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1.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 31(1): 293-299, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778268

RESUMO

The standard technique for percutaneous catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) involves obtaining left atrial access and catheter manipulation from an inferior transfemoral venous access. However, in patients with inferior vena cava interruption, a standard transfemoral venous approach is not possible. In these cases, a percutaneous approach from a superior central vein, such as the internal jugular vein or the axillary/subclavian vein can be considered. In this article, we describe the details of our technique to obtain left atrial catheterization and perform catheter ablation of AF from a superior approach. Our technique involves the use of steerable sheaths, dedicated radiofrequency wires, and intracardiac echocardiography guidance.

2.
Card Electrophysiol Clin ; 11(4): 665-674, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706473

RESUMO

Despite advances in our understanding of the relevant anatomy and mapping and catheter ablation techniques of idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias, challenging sites for catheter ablation remain the aortic cusps, pulmonary artery, and notably the left ventricular summit. A systematic approach should be used to direct mapping efforts efficiently between endocardial, coronary venous, and epicardial sites. Foci at the left ventricular summit, particularly intraseptal and at the inaccessible epicardial region, remain difficult to reach and when percutaneous techniques fail, surgical ablation remains an option but with risk of late coronary artery stenosis.

3.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(11): 2334-2343, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433089

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The majority of patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) present a perivalvular substrate that is either predominantly antero-septal (AS) or infero-lateral (IL), corresponding to specific ventricular tachycardia (VT) morphologies. The relative timing of far-field and near-field ventricular electrograms (EGMs) from stored implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) events of VT may be used to distinguish AS from IL VT in NICM. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 48 patients with NICM with either a primarily AS (54%) or IL (56%) VT source undergoing catheter ablation between 2003 and 2018. Only patients with retrievable ICD-EGMs of spontaneous VT events which could be matched with VTs induced during the ablation procedure were included. A total of 56 VT events (52% AS origin and 48% IL origin) were analyzed, yielding a mean far-field to near-field interval of 31 ± 13 milliseconds for AS VTs and 47 ± 19 milliseconds for IL VTs (P = .001). At receiver operating characteristic analysis (AUC = 0.734), a far-field to near-field interval of ≥ 60 milliseconds ruled out AS VTs in 29 (100%) cases and diagnosed IL VTs with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 63%. An interval of ≤ 20 milliseconds ruled out IL VTs in 25 (93%) cases and diagnosed AS VTs with a PPV of 83% and NPV of 57%. Significant overlap between the two groups was observed among far-field to near-field intervals in between 20 milliseconds and 60 milliseconds. CONCLUSIONS: The relative timing of far-field and near-field EGMs from stored clinical ICD events of VT can be helpful to differentiate AS vs IL origin of VT in NICM.

4.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 30(9): 1526-1534, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by an epicardial (EPI) to endocardial (ENDO) fibrofatty infiltration of the RV predisposing to both EPI and ENDO ventricular tachycardia (VT). The relative timing between the VT QRS onset on the far-field ventricular electrogram (VEGM) to the local activation time recorded at the RV apex on the near-field VEGM from stored implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) events of VT can be helpful to discriminate ENDO from EPI VT in ARVC. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed consecutive ARVC patients undergoing catheter ablation between 2006 and 2018. Only patients with retrievable ICD VEGMs of clinical VTs which could be matched with VTs induced at the time of ablation were included. A total of 26 VT events (16 ENDO, 10 EPI) from 19 ARVC patients were examined, yielding a mean far-field to near-field interval of 33 ± 15 ms for ENDO VTs and 52 ± 20 ms for EPI VTs (P = .020). At receiver-operating characteristic analysis, a far-field to a near-field interval of 60 ms or more ruled out ENDO VTs in 16 (100%) cases and identified EPI VTs with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73%. An interval of less than or equal to 30 ms ruled out EPI VTs in eight (80%) cases and diagnosed ENDO VTs with a PPV of 80% and an NPV of 50%. CONCLUSION: Far-field to near-field ICD VEGM timing may be used to predict ENDO vs EPI VT in ARVC before ablation, indicating an ENDO origin if the timing is less than or equal to 30 ms and an EPI origin if greater than or equal to 60 ms.

6.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 11(3): 176-80, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26634026

RESUMO

The technological development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has overcome many of the limitations of adult and embryonic stem cells. We have found that activation of innate immunity signaling is necessary for this process, as it facilitates epigenetic plasticity in cells by a process called transflammation. More recently, we have discovered that transflammation also facilitates the transdifferentiation of cells directly from one somatic cell type to another. This insight may lead to a promising therapeutic pathway that avoids reverting cells all the way back to pluripotency before achieving a cell type of interest. While there is much therapeutic promise to transflammation and transdifferentiation, there is also evidence that transdifferentiation plays a role in some pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis. Ultimately, better understanding of transflammation will facilitate the development of regenerative therapies.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/transplante , Isquemia Miocárdica/cirurgia , Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/transplante , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/imunologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/metabolismo , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/imunologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/imunologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fenótipo , Síndrome
7.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 37(4): 277-84, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24819735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An accurate subtype classification of acute ischemic stroke is important in clinical practice as it can greatly influence patient care in terms of acute management and devising secondary stroke prevention strategies. Approximately, one third of ischemic strokes are cryptogenic despite a comprehensive workup. Diagnostic workup for detecting cardioaortic sources of cerebral embolism commonly includes transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). However, TTE has a limited diagnostic power to detect some of the cardioaortic abnormalities and additional imaging modalities are often needed to accurately assess such abnormalities. PURPOSE: We evaluated the feasibility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to detect the cardioaortic sources of ischemic stroke. METHODS: A total of 106 patients were included, of which 85 had an ischemic stroke and 21 had a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Routine diagnostic workup (RDW) included brain diffusion-weighted image MRI, telemetry, magnetic resonance angiography/CT angiography of head and neck, carotid duplex ultrasonography, laboratory studies and TTE. Patients additionally underwent CMR. Subtype assignment was performed in accordance with the Stop Stroke Study of the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification system by a stroke neurologist after reviewing the admission notes and diagnostic test results. A second subtype classification was assigned with an additional criterion defined based on delayed enhancement (DE)-CMR findings. Additionally, the presence of non-coronary artery disease (CAD) scarring was assessed in ischemic stroke patients and compared with the TIA patients as the control group. RESULTS: RDW detected cardioaortic embolism (CAE) stroke in 32 (37.6%) patients and cryptogenic stroke in 23 patients (27.1%). Addition of CMR resulted in a 26.1% reduction in the rate of cryptogenic strokes (6 patients). Furthermore, DE-CMR findings allowed for reclassification of three additional cryptogenic subtypes, resulting in a 39.1% reduction of cryptogenic stroke rate. Non-CAD scarring was detected in 13 (15.3%) stroke patients as opposed to only 1 (4.8%) TIA patient. CONCLUSIONS: CMR is a valuable tool for the detection of CAE sources in patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke and provides clinicians with a unique set of information that may substantially change the long-term management of these patients. DE-CMR also detects non-CAD scarring, which may indicate a predisposition to ischemic stroke. Further studies with larger samples and long-term follow-up are needed to further evaluate the clinical significance of our findings.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Embolia/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/patologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
8.
Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J ; 9(3): 137-41, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24066196

RESUMO

With a burgeoning population, increases in life expectancy, and expanding indications, the number of patients with cardiac devices such as pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators continues to increase each year. A majority of these patients will develop an indication for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in their lifetime. MRIs have established themselves as one of the most powerful imaging tools for a variety of conditions. However, given the historic safety concerns, many physicians are reluctant to use MRIs in this patient population. In this paper, we discuss the potential adverse effects of MRIs in patients with cardiac devices, review key studies that have addressed strategies to limit adverse effects, and provide our cardiovascular MRI laboratory's protocol for imaging patients with implanted cardiac devices.


Assuntos
Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/terapia , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Marca-Passo Artificial , Segurança de Equipamentos , Humanos
9.
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 101(8): 1367-76, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24591220

RESUMO

In this study, the coagulation-induced resistance to flow in small-diameter nonpermeable Tygon tubes and permeable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts was characterized by measuring the upstream pressure needed to purge the coagulum from the tube lumen. This purging pressure was monitored using a closed system that compressed the contents of the tubes at a constant rate. The pressure system was validated using a glycerin series with well-defined viscosities and precisely controlled reductions in cross-sectional area available for flow. This system was then used to systematically probe the upstream pressure buildup as fibrin glue, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or whole blood coagulated in small-diameter Tygon tubing and or ePTFE grafts. The maximum purging pressures rose with increased clot maturity for fibrin glue, PRP, and whole blood in both Tygon and ePTFE tubes. Although the rapidly coagulating fibrin glue in nonpermeable Tygon tubing yielded highly consistent purging curves, the significantly longer and more variable clotting times of PRP and whole blood, and the porosity of ePTFE grafts, significantly diminished the consistency of the purging curves.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Prótese Vascular , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/química , Politetrafluoretileno/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Bioprótese , Humanos , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas/metabolismo , Pressão , Reologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Viscosidade
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