in 63.1% and 80% of the patients, respectively. Total serum bilirubin reduced by 47.8% and 69.4% after one week and one month of the PTBD, respectively. The average fall in procalcitonin was 5.17 ng/mL after one week of the PTBD. Conclusion: PTBD is an important adjunctive drainage procedure in patients with ERCP failure or post-ERCP cholangitis.

7.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 47(7): 2381-2389, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35507068

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the performance of T2-weighted abbreviated magnetic resonance imaging (T2W-AMRI) protocol in evaluating patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of consecutive hospitalized patients with ANP who underwent MRI (contrast-enhanced, CE or non-contrast, NC) between January 2017 and November 2020 was performed. The T2W-AMRI and complete MRI (cMRI) sequences were anonymized, and subsequently, two separate sets of data (AMRI and cMRI) were created for presentation to the radiologists involved in reading the data. The T2W-AMRI was based on a single-axial T2 half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo (HASTE) sequence. The pancreatic and extrapancreatic findings were recorded and tabulated independently by two radiologists on T2W-AMRI and cMRI. In addition, the interobserver agreement and association of findings between T2W-AMRI and cMRI were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients (mean age 31.7 ± 12.2 years, 17 females) were included. Thirteen patients had CE-cMRI, while the rest underwent NC-cMRI. There was no significant difference in the identification of pancreatic necrosis on T2W-AMRI vs. cMRI (p = 1.00). However, T2W-AMRI underestimated necrosis in one patient. Collections were accurately detected in all patients on T2W-AMRI. The mean size of the collection was larger on cMRI (6.5 ± 3.7 cm) than T2W-AMRI (6 ± 3.7 cm) with p = 0.006. cMRI detected more patients with disrupted pancreatic duct (n = 9) than T2W-AMRI (n = 6). However, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.375). There was a good to an excellent interobserver agreement between the readers for T2W-AMRI (k = 0.62-1). CONCLUSION: T2W-AMRI may offer a suitable alternative to cMRI in ANP, especially severe disease, as it can be acquired rapidly without the need for contrast injection.


Assuntos
Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda , Abdome , Adulto , Fator Natriurético Atrial , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(3): 404-408, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483999

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been well documented in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its clinical impact on the course of the disease is debatable. Majority of the available data is retrospective, and hence this prospective study was planned to study the impact of GI symptoms on COVID-19 outcome. METHODS: All COVID-19 patients admitted in a tertiary care centre from August-October 2020 were screened and patients without pre-existing GI diseases were included. A detailed history of the various symptoms including duration was documented. Various baseline laboratory investigations and inflammatory markers were conducted as per the protocol. Patients with and without diarrhea were compared for the various disease outcome parameters. RESULTS: Of the 244 patients screened, 203 patients (128 males; 63.1%) were included. Respiratory symptoms alone were present in 49 (24.1%), GI symptoms alone in 20 (9.9%) and 117 (57.6%) had both. Overall GI symptoms was noted in 137 (67.5%) cases with the commonest being diarrhea (61; 30.0%). Patients with both respiratory and any GI symptoms showed a lower trend towards need for mechanical ventilation (12.2% vs 7.7%; p â€‹= â€‹0.35) and mortality (10.2% vs 4.3%; p â€‹= â€‹0.14) compared to respiratory symptoms alone, although not statistically significant. Patients with diarrhea (n â€‹= â€‹61) had no mortality (0% vs 7.7%; p â€‹= â€‹0.036) or need for mechanical ventilation and shorter hospital stay compared to those who did not have diarrhea. CONCLUSION: GI symptoms are frequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the commonest is diarrhea. Diarrhea is a harbinger of better outcome with lower mortality among COVID-19 positive patients.

9.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech ; 32(3): 335-341, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage is the preferred treatment of pancreatic fluid collections (PFC). However, the choice of the stent for EUS-guided drainage in critically ill PFC cases with infected walled-off necrosis (WON) and/or organ failure (OF) remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2018 and December 2019, consecutive patients with symptomatic PFC subjected to EUS-guided drainage using biflanged metal stents (BFMS) or double-pigtail plastic stents (DPPS) were compared for technical success, clinical success, duration of the procedure, need for intensive care unit stay, duration of intensive care unit stay, ventilator need, resolution of OF, the duration for resolution of OF, complications, need for salvage percutaneous drainage or surgery and mortality. A subgroup of patients having infected WON with/without OF were analyzed separately. RESULTS: Among 120 patients (84.6% males) with PFC (108 WON, 22 pseudocyst) who underwent EUS-guided drainage, there was no difference in outcome parameters in BFMS and DPPS groups. Among patients with WON, clinical success was significantly higher (96.2% vs. 81.8%, P=0.04), with significantly shorter hospital stay (6 vs. 10 d) and procedure duration (17.18±4.6 vs. 43.6±9.7 min, P<0.0001) in the BFMS group. Among patients with infected WON with/without OF, the clinical success was significantly higher (100% vs. 73.9%, P=0.02), and the duration of the procedure was significantly lower (16.28±4.4 vs. 44.39±10.7, P<0.0001) in BFMS compared with DPPS group. CONCLUSION: EUS-guided drainage of WON using BFMS scores over DPPS. In patients having infected WON with/without OF, BFMS may be preferred over DPPS.


Assuntos
Endossonografia , Pancreatopatias , Drenagem/métodos , Endossonografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necrose/cirurgia , Pancreatopatias/cirurgia , Plásticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
10.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 16(3): 297-305, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35227141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comparative data on percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) vs EUS-guided drainage (EUS-D) for management of symptomatic walled-off-necrosis (WON), specially infected WON with/without organ failure(OF) is limited. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic WON were divided into two groups of PCD and EUS-D, depending on the modality of drainage. Resolution of OF, adverse events, and other outcome measures were recorded. The two modalities were compared among infected WON sub-cohort and also degree of solid component (SC). RESULTS: 218 patients (175 males; 80.3%) were included who underwent either PCD (n = 102) or EUS-D (n = 116). Clinical success was significantly higher in the EUS-D group (92.1% vs 64.6%; p < 0.0001) and even for infected WON (n = 128) (p = 0.004), with higher (p = 0.007) and faster (p < 0.0001) OF resolution. Other outcome measures including mortality were significantly higher in the PCD group. Among subgroups, PCD with >40% SC had the worst clinical success/OF resolution rates, while EUS-D with <40% SC had the best outcomes. CONCLUSION: EUS-D should be preferred over PCD in the management of WON, infected or otherwise, for higher clinical success, and higher/faster resolution of OF. PCD should be avoided in WON with>40% SC.


Assuntos
Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda , Drenagem/efeitos adversos , Endossonografia , Humanos , Masculino , Necrose/etiologia , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Stents , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 47(5): 1899-1906, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the success rate, clinical outcomes, and complications of retroperitoneal (RP) versus transperitoneal (TP) percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) of the necrotic pancreatic fluid collections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study comprised consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis who underwent PCD of lesser sac collections amenable to drainage via both TP and RP routes. The patients were divided into two groups based on the route of drainage (group I, RP, and group II, TP). The technical success, clinical success, complications, and clinical outcomes were compared between the groups. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the timing of drainage (acute necrotic collections, ANC vs. walled-off necrosis, WON) and organ failure (OF). RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients [mean age, 38.7 ± 12.3 years, 54 males] were included in the study. Group I and II comprised 22 (27.8%) and 57 (72.2%) patients, respectively. The procedures were technically successful in all the patients. There was no significant difference in the complication rate between the two groups. The clinical success was higher in group II (75.4%) as compared to group I (54.5%). However, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.070). There was no significant difference in the hospital stay (p = 0.298), intensive care unit stay (p = 0.401), need for surgical necrosectomy (p = 0.243), and mortality (p = 0.112) between the two groups. The outcomes in patients with OF and ANC were not affected by the route of PCD. Clinical success rate was significantly higher in WON undergoing TP drainage (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Both RP and TP routes of PCD are safe and effective. Clinical success rate was significantly higher in WON undergoing TP drainage.


Assuntos
Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Cateteres , Drenagem/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necrose , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 41(2): 190-197, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caustic-induced gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) remains one of the important causes of long-term morbidity in patients with caustic ingestion. Though endoscopic balloon dilation is an effective modality, response to caustic GOO is poorer as compared to peptic stricture. Computed tomography (CT)-antral wall thickness (AWT) has not been previously explored to predict the procedural success in patients with caustic GOO. METHODS: In a retrospective single-center study of prospectively maintained database, all patients with symptomatic caustic GOO who underwent CT scan prior to endoscopic balloon dilation were included. Gastric AWT was measured at the site of maximum visible thickness on CT scan. Details regarding caustic ingestion and endoscopic dilation were retrieved. Patients were divided into two groups, based on CT-AWT (< or ≥9 mm) and compared for outcome measures. RESULTS: Mean age of included patients (n=35) was 33.51 ± 13.65 years and 22 were male. Procedural success was achieved in 29 (82.85%) patients. Number of mean dilation sessions required were 5.28 ± 2.96 for achieving procedural success. The mean CT-AWT was 10.73 ± 2.80 mm (range 4-18 mm). There was no significant association between the CT-AWT and the number of dilations and procedural success. On univariate analysis, size of the first balloon used was a predictor of refractory stricture (p=0.011). However, no other factors predicted either refractory stricture or procedural success. CONCLUSION: There is no additional role of CT-AWT in predicting response to endoscopic balloon dilation or to predict refractory stricture in patients with caustic GOO.


Assuntos
Cáusticos , Obstrução da Saída Gástrica , Adulto , Cáusticos/toxicidade , Constrição Patológica , Dilatação/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Obstrução da Saída Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Obstrução da Saída Gástrica/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Pancreatology ; 22(3): 339-347, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35131169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 can cause acute pancreatitis (AP) and SARS-CoV-2 superinfection can occur in patients with AP during prolonged hospitalisation. Our objective was to characterize SARS-CoV-2 related AP and study the impact of SARS-CoV-2 superinfection on outcomes in AP. METHODS: In this multicentre prospective study, all patients with AP and SARS-CoV-2 infection between August 2020 and February 2021 were divided into two groups: SARS-CoV-2-related AP and superadded SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with AP. The two groups were compared with each other and the whole cohort was compared with a non-COVID AP cohort. RESULTS: A total of 85 patients with SARS-CoV-2 and AP (SARS-CoV-2-related AP; n = 18 and AP with SARS-CoV-2 superadded infection; n = 67) were included during the study period. They had a higher mortality [28 (32.9%) vs. 44 (19.1%), aOR 2.8 (95% CI, 1.5-5.3)] than 230 propensity matched non-COVID AP patients. Mortality in SARS-CoV-2 and AP patients was due to critical COVID. SARS-CoV-2-related- AP (n = 18) had a higher but statistically insignificant mortality than SARS-CoV-2 superinfection in AP [8/18 (44.4%) vs 20/67 (29.8%), p = 0.24]. On multivariable analysis, infection with SARS-CoV-2 (aHR 2.3; 95% CI, 1.43.7) was a predictor of in-hospital mortality in addition to organ failure (OF) in patients with AP. CONCLUSION: Patients with AP and SARS-CoV-2 infection had a higher mortality than matched non-COVID AP patients which was largely attributable to the severity of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 related AP had higher OF and in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pancreatite Crônica , Superinfecção , Doença Aguda , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
15.
World J Clin Cases ; 10(1): 91-103, 2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35071509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early prediction of response to percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) of necrotic collections in acute pancreatitis (AP) using simple and objective tests is critical as it may determine patient prognosis. The role of white blood cell (WBC) count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has not been assessed as a tool of early prediction of PCD success and is the focus of this study. AIM: To assess the value of WBC and NLR in predicting response to PCD in AP. METHODS: This retrospective study comprised consecutive patients with AP who underwent PCD between June 2018 and December 2019. Severity and fluid collections were classified according to the revised Atlanta classification and organ failure was defined according to the modified Marshall Score. WBC and NLR were monitored 24 h prior PCD (WBC-0/NLR-0) and 24 h (WBC-1/NLR-1), 48 h (WBC-2/NLR-2) and 72 h (WBC-3/NLR-3) after PCD. NLR was calculated by dividing the number of neutrophils by the number of lymphocytes. The association of success of PCD (defined as survival without the need for surgery) with WBC and NLR was assessed. The trend of WBC and NLR was also assessed post PCD. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-five patients [median age 40 ± 13.6 (SD), 64.5% males, 53.5% severe AP] were included in the final analysis. PCD was done for acute necrotic collection in 99 (63.8%) patients and walled-off necrosis in 56 (36.1%) patients. Median pain to PCD interval was 24 ± 69.89 d. PCD was successful in 109 patients (group 1) and 46 patients (group 2) who failed to respond. There was no significant difference in the baseline characteristics between the two groups except the severity of AP and frequency of organ failure. Both WBC and NLR showed an overall decreasing trend. There was a significant difference between WBC-0 and WBC-1 (P = 0.0001). WBC-1 and NLR-1 were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.048 and 0.003, respectively). The area under the curve of WBC-1 and NLR-1 for predicting the success of PCD was 0.602 and 0.682, respectively. At a cut-off value of 9.87 for NLR-1, the sensitivity and specificity for predicting the success of PCD were calculated to be 75% and 65.4% respectively. CONCLUSION: WBC and NLR can be used as simple tests for predicting response to PCD in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

16.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 41(1): 30-36, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The varied presentation of celiac disease (CD) makes it challenging to diagnose it and predisposes to a significant diagnostic delay. We undertook a study to evaluate the effect of delayed diagnosis of CD on its systemic and laboratory manifestations. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data (January 2015 to December 2018), patients with CD ≥ 12 years were evaluated for clinical presentation and laboratory parameters. Based on duration of symptoms at the time of diagnosis, the patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (early diagnosis): ≤ 3 years, group 2 (delayed diagnosis): > 3 years. The two groups were compared for demographic, clinical, laboratory, and histological manifestations. RESULTS: Of the 570 patients, 289 constituted group 1 (early diagnosis) and 281 group 2 (delayed diagnosis). There was no age or sex difference between the two groups and both had comparable body mass index (BMI). Patients in the delayed group had lower rates of diarrhea as initial presentation with lower physician and gastroenterologist consultation and significantly higher rates of anemia, pubertal delay, and menstrual irregularities as well as higher rates of low hemoglobin, low ferritin, low transferrin saturation, and low vitamin D levels. The delayed group also had significantly higher anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTg Ab) titers and higher grades of villous atrophy at presentation. CONCLUSION: Patients with CD with more than 3 years of symptoms, more often have atypical presentation, anemia, pubertal delay, and more advanced histological changes. They also have fewer physician and gastroenterologist consultations. This underlines the need for proper awareness to ensure early diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Anemia , Doença Celíaca , Anemia/diagnóstico , Anemia/etiologia , Autoanticorpos , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Transglutaminases
18.
Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol ; 31(2): 319-324, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) has become the standard of care for the endoscopic management of achalasia but its major long-term adverse effect has been the development of reflux-associated symptoms and sequelae. AIM: This study was conducted to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of the technique of POEM with fundoplication (POEM + F), a pure Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) procedure in achalasia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between November 2019 and January 2020, three patients with achalasia cardia were subjected to POEM + F. Various parameters such as technical feasibility, procedure time, adverse events and post-procedure follow-up were noted. RESULTS: POEM + F was successfully completed in all three patients. Other than intra-operative capno-peritoneum, no major adverse events were noted. On follow-up at one month, maintenance of wrap was noted. CONCLUSION: POEM + F is a technically feasible and a reproducible pure NOTES procedure.


Assuntos
Acalasia Esofágica , Miotomia , Cirurgia Endoscópica por Orifício Natural , Cárdia/cirurgia , Acalasia Esofágica/cirurgia , Fundoplicatura , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Intest Res ; 20(1): 11-30, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845546

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), once considered a disease of the Western hemisphere, has emerged as a global disease. As the disease prevalence is on a steady rise, management of IBD has come under the spotlight. 5-Aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents and biologics are the backbone of treatment of IBD. With the advent of biologics and small molecules, the need for surgery and hospitalization has decreased. However, economic viability and acceptability is an important determinant of local prescription patterns. Nearly one-third of the patients in West receive biologics as the first/initial therapy. The scenario is different in developing countries where biologics are used only in a small proportion of patients with IBD. Increased risk of reactivation of tuberculosis and high cost of the therapy are limitations to their use. Thiopurines hence become critical for optimal management of patients with IBD in these regions. However, approximately one-third of patients are intolerant or develop adverse effects with their use. This has led to suboptimal use of thiopurines in clinical practice. This review article discusses the clinical aspects of thiopurine use in patients with IBD with the aim of optimizing their use to full therapeutic potential.

20.
Dysphagia ; 37(2): 350-355, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905046

RESUMO

Caustic ingestion can lead to structural changes in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. However, there is limited data on the effect of caustic ingestion on gastric secretion. This study was planned to determine changes in gastric acid output after sham feeding in patients with caustic induced esophageal stricture and to compare it with healthy controls. It was a prospective study done at tertiary care center in North India. Consecutive patients with caustic induced esophageal stricture were evaluated for the study. Gastric secretory function was estimated in the basal state and after modified sham feeding. These results were compared with age-matched controls. The mean age of the included patients (n = 18) was 30.11 ± 9.19 years and 13 patients were male. 16 (88%) patients had history of acid ingestion. Patients with caustic sequelae had significantly lower basal and stimulated acid secretion compared to controls (n = 10) (5.84 ± 2.44 mmol/hr; p < 0.01 and 17.16 ± 7.53 mmol/hr; p < 0.01; respectively). Patients with lower esophageal stricture (n = 8) had significantly lower increase in acid output compared to patients with stricture elsewhere in esophagus (0.20 ± 0.3 vs. 2.31 ± 1.74 mmol/hr, p < 0.01). Patients with lower esophageal involvement had significantly lower stimulated acid secretion and increase in acid secretion compared to controls (4.74 ± 4.67 vs. 17.16 ± 7.53 mmol/hr; p < 0.01 and 20 ± 0.3 vs. 2.09 ± 0.88 mmol/hr; p < 0.01; respectively).


Assuntos
Cáusticos , Estenose Esofágica , Adulto , Cáusticos/toxicidade , Estenose Esofágica/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Ácido Gástrico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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