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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(17)2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879606

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) and, in particular, microRNAs (miRNAs) have frequently been associated with MS. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of all classes of sncRNAs in matching samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells, and cell-free CSF from relapsing-remitting (RRMS, n = 12 in relapse and n = 11 in remission) patients, secondary progressive (SPMS, n = 6) MS patients, and noninflammatory and inflammatory neurological disease controls (NINDC, n = 11; INDC, n = 5). We show widespread changes in miRNAs and sncRNA-derived fragments of small nuclear, nucleolar, and transfer RNAs. In CSF cells, 133 out of 133 and 115 out of 117 differentially expressed sncRNAs were increased in RRMS relapse compared to remission and RRMS compared to NINDC, respectively. In contrast, 65 out of 67 differentially expressed PBMC sncRNAs were decreased in RRMS compared to NINDC. The striking contrast between the periphery and CNS suggests that sncRNA-mediated mechanisms, including alternative splicing, RNA degradation, and mRNA translation, regulate the transcriptome of pathogenic cells primarily in the CNS target organ.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the influence of environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS) in different genetic contexts, and study if interactions between environmental factors and human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes differ in magnitude according to heterozygocity and homozygocity for HLA-DRB1*15:01. METHODS: Using population-based case-control studies (6985 cases, 6569 controls), subjects with different genotypes and smoking, EBNA-1 status and adolescent Body Mass status, were compared regarding MS risk, by calculating OR with 95% CI employing logistic regression. The interaction between different genotypes and each environmental factor was evaluated on the additive scale. RESULTS: The effect of each DRB1*15:01 allele on MS risk was additive on the log-odds scale for each additional allele. Interaction between DRB1*15:01 and each assessed environmental factor was of similar magnitude regardless of the number of DRB1*15:01 alleles, although ORs were affected. When any of the environmental factors were present in DRB1*15:01 carriers without the protective A*02:01 allele, a three-way interaction occurred and rendered high ORs, especially among DRB1*15:01 homozygotes (OR 20.0, 95% CI 13.1 to 30.5 among smokers, OR 21.9, 95% CI 15.0 to 31.8 among those with elevated EBNA-1 antibody levels, and OR 44.3, 95% CI 13.5 to 145 among those who reported adolescent overweight/obesity). CONCLUSIONS: The strikingly increased MS risk among DRB*15:01 homozygotes exposed to any of the environmental factors is a further argument in favour of these factors acting on immune-related mechanisms. The data further reinforce the importance of preventive measures, in particular for those with a genetic susceptibility to MS.

3.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 298, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Upon treatment with biopharmaceuticals, the immune system may produce anti-drug antibodies (ADA) that inhibit the therapy. Up to 40% of multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon ß (IFNß) develop ADA, for which a genetic predisposition exists. Here, we present a genome-wide association study on ADA and predict the occurrence of antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients treated with different interferon ß preparations. METHODS: We analyzed a large sample of 2757 genotyped and imputed patients from two cohorts (Sweden and Germany), split between a discovery and a replication dataset. Binding ADA (bADA) levels were measured by capture-ELISA, neutralizing ADA (nADA) titers using a bioassay. Genome-wide association analyses were conducted stratified by cohort and treatment preparation, followed by fixed-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Binding ADA levels and nADA titers were correlated and showed a significant heritability (47% and 50%, respectively). The risk factors differed strongly by treatment preparation: The top-associated and replicated variants for nADA presence were the HLA-associated variants rs77278603 in IFNß-1a s.c.- (odds ratio (OR) = 3.55 (95% confidence interval = 2.81-4.48), p = 2.1 × 10-26) and rs28366299 in IFNß-1b s.c.-treated patients (OR = 3.56 (2.69-4.72), p = 6.6 × 10-19). The rs77278603-correlated HLA haplotype DR15-DQ6 conferred risk specifically for IFNß-1a s.c. (OR = 2.88 (2.29-3.61), p = 7.4 × 10-20) while DR3-DQ2 was protective (OR = 0.37 (0.27-0.52), p = 3.7 × 10-09). The haplotype DR4-DQ3 was the major risk haplotype for IFNß-1b s.c. (OR = 7.35 (4.33-12.47), p = 1.5 × 10-13). These haplotypes exhibit large population-specific frequency differences. The best prediction models were achieved for ADA in IFNß-1a s.c.-treated patients. Here, the prediction in the Swedish cohort showed AUC = 0.91 (0.85-0.95), sensitivity = 0.78, and specificity = 0.90; patients with the top 30% of genetic risk had, compared to patients in the bottom 30%, an OR = 73.9 (11.8-463.6, p = 4.4 × 10-6) of developing nADA. In the German cohort, the AUC of the same model was 0.83 (0.71-0.92), sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.76, with an OR = 13.8 (3.0-63.3, p = 7.5 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: We identified several HLA-associated genetic risk factors for ADA against interferon ß, which were specific for treatment preparations and population backgrounds. Genetic prediction models could robustly identify patients at risk for developing ADA and might be used for personalized therapy recommendations and stratified ADA screening in clinical practice. These analyses serve as a roadmap for genetic characterizations of ADA against other biopharmaceutical compounds.

4.
Front Neurol ; 11: 993, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013655

RESUMO

Murine models have demonstrated that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is associated with pain-like behavior in peripheral nerve injury, however, the same association has not been shown when considering injury to the central nervous system (CNS), which more closely mimics the damage to the CNS experienced by MS patients. Previous research has indicated the DQB1*03:02 allele of the class II HLA genes as being associated with development of neuropathic pain in persons undergoing inguinal hernia surgery or with lumbar spinal disk herniation. Whether this HLA allele plays a part in susceptibility to pain, has not, as far as we are aware, been previously investigated. This study utilizes information on DQB1*03:02 alleles as part of the EIMS, GEMS, and IMSE studies in Sweden. It also uses register data for 3,877 MS patients, and 4,548 matched comparators without MS, to assess whether the DQB1*03:02 allele is associated with prescribed pain medication use, and whether associations with this genotype differ depending on MS status. Our results showed no association between the DQB1*03:02 genotype and pain medication in MS patients, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.02 (95% CI 0.85-1.24). In contrast, there was a statistically significant association of low magnitude in individuals without MS [adjusted OR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03-1.35)], which provides support for HLA influence on susceptibility to pain in the general population. Additionally, the effect of zygosity was evident for the non-MS cohort, but not among MS patients, suggesting the DQB1*03:02 allele effect is modified by the presence of MS.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use the case-only gene-environment (G [Formula: see text] E) interaction study design to estimate interaction between pregnancy before onset of MS symptoms and established genetic risk factors for MS among White adult females. METHODS: We studied 2,497 female MS cases from 4 cohorts in the United States, Sweden, and Norway with clinical, reproductive, and genetic data. Pregnancy exposure was defined in 2 ways: (1) [Formula: see text] live birth pregnancy before onset of MS symptoms and (2) parity before onset of MS symptoms. We estimated interaction between pregnancy exposure and established genetic risk variants, including a weighted genetic risk score and both HLA and non-HLA variants, using logistic regression and proportional odds regression within each cohort. Within-cohort associations were combined using inverse variance meta-analyses with random effects. The case-only G × E independence assumption was tested in 7,067 individuals without MS. RESULTS: Evidence for interaction between pregnancy exposure and established genetic risk variants, including the strongly associated HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele and a weighted genetic risk score, was not observed. Results from sensitivity analyses were consistent with observed results. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that pregnancy before symptom onset does not modify the risk of MS in genetically susceptible White females.

6.
PLoS Genet ; 16(10): e1009199, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104735

RESUMO

Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are central to the host defence against viruses and other microorganisms. If not properly regulated, IFNs may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory autoimmune, or infectious diseases. To identify genetic polymorphisms regulating the IFN system we performed an unbiased genome-wide protein-quantitative trait loci (pQTL) mapping of cell-type specific type I and type II IFN receptor levels and their responses in immune cells from 303 healthy individuals. Seven genome-wide significant (p < 5.0E-8) pQTLs were identified. Two independent SNPs that tagged the multiple sclerosis (MS)-protective HLA class I alleles A*02/A*68 and B*44, respectively, were associated with increased levels of IFNAR2 in B and T cells, with the most prominent effect in IgD-CD27+ memory B cells. The increased IFNAR2 levels in B cells were replicated in cells from an independent set of healthy individuals and in MS patients. Despite increased IFNAR2 levels, B and T cells carrying the MS-protective alleles displayed a reduced response to type I IFN stimulation. Expression and methylation-QTL analysis demonstrated increased mRNA expression of the pseudogene HLA-J in B cells carrying the MS-protective class I alleles, possibly driven via methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation. Together these data suggest that the MS-protective effects of HLA class I alleles are unrelated to their antigen-presenting function, and propose a previously unappreciated function of type I IFN signalling in B and T cells in MS immune-pathogenesis.

7.
RMD Open ; 6(3)2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994363

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor for several autoimmune diseases, but its role in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the association between cigarette smoking and subsequent development of pSS. METHODS: Information on smoking habits was collected from lifestyle habit questionnaires of patients with pSS (n=815) and a matched control group (n=4425) for a case-control study. Differences in smoking exposure were analysed by conditional logistic regression. Potential interactions between smoking and risk-associated human leucocyte antigens (HLA) were assessed by multivariate regression. RESULTS: The fraction of patients with pSS having ever smoked prior to diagnosis was lower than in controls (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.81). Current smoking at diagnosis was also less prevalent in cases (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.53). However, period prevalence of smoking during early adulthood was not statistically different from controls (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.22) but markedly decreased over time. This was partly due to patients being more prone to stop smoking, starting already 30 years prior to diagnosis (OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.30). Smoking patterns were also stratified by autoantibody status, yielding similar estimates. No interaction effects between HLA-DRB1 haplotypes and smoking were observed. CONCLUSION: The observed smoking patterns indicate that individuals who develop pSS smoke equally much as the general population during early life but are then more prone to stop. The data can be interpreted as smoking conferring protective effects, or reflecting early symptoms of pSS that affect smoking habits, emphasising the slow, progressive development of the disease.

8.
J Integr Bioinform ; 17(2-3)2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827396

RESUMO

Despite the ever-progressing technological advances in producing data in health and clinical research, the generation of new knowledge for medical benefits through advanced analytics still lags behind its full potential. Reasons for this obstacle are the inherent heterogeneity of data sources and the lack of broadly accepted standards. Further hurdles are associated with legal and ethical issues surrounding the use of personal/patient data across disciplines and borders. Consequently, there is a need for broadly applicable standards compliant with legal and ethical regulations that allow interpretation of heterogeneous health data through in silico methodologies to advance personalized medicine. To tackle these standardization challenges, the Horizon2020 Coordinating and Support Action EU-STANDS4PM initiated an EU-wide mapping process to evaluate strategies for data integration and data-driven in silico modelling approaches to develop standards, recommendations and guidelines for personalized medicine. A first step towards this goal is a broad stakeholder consultation process initiated by an EU-STANDS4PM workshop at the annual COMBINE meeting (COMBINE 2019 workshop report in same issue). This forum analysed the status quo of data and model standards and reflected on possibilities as well as challenges for cross-domain data integration to facilitate in silico modelling approaches for personalized medicine.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10960, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620875

RESUMO

It is unclear whether smoking interacts with different aspects of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with regard to multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We aimed to investigate whether smoking acts synergistically with elevated EBNA-1 antibody levels or infectious mononucleosis (IM) history regarding MS risk. Two Swedish population-based case-control studies were used (6,340 cases and 6,219 matched controls). Subjects with different smoking, EBNA-1 and IM status were compared regarding MS risk, by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) employing logistic regression. Potential interaction on the additive scale was evaluated by calculating the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). Current and past smokers had higher EBNA-1 antibody levels than never smokers (p < 0.0001). There was an additive interaction between current smoking and high EBNA-1 antibody levels (AP 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4), but not between past smoking and high EBNA-1 antibody levels (AP 0.01, 95% CI - 0.1 to 0.1), with regard to MS risk. An interaction also occurred between current smoking and IM history (AP 0.2, 95% CI 0.004-0.4), but not between past smoking and IM history (AP - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.4 to 0.3). Current smoking increases EBNA-1 antibody levels and acts synergistically with both aspects of EBV infection to increase MS risk, indicating that there is at least one pathway to disease in which both risk factors are involved.

10.
Nature ; 584(7822): 619-623, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581359

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common autoimmune disease and is highly heritable1. Here, by using a genome-wide association study of 30,234 cases and 725,172 controls from Iceland and the UK Biobank, we find 99 sequence variants at 93 loci, of which 84 variants are previously unreported2-7. A low-frequency (1.36%) intronic variant in FLT3 (rs76428106-C) has the largest effect on risk of autoimmune thyroid disease (odds ratio (OR) = 1.46, P = 2.37 × 10-24). rs76428106-C is also associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 1.90, P = 6.46 × 10-4), rheumatoid factor and/or anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.41, P = 4.31 × 10-4) and coeliac disease (OR = 1.62, P = 1.20 × 10-4). FLT3 encodes fms-related tyrosine kinase 3, a receptor that regulates haematopoietic progenitor and dendritic cells. RNA sequencing revealed that rs76428106-C generates a cryptic splice site, which introduces a stop codon in 30% of transcripts that are predicted to encode a truncated protein, which lacks its tyrosine kinase domains. Each copy of rs76428106-C doubles the plasma levels of the FTL3 ligand. Activating somatic mutations in FLT3 are associated with acute myeloid leukaemia8 with a poor prognosis and rs76428106-C also predisposes individuals to acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 1.90, P = 5.40 × 10-3). Thus, a predicted loss-of-function germline mutation in FLT3 causes a reduction in full-length FLT3, with a compensatory increase in the levels of its ligand and an increased disease risk, similar to that of a gain-of-function mutation.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Ligantes , Mutação , Tireoidite Autoimune/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo , Alelos , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Islândia , Íntrons/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mutação com Perda de Função , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Reino Unido
11.
Neurology ; 94(23): e2457-e2467, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434867

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between plasma neurofilament light chain (pNfL) levels and the risk of developing sustained disability worsening. METHODS: Concentrations of pNfL were determined in 4,385 persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 1,026 randomly selected population-based sex- and age-matched controls using the highly sensitive Single Molecule Array (SimoaTM) NF-Light Advantage Kit. We assessed the impact of age-stratified pNfL levels above the 80th, 95th, and 99th percentiles among controls on the risk of Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) worsening within the following year and reaching sustained EDSS scores of 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 and conversion to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). RESULTS: The median (interquartile range [IQR]) pNfL was 7.5 (4.1) pg/mL in controls and 11.4 (9.6) pg/mL in MS (p < 0.001). The median (IQR) duration of follow-up was 5 (5.1) years. High pNfL was associated with increased adjusted rates of EDSS worsening ranging between 1.4 (95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 1.1-1.8) and 1.7 (95% CI: 1.4-2.3). High pNfL was also associated with the risk of reaching a sustained EDSS score of 3.0, with adjusted rates ranging between 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2-1.8) and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.3-1.8) over all percentile cutoffs (all p < 0.001). Similar increases were observed for the risk of sustained EDSS score 4.0. In contrast, the risk of reaching sustained EDSS score 6.0 and conversion to SPMS was not consistently significant. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated pNfL levels at early stages of MS are associated with an increased risk of reaching sustained disability worsening. Hence, pNfL may serve as a prognostic tool to assess the risk of developing permanent disability in MS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Avaliação da Deficiência , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12952-12960, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457139

RESUMO

Effective biomarkers for multiple sclerosis diagnosis, assessment of prognosis, and treatment responses, in particular those measurable in blood, are largely lacking. We have investigated a broad set of protein biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma using a highly sensitive proteomic immunoassay. Cases from two independent cohorts were compared with healthy controls and patients with other neurological diseases. We identified and replicated 10 cerebrospinal fluid proteins including IL-12B, CD5, MIP-1a, and CXCL9 which had a combined diagnostic efficacy similar to immunoglobulin G (IgG) index and neurofilament light chain (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.95). Two plasma proteins, OSM and HGF, were also associated with multiple sclerosis in comparison to healthy controls. Sensitivity and specificity of combined CSF and plasma markers for multiple sclerosis were 85.7% and 73.5%, respectively. In the discovery cohort, eotaxin-1 (CCL11) was associated with disease duration particularly in patients who had secondary progressive disease (P CSF < 4 × 10-5, P plasma < 4 × 10-5), and plasma CCL20 was associated with disease severity (P = 4 × 10-5), although both require further validation. Treatment with natalizumab and fingolimod showed different compartmental changes in protein levels of CSF and peripheral blood, respectively, including many disease-associated markers (e.g., IL12B, CD5) showing potential application for both diagnosing disease and monitoring treatment efficacy. We report a number of multiple sclerosis biomarkers in CSF and plasma for early disease detection and potential indicators for disease activity. Of particular importance is the set of markers discovered in blood, where validated biomarkers are lacking.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CCL11/análise , Quimiocina CCL20/sangue , Inflamação/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimiocina CCL11/imunologia , Quimiocina CCL20/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Prognóstico , Proteômica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the influence of lean and fatty fish consumption on MS risk and to what extent a potential effect may be mediated by vitamin D. We also studied the interplay between fish consumption, sun exposure, DRB1*15:01, and A*02:01. METHODS: We used 2 population-based case-control studies (6,914 cases and 6,590 controls). Subjects with different fish consumption habits were compared regarding MS risk by calculating ORs with 95% CIs using logistic regression models. The mediation effect of vitamin D on the relationship between fish consumption and MS risk was assessed. Potential interactions between fish consumption, sun exposure, and MS-associated HLA genes were assessed on the additive scale. RESULTS: Irrespective of sun exposure habits, low fish consumption, including both lean and fatty fish, was associated with increased MS risk (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4) and interacted with the DRB1*15:01 allele (AP 0.3, p < 0.0001). The mediation analysis did not support vitamin D as a mediator of the association between fish consumption and MS risk. There was no interaction between fish consumption and sun exposure habits with regard to MS risk. CONCLUSIONS: Low fish consumption and low sun exposure seem to be separate risk factors for MS. Our findings suggest that fish consumption predominantly influences MS risk by other means than by effecting vitamin D status, which is of relevance for prevention, in particular for those with a genetic susceptibility to MS.

14.
Neurology ; 94(11): e1201-e1212, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047070

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine factors (including the role of specific disease modulatory treatments [DMTs]) associated with (1) baseline, (2) on-treatment, and (3) change (from treatment start to on-treatment assessment) in plasma neurofilament light chain (pNfL) concentrations in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data including blood samples analyses and long-term clinical follow-up information for 1,261 Swedish patients with RRMS starting novel DMTs were analyzed using linear regressions to model pNfL and changes in pNfL concentrations as a function of clinical variables and DMTs (alemtuzumab, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, natalizumab, rituximab, and teriflunomide). RESULTS: The baseline pNfL concentration was positively associated with relapse rate, Expanded Disability Status Scale score, Age-Related MS Severity Score, and MS Impact Score (MSIS-29), and negatively associated with Symbol Digit Modalities Test performance and the number of previously used DMTs. All analyses, which used inverse propensity score weighting to correct for differences in baseline factors at DMT start, highlighted that both the reduction in pNfL concentration from baseline to on-treatment measurement and the on-treatment pNfL level differed across DMTs. Patients starting alemtuzumab displayed the highest reduction in pNfL concentration and lowest on-treatment pNfL concentrations, while those starting teriflunomide had the smallest decrease and highest on-treatment levels, but also starting from lower values. Both on-treatment pNfL and decrease in pNfL concentrations were highly dependent on baseline concentrations. CONCLUSION: Choice of DMT in RRMS is significantly associated with degree of reduction in pNfL, which supports a role for pNfL as a drug response marker.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 7(1): 139-143, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893563

RESUMO

Blood Neurofilament light chain (NfL) has been suggested as a promising biomarker in several neurological conditions. Since blood NfL is the consequence of leaked NfL from the cerebrospinal fluid, differences in individuals' Body Mass Index (BMI) or blood volume (BV) might affect its correlation to other biomarkers and disease outcomes. Here, we investigated the correlation between plasma NfL, BMI, and BV in 662 controls and 2,586 multiple sclerosis cases. We found a significant negative correlation between plasma NfL, BMI/BV in both groups. Our results highlight the potential confounding effect of BMI/BV on associations between blood NfL and disease outcomes.

16.
J Clin Invest ; 130(2): 838-852, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725411

RESUMO

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are crucial for responses to infections and tissue damage; however, their role in autoimmunity is less clear. Herein we demonstrate that 2 C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) Mcl and Mincle play an important role in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Congenic rats expressing lower levels of Mcl and Mincle on myeloid cells exhibited a drastic reduction in EAE incidence. In vivo silencing of Mcl and Mincle or blockade of their endogenous ligand SAP130 revealed that these receptors' expression in the central nervous system is crucial for T cell recruitment and reactivation into a pathogenic Th17/GM-CSF phenotype. Consistent with this, we uncovered MCL- and MINCLE-expressing cells in brain lesions of MS patients and we further found an upregulation of the MCL/MINCLE signaling pathway and an increased response following MCL/MINCLE stimulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from MS patients. Together, these data support a role for CLRs in autoimmunity and implicate the MCL/MINCLE pathway as a potential therapeutic target in MS.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/genética , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Ratos , Ratos Transgênicos , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
17.
Mult Scler ; 26(13): 1638-1646, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HLA-DRB1*15:01, absence of HLA-A*02:01, and smoking interact to increase multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether MS-associated human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, apart from DRB1*15:01 and absence of A*02:01, interact with smoking in MS development, and to explore whether the established HLA-smoking interaction is affected by the DQA1*01:01 allele, which confers a protective effect only in the presence of DRB1*15:01. METHODS: In two Swedish population-based case-control studies (5838 cases, 5412 controls), subjects with different genotypes and smoking habits were compared regarding MS risk, by calculating odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals employing logistic regression. Interaction on the additive scale between different genotypes and smoking was evaluated. RESULTS: The DRB1*08:01 allele interacted with smoking to increase MS risk. The interaction between DRB1*15:01 and both the absence of A*02:01 and smoking was confined to DQA1*01:01 negative subjects, whereas no interactions occurred among DQA1*01:01 positive subjects. CONCLUSION: Multifaceted interactions take place between different class II alleles and smoking in MS development. The influence of DRB1*15:01 and its interaction with the absence of A*02:01 and smoking is dependent on DQA1*01:01 status which may be due to differences in the responding T-cell repertoires.

18.
J Neurol ; 267(4): 1045-1052, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study (1) to what extent the influence of low sun exposure on multiple sclerosis (MS) risk is mediated by low vitamin D levels; (2) whether low sun exposure or vitamin D deficiency act synergistically with HLA-DRB1*15:01 and absence of HLA-A*02:01. METHODS: We used two population-based case-control studies (7069 cases, 6632 matched controls). Subjects with different HLA alleles, sun exposure habits and vitamin D status were compared regarding MS risk, by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) employing logistic regression. Mediation analysis was used to identify the potential mediation effect of vitamin D on the relationship between low sun exposure and MS risk. RESULTS: Low sun exposure increased MS risk directly as well as indirectly, by affecting vitamin D status. The direct effect, expressed as OR, was 1.26 (95% CI 1.04-1.45) and the indirect effect, mediated by vitamin D deficiency, was 1.10 (95% CI 1.02-1.23). Of the total effect, nearly 30% was mediated by vitamin D deficiency. There was a significant interaction between low sun exposure and vitamin D deficiency (attributable proportion due to interaction 0.3, 95% CI 0.04-0.5) accounting for about 12% of the total effect. Further, both factors interacted with HLA-DRB1*15:01 to increase MS risk. INTERPRETATION: Our findings indicate that low sun exposure acts both directly on MS risk as well as indirectly, by leading to low vitamin D levels. The protective effect of sun exposure thus seems to involve both vitamin D and non-vitamin D pathways, which is of relevance for prevention, in particular for those with a genetic susceptibility to MS.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18633, 2019 12 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819081

RESUMO

The influence and effect of cigarette smoking in sarcoidosis is unclear. Here, we evaluated gene-environment interaction between multiple genetic variants including HLA genes and smoking in sarcoidosis defined by two clinical phenotypes, Löfgren's syndrome (LS) and patients without Löfgren's syndrome (non-LS). To quantify smoking effects in sarcoidosis, we performed a gene-environment interaction study in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 3,713 individuals. Cases and controls were classified according to their cigarette smoking status and genotypes by Immunochip platform. Gene-smoking interactions were quantified by an additive interaction model using a logistic regression adjusted by sex, age and first two principal components. The estimated attributable proportion (AP) was used to quantify the interaction effect. Assessment of smoking effects with inclusion of genetic information revealed 53 (in LS) and 34 (in non-LS) SNP-smoking additive interactions at false discovery rate (FDR) below 5%. The lead signals interacting with smoking were rs12132140 (AP = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.22-0.90), p = 1.28e-03) in FCRL1 for LS and rs61780312 (AP = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.28-0.90), p = 3e-04) in IL23R for non-LS. We further identified 16 genomic loci (in LS) and 13 (in non-LS) that interact with cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that sarcoidosis risk is modulated by smoking due to genetic susceptibility. Therefore, patients having certain gene variants, are at a higher risk for the disease. Consideration of individual's genetic predisposition is crucial to quantify effects of smoking in sarcoidosis.


Assuntos
Interação Gene-Ambiente , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Receptores de Interleucina/genética , Sarcoidose/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sarcoidose/epidemiologia , Sarcoidose/patologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Suécia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712720

RESUMO

Panic disorder (PD) has a lifetime prevalence of 2-4% and heritability estimates of 40%. The contributory genetic variants remain largely unknown, with few and inconsistent loci having been reported. The present report describes the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PD to date comprising genome-wide genotype data of 2248 clinically well-characterized PD patients and 7992 ethnically matched controls. The samples originated from four European countries (Denmark, Estonia, Germany, and Sweden). Standard GWAS quality control procedures were conducted on each individual dataset, and imputation was performed using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. A meta-analysis was then performed using the Ricopili pipeline. No genome-wide significant locus was identified. Leave-one-out analyses generated highly significant polygenic risk scores (PRS) (explained variance of up to 2.6%). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression analysis of the GWAS data showed that the estimated heritability for PD was 28.0-34.2%. After correction for multiple testing, a significant genetic correlation was found between PD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism. A total of 255 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with p < 1 × 10-4 were followed up in an independent sample of 2408 PD patients and 228,470 controls from Denmark, Iceland and the Netherlands. In the combined analysis, SNP rs144783209 showed the strongest association with PD (pcomb = 3.10 × 10-7). Sign tests revealed a significant enrichment of SNPs with a discovery p-value of <0.0001 in the combined follow up cohort (p = 0.048). The present integrative analysis represents a major step towards the elucidation of the genetic susceptibility to PD.

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