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1.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441856

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) hospitalization prior to transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is associated with increased post-procedural mortality. We sought to assess the association between recent (≤6 months) HF hospitalization and long-term adverse outcomes in patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis, undergoing TAVR in the PARTNER 2 trial and registries. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intermediate to high or even prohibitive risk patients who underwent TAVR in the PARTNER 2 trial and registries were included in the analysis. Clinical outcomes at 30 days and 2 years were compared between patients according to whether they were recently hospitalized for HF, using Kaplan-Meier event rates and study-stratified multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using propensity score matching. Of 3988 patients (99.8%) with available information on recent HF hospitalization, 1622 patients (40.7%) were hospitalized for HF symptoms during the 6 months prior to TAVR. After multivariable adjustments, recent HF hospitalization was associated with increased all-cause mortality at 30 days [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.48, P = 0.02] and 2 years (adjusted HR 1.30, 95% CI 1.13-1.49, P = 0.0003), which was driven by increased cardiovascular mortality. Infective endocarditis rate at 2 years was also higher in patients with recent HF hospitalization (adjusted HR 2.35, 95% CI 1.38-4.01, P = 0.002). These results remained consistent when propensity score matching was used. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis from the PARTNER 2 trial and registries, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as infective endocarditis rates at 2 years were higher in patients with recent HF hospitalization.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The healthcare burden posed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the New York Metropolitan area has necessitated the postponement of elective procedures resulting in a marked reduction in cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) volumes with a potential to impact interventional cardiology (IC) fellowship training. METHODS: We conducted a web-based survey sent electronically to 21 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education accredited IC fellowship program directors (PDs) and their respective fellows. RESULTS: Fourteen programs (67%) responded to the survey and all acknowledged a significant decrease in CCL procedural volumes. More than half of the PDs reported part of their CCL being converted to inpatient units and IC fellows being redeployed to COVID-19 related duties. More than two-thirds of PDs believed that the COVID-19 pandemic would have a moderate (57%) or severe (14%) adverse impact on IC fellowship training, and 21% of the PDs expected their current fellows' average percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) volume to be below 250. Of 25 IC fellow respondents, 95% expressed concern that the pandemic would have a moderate (72%) or severe (24%) adverse impact on their fellowship training, and nearly one-fourth of fellows reported performing fewer than 250 PCIs as of March 1st. Finally, roughly one-third of PDs and IC fellows felt that there should be consideration of an extension of fellowship training or a period of early career mentorship after fellowship. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a significant reduction in CCL procedural volumes that is impacting IC fellowship training in the NY metropolitan area. These results should inform professional societies and accreditation bodies to offer tailored opportunities for remediation of affected trainees.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417332

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to establish a computed tomography (CT)-based scoring system for grading mitral annular calcification (MAC) severity and potentially aid in predicting valve embolization during transcatheter mitral valve (MV) replacement using balloon-expandable aortic transcatheter heart valves. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter MV replacement is emerging as an alternative treatment for patients with severe MAC who are not surgical candidates. Although cardiac CT is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of candidates for valve-in-MAC (ViMAC), a standardized grading system to quantify MAC severity has not been established. METHODS: We use a multicenter retrospective review of cardiac CT and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing ViMAC. A CT-based MAC score was created using the following features: average calcium thickness (mm), degrees of annulus circumference involved, calcification at one or both fibrous trigones, and calcification of one or both leaflets. Features were assigned points according to severity (total maximum score = 10) and severity grade was assigned based on total points (mild ≤3, moderate 4 to 6, and severe ≥7 points). The association between MAC score and device migration/embolization was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 117 patients in the TMVR in MAC registry, 87 had baseline cardiac CT of adequate quality, whereas 15 were transatrial and excluded. The total cohort included 72 (trans-septal = 37, transapical = 35). Mean patient age was 74 ± 12 years, 66.7% were female, and the mean Society of Thoracic Surgery risk score was 15.4% ± 10.5. The mean MAC score was 7.7 ± 1.4. Embolization/migration rates were lower in higher scores: Patients with a MAC score of 7 had valve embolization/migration rate of 12.5%, MAC score ≥8 had a rate of 8.7%, and a MAC score of ≥9 had zero (p = 0.023). Patients with a MAC score of ≤6 had 60% embolization/migration rate versus 9.7% in patients with a MAC score ≥7 (p < 0.001). In multivariable analysis, a MAC score ≤6 was in independent predictor of valve embolization/migration (odds ratio [OR]: 5.86 [95% CI: 1.00 to 34.26]; p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: This cardiac CT-based score provides a systematic method to grade MAC severity which may assist in predicting valve embolization/migration during trans-septal or transapical ViMAC procedures.

4.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324622

RESUMO

The COVID-19 crisis is a global pandemic of a novel infectious disease with far-ranging public health implications. With regard to cardiac electrophysiology (EP) services, we discuss the "real-world" challenges and solutions that have been essential for efficient and successful (i) ramping down of standard clinical practice patterns and (ii) pivoting of workflow processes to meet the demands of this pandemic. The aims of these recommendations are to outline: (1) essential practical steps to approaching procedures, as well as outpatient and inpatient care of EP patients, with relevant examples, (2) successful strategies to minimize exposure risk to patients and clinical staff while also balancing resource utilization, (3) challenges related to redeployment and restructuring of clinical and support staff, and (4) considerations regarding continued collaboration with clinical and administrative colleagues in order to implement these changes. While process changes will vary across practices and hospital systems, we believe that these experiences from four different EP sections in a large New York city hospital network currently based in the global epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic will prove useful for other EP practices adapting their own practices in preparation for local surges.

5.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278716

RESUMO

Patients with structural heart disease (SHD) are at increased risk of adverse outcomes from the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) due to advanced age and comorbidity. In the midst of a global pandemic of a novel infectious disease, reality-based considerations comprise an important starting point for formulating clinical management pathways. The aim of these "crisis-driven" recommendations is (1) to ensure appropriate and timely treatment of SHD patients, (2) to minimize the risk of COVID-19 exposure to patients and healthcare workers, and (3) to limit resource utilization under conditions of constraint. While the degree of disruption to usual practice will vary across the United States and elsewhere, we hope that early experiences from a Heart Team operating in the current global epicenter of COVID-19 may prove useful for others adapting their practice in advance of local surges of COVID-19.

6.
Heart ; 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32303631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current guidelines support the use of transcatheter mitral valve interventions to treat some selected high-risk patients with significant mitral valvulopathy. As with any other interventional cardiac procedure, concerns have been raised about cerebrovascular event. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the incidence of cerebrovascular events following (1) transcatheter mitral valve edge-to-edge repair with mitral valve clip and (2) transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR). METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the cerebrovascular adverse events after transcatheter mitral valve edge-to-edge repair and TMVR procedures. The primary endpoint was the incidence of cerebrovascular events as defined by the Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium. An event that occurred within 30 days or during index hospitalisation was defined as periprocedural; otherwise it was defined as non-periprocedural. This study was designed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Aggregated study-level data were pooled using a random effect model. The quality of each study was appraised with the Hawker checklist, a method of systematically reviewing research from different paradigms. RESULTS: Sixty studies totalling 28 155 patients undergoing edge-to-edge repair with mitral valve clip were included in the analysis. Periprocedural stroke and non-periprocedural stroke rates were 0.9% (95% CI 0.6 to 1.1) and 2.4% (95% CI 1.6 to 3.2), respectively. For TMVR procedures, 26 studies including 1910 patients were analysed. The estimated periprocedural stroke incidence was 1% (95% CI 0.5 to 1.8) compared with 7% (95% CI 0.8 to 18.5) for non-periprocedural stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Transcatheter mitral valve interventions are associated with low rates of cerebrovascular events. The exact mechanisms of these complications are still poorly understood given the relative paucity of good quality data. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019117257.

7.
Circulation ; 141(19): 1527-1537, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare echocardiographic findings in low-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: The PARTNER 3 trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves) randomized 1000 patients with severe aortic stenosis and low surgical risk to undergo either transfemoral TAVR with the balloon-expandable SAPIEN 3 valve or SAVR. Transthoracic echocardiograms obtained at baseline and at 30 days and 1 year after the procedure were analyzed by a consortium of 2 echocardiography core laboratories. RESULTS: The percentage of moderate or severe aortic regurgitation (AR) was low and not statistically different between the TAVR and SAVR groups at 30 days (0.8% versus 0.2%; P=0.38). Mild AR was more frequent after TAVR than SAVR at 30 days (28.8% versus 4.2%; P<0.001). At 1 year, mean transvalvular gradient (13.7±5.6 versus 11.6±5.0 mm Hg; P=0.12) and aortic valve area (1.72±0.37 versus 1.76±0.42 cm2; P=0.12) were similar in TAVR and SAVR. The percentage of severe prosthesis-patient mismatch at 30 days was low and similar between TAVR and SAVR (4.6 versus 6.3%; P=0.30). Valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva), which reflects total left ventricular hemodynamic burden, was lower with TAVR than SAVR at 1 year (3.7±0.8 versus 3.9±0.9 mm Hg/mL/m2; P<0.001). Tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion decreased and the percentage of moderate or severe tricuspid regurgitation increased from baseline to 1 year in SAVR but remained unchanged in TAVR. Irrespective of treatment arm, high Zva and low tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion, but not moderate to severe AR or severe prosthesis-patient mismatch, were associated with increased risk of the composite end point of mortality, stroke, and rehospitalization at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe aortic stenosis and low surgical risk, TAVR with the SAPIEN 3 valve was associated with similar percentage of moderate or severe AR compared with SAVR but higher percentage of mild AR. Transprosthetic gradients, valve areas, percentage of severe prosthesis-patient mismatch, and left ventricular mass regression were similar in TAVR and SAVR. SAVR was associated with significant deterioration of right ventricular systolic function and greater tricuspid regurgitation, which persisted at 1 year. High Zva and low tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion were associated with worse outcome at 1 year whereas AR and severe prosthesis-patient mismatch were not. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02675114.

8.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(3): e008425, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter mitral valve replacement using aortic transcatheter heart valves has recently become an alternative for patients with degenerated mitral bioprostheses, failed surgical repairs with annuloplasty rings or severe mitral annular calcification who are poor surgical candidates. Outcomes of these procedures are collected in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology/Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry. A comprehensive analysis of mitral valve-in-valve (MViV), mitral valve-in-ring (MViR), and valve-in-mitral annular calcification (ViMAC) outcomes has not been performed. We sought to evaluate short-term outcomes of early experience with MViV, MViR, and ViMAC in the United States. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry. RESULTS: Nine hundred three high-risk patients (median Society of Thoracic Surgeons score 10%) underwent MViV (n=680), MViR (n=123), or ViMAC (n=100) between March 2013 and June 2017 at 172 hospitals. Median age was 75 years, 59.2% female. Technical and procedural success were higher in MViV. Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction occurred more frequently with ViMAC (ViMAC=10%, MViR=4.9%, MViV=0.7%; P<0.001). In-hospital mortality (MViV=6.3%, MViR=9%, ViMAC=18%; P=0.004) and 30-day mortality (MViV=8.1%, MViR=11.5%, ViMAC=21.8%; P=0.003) were higher in ViMAC. At 30-day follow-up, median mean mitral valve gradient was 7 mm Hg, most patients (96.7%) had mitral regurgitation grade ≤1 (+) and were in New York Heart Association class I to II (81.7%). CONCLUSIONS: MViV using aortic balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valves is associated with a low complication rate, a 30-day mortality lower than predicted by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, and superior short-term outcomes than MViR and ViMAC. At 30 days, patients in all groups experienced improvement of symptoms, and valve performance remained stable. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02245763.

9.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(9): 1030-1042, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of initial deployment orientation of SAPIEN 3, Evolut, and ACURATE-neo transcatheter heart valves on their final orientation and neocommissural overlap with coronary arteries. BACKGROUND: Coronary artery access and redo transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) following initial TAVR may be influenced by transcatheter heart valve orientation. In this study the impact of transcatheter heart valve deployment orientation on commissural alignment was evaluated. METHODS: Pre-TAVR computed tomography and procedural fluoroscopy were analyzed in 828 patients who underwent TAVR (483 SAPIEN 3, 245 Evolut, and 100 ACURATE-neo valves) from March 2016 to September 2019 at 5 centers. Coplanar fluoroscopic views were coregistered to pre-TAVR computed tomography to determine commissural alignment. Severe overlap between neocommissural posts and coronary arteries was defined as 0° to 20° apart. The SAPIEN 3 had 1 commissural post crimped at 3, 6, 9, and 12 o'clock. The Evolut "Hat" marker and ACURATE-neo commissural post at deployment were classified as center back (CB), inner curve (IC), outer curve (OC), or center front (CF) and matched with final orientation. RESULTS: Initial SAPIEN 3 crimped orientation had no impact on commissural alignment. Evolut "Hat" at OC or CF at initial deployment had less severe overlap than IC or CB (p < 0.001) against the left main (15.7% vs. 66.0%) and right coronary (7.1% vs. 51.1%) arteries. Tracking Evolut "Hat" at OC of the descending aorta (n = 107) improved OC at deployment from 70.2% to 91.6% (p = 0.002) and reduced coronary artery overlap by 36% to 60% (p < 0.05). ACURATE-neo commissural post at CB or IC during deployment had less coronary artery overlap compared to CF or OC (p < 0.001), with intentional alignment successful in 5 of 7 cases. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first systematic evaluation of commissural alignment in TAVR. More than 30% to 50% of cases had overlap with 1 or both coronary arteries. Initial SAPIEN 3 orientation had no impact on alignment, but specific initial orientations of Evolut and ACURATE improved alignment. Optimizing valve alignment to avoid coronary artery overlap will be important in coronary artery access and redo TAVR.

10.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(3): 323-331, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the 2-year results of the SURTAVI (Surgical Replacement and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation) trial and confirm the interim Bayesian analysis. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with a self-expanding valve was noninferior to surgery in patients with severe aortic stenosis and intermediate operative risk using Bayesian statistical methods. Novel Bayesian designs have been used to shorten the time to primary endpoint analysis in randomized clinical trials, although the predictive value of Bayesian analysis compared with frequentist approaches remains debated. METHODS: The SURTAVI trial randomized 1,660 patients. An interim analysis was performed 1 year after the 1,400th patient was treated to estimate the primary 2-year endpoint of all-cause mortality or disabling strokes for all patients. RESULTS: The Kaplan-Meier rate for the complete 2-year primary endpoint was 12.7% in the TAVR group and 12.6% in the surgery group (0.0% difference; 95% confidence interval: -3.4% to 3.5%), compared with 12.6% with TAVR and 14.0% with surgery (-1.4% difference; Bayesian credible interval: -5.2% to 2.3%) in the interim Bayesian analysis. A comparison of individual clinical, hemodynamic, and quality-of-life endpoints using Bayesian and frequentist methods found no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: The complete analysis of all patients with aortic stenosis at intermediate risk for surgery in the SURTAVI trial confirmed the noninferiority, with respect to the frequency of all-cause mortality or disabling stroke, of TAVR to surgery, as determined in the interim Bayesian analysis. Follow-up will extend out to 10 years.

11.
N Engl J Med ; 382(9): 799-809, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are scant data on long-term clinical outcomes and bioprosthetic-valve function after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) as compared with surgical aortic-valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis and intermediate surgical risk. METHODS: We enrolled 2032 intermediate-risk patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis at 57 centers. Patients were stratified according to intended transfemoral or transthoracic access (76.3% and 23.7%, respectively) and were randomly assigned to undergo either TAVR or surgical replacement. Clinical, echocardiographic, and health-status outcomes were followed for 5 years. The primary end point was death from any cause or disabling stroke. RESULTS: At 5 years, there was no significant difference in the incidence of death from any cause or disabling stroke between the TAVR group and the surgery group (47.9% and 43.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.25; P = 0.21). Results were similar for the transfemoral-access cohort (44.5% and 42.0%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.20), but the incidence of death or disabling stroke was higher after TAVR than after surgery in the transthoracic-access cohort (59.3% vs. 48.3%; hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.71). At 5 years, more patients in the TAVR group than in the surgery group had at least mild paravalvular aortic regurgitation (33.3% vs. 6.3%). Repeat hospitalizations were more frequent after TAVR than after surgery (33.3% vs. 25.2%), as were aortic-valve reinterventions (3.2% vs. 0.8%). Improvement in health status at 5 years was similar for TAVR and surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with aortic stenosis who were at intermediate surgical risk, there was no significant difference in the incidence of death or disabling stroke at 5 years after TAVR as compared with surgical aortic-valve replacement. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; PARTNER 2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01314313.).


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/métodos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(5): 554-564, 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954676

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The interference of a transtricuspid cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) lead with tricuspid valve function may contribute to the mechanism of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and poses specific therapeutic challenges during transcatheter tricuspid valve intervention (TTVI). Feasibility and efficacy of TTVI in presence of a CIED is unclear. BACKGROUND: Feasibility of TTVI in presence of a CIED lead has never been proven on a large basis. METHODS: The study population consisted of 470 patients with severe symptomatic TR from the TriValve (Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Therapies) registry who underwent TTVI at 21 centers between 2015 and 2018. The association of CIED and outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Pre-procedural CIED was present in 121 of 470 (25.7%) patients. The most frequent location of the CIED lead was the posteroseptal commissure (44.0%). As compared with patients without a transvalvular lead (no-CIED group), patients having a tricuspid lead (CIED group) were more symptomatic (New York Heart Association functional class III to IV in 95.9% vs. 92.3%; p = 0.02) and more frequently had previous episodes of right heart failure (87.8% vs. 69.0%; p = 0.002). No-CIED patients had more severe TR (effective regurgitant orifice area 0.7 ± 0.6 cm2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.3 cm2; p = 0.02), but significantly better right ventricular function (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion = 16.7 ± 5.0 mm vs. 15.9 ± 4.0 mm; p = 0.04). Overall, 373 patients (79%) were treated with the MitraClip (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) (106 [87.0%] in the CIED group). Among them, 154 (33%) patients had concomitant transcatheter mitral repair (55 [46.0%] in the CIED group, all MitraClip). Procedural success was achieved in 80.0% of no-CIED patients and in 78.6% of CIED patients (p = 0.74), with an in-hospital mortality of 2.9% and 3.7%, respectively (p = 0.70). At 30 days, residual TR ≤2+ was observed in 70.8% of no-CIED and in 73.7% of CIED patients (p = 0.6). Symptomatic improvement was observed in both groups (NYHA functional class I to II at 30 days: 66.0% vs. 65.0%; p = 0.30). Survival at 12 months was 80.7 ± 3.0% in the no-CIED patients and 73.6 ± 5.0% in the CIED patients (p = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: TTVI is feasible in selected patients with CIED leads and acute procedural success and short-term clinical outcomes are comparable to those observed in patients without a transtricuspid lead.

13.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(2): 219-231, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the ability of individual markers of frailty to predict outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and of their discriminatory value in different age groups. BACKGROUND: Appropriate patient selection for TAVR remains a dilemma, especially among the most elderly and potentially frail. METHODS: The study evaluated patients ≥65 years of age in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy registry, linked to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid administrative claims data, receiving elective TAVR from November 2011 to June 2016 (n = 36,242). Indices of frailty included anemia, albumin level, and 5-m walk speed. We performed Cox proportional hazards regression for 30-day and 1-year mortality, adjusting for risk factors known to be predictive of 30-day mortality in the Transcatheter Valve Therapy registry, as well as survival analysis. RESULTS: These indices are independently associated with mortality at 30 days and 1 year and provide incremental value in risk stratification for mortality, with low albumin providing the largest value (hazard ratio: 1.52). Those with low albumin and slower walking speed had longer lengths of stay and higher rates of bleeding and readmission (p < 0.001). Those with anemia also had higher rates of bleeding, readmission, and subsequent myocardial infarction (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This represents the largest study to date of the role of frailty indices after TAVR, further facilitating robust modeling and adjusting for a large number of confounders. These simple indices are easily attainable, and clinically relevant markers of frailty that may meaningfully stratify patients at risk for mortality after TAVR.

14.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899484

RESUMO

AIMS: The clinical impact of new-onset persistent left bundle branch block (NOP-LBBB) and permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) on transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) recipients remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate the impact of (i) periprocedural NOP-LBBB and PPI post-TAVR on 1-year all-cause death, cardiac death, and heart failure hospitalization and (ii) NOP-LBBB on the need for PPI at 1-year follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a systematic search from PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies reporting raw data on 1-year clinical impact of NOP-LBBB or periprocedural PPI post-TAVR. Data from 30 studies, including 7792 patients (12 studies) and 42 927 patients (21 studies) for the evaluation of the impact of NOP-LBBB and PPI after TAVR were sourced, respectively. NOP-LBBB was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death [risk ratio (RR) 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.49; P < 0.001], cardiac death (RR 1.46, 95% CI 1.20-1.78; P < 0.001), heart failure hospitalization (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05-1.72; P = 0.02), and PPI (RR 1.89, 95% CI 1.58-2.27; P < 0.001) at 1-year follow-up. Periprocedural PPI after TAVR was associated with a higher risk of all-cause death (RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.11-1.25; P < 0.001) and heart failure hospitalization (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.36; P = 0.02). Permanent pacemaker implantation was not associated with an increased risk of cardiac death (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.67-1.05; P = 0.13). CONCLUSION: NOP-LBBB and PPI after TAVR are associated with an increased risk of all-cause death and heart failure hospitalization at 1-year follow-up. Periprocedural NOP-LBBB also increased the risk of cardiac death and PPI within the year following the procedure. Further studies are urgently warranted to enhance preventive measures and optimize the management of conduction disturbances post-TAVR.

15.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 17(2): 75-84, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527743

RESUMO

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has revolutionized the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis. Current guidelines recommend TAVI in patients at increased operative risk of death. Advanced imaging planning, new transcatheter valve platforms, procedure streamlining and growing operator experience have improved procedural safety and bioprosthetic valve performance. As a result, TAVI has been explored for other indications. Two randomized trials published in 2019 to assess TAVI in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis at low operative risk have set the stage for a new wave of indications. In younger and low-risk patients, TAVI had an early safety benefit over surgical aortic valve replacement and was associated with faster discharge from hospital and recovery and fewer rehospitalizations. In patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, TAVI has now been explored across the entire spectrum of operative risk, from inoperable to low-risk populations, in properly designed, randomized clinical trials, although data on the long-term durability of these valves are lacking. The use of TAVI in severe bicuspid aortic valve stenosis, asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis, moderate aortic stenosis in combination with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and isolated pure aortic regurgitation is now under investigation in clinical trials. In this Review, we provide our perspective on these evolving indications for TAVI, discuss relevant available data from clinical trials, and highlight procedural implications and caveats of new and future indications.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Fatores Etários , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/mortalidade , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/efeitos adversos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Eur Heart J ; 41(8): 943-954, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711153

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular pressure overload is associated with activation of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system, which may contribute to myocardial fibrosis and worse clinical outcomes. We sought to assess the association between treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) at baseline and clinical outcomes in patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in the PARTNER 2 trial and registries. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 3979 intermediate, high, or prohibitive risk patients who underwent TAVR in the PARTNER 2 trial and registries (excluding the valve in valve registry) were included in the study. Clinical outcomes at 2 years were compared according to baseline ACEI/ARB treatment status using Kaplan-Meier event rates and study-stratified multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using propensity score matching. Of 3979 patients who were included in the current analysis, 1736 (43.6%) were treated and 2243 (56.4%) were not treated with ACEI/ARB at baseline. Treatment with ACEI/ARB was associated with lower 2-year all-cause mortality (18.6% vs. 27.5%, P < 0.0001), cardiovascular mortality (12.3% vs. 17.9%, P < 0.0001), and non-cardiovascular mortality (7.2% vs. 11.7%, P < 0.0001). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/ARB treatment at baseline remained independently associated with a lower hazard of 2-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality after multivariable adjustment, and propensity score matching. CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of patients with severe symptomatic AS from the PARTNER 2 trial and registries, ACEI/ARB treatment at baseline was independently associated with a lower risk of 2-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

17.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(2): 210-216, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the 1-year results of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with the Edwards SAPIEN 3 (S3) valve in extremely large annuli. BACKGROUND: Favorable 30-day outcomes of S3 TAVR in annuli >683 mm2 have previously been reported. Pacemaker implantation rates were acceptable, and a larger left ventricular outflow tract and more eccentric annular anatomy were associated with increasing paravalvular leak. METHODS: From December 2013 to December 2018, 105 patients across 15 centers with mean area 721.3 ± 36.1 mm2 (range 683.5 to 852.0 mm2) underwent TAVR using an S3 device. Clinical, anatomic, and procedural characteristics were analyzed. One-year survival and echocardiographic follow-up were reached in 94.3% and 82.1% of patients, respectively. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 30-day and 1-year outcomes were reported. RESULTS: The mean age was 76.9 ± 10.4 years, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons predicted risk score averaged 5.2 ± 3.4%. One-year overall mortality and stroke rates were 18.2% and 2.4%, respectively. Quality-of-life index improved from baseline to 30 days and at 1 year (p < 0.001 for both). Mild paravalvular aortic regurgitation occurred in 21.7% of patients, while moderate or greater paravalvular aortic regurgitation occurred in 4.3%. Mild and moderate or severe transvalvular aortic regurgitation occurred in 11.6% and 0%, respectively. Valve gradients remained stable at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: S3 TAVR in annular areas >683 mm2 is feasible, with favorable mid-term outcomes.

18.
Eur Heart J ; 41(8): 958-969, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883339

RESUMO

AIMS: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a cardiac neurohormone that is secreted in response to ventricular volume expansion and pressure overload. There are conflicting data regarding the association between BNP levels and outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). We therefore sought to assess the association between baseline BNP and adverse outcomes in patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis (AS), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50%, undergoing TAVR in the PARTNER 2 Trial and Registry. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1782 patients were included in the analysis, and BNP was evaluated both as a continuous log-transformed value and by a priori categories: low (<50 pg/mL), normal (≥50 and <100 pg/mL), moderately elevated (≥100 and <400 pg/mL), or markedly elevated (≥400 pg/mL). Clinical outcomes from discharge to 2 years were compared between patients according to their baseline BNP level, using Kaplan-Meier event rates and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. After adjustment, spline curves revealed a non-linear association between log-transformed BNP and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in which both the lowest and highest values were associated with increased mortality. Two-year all-cause mortality rates for those with low (n = 86), normal (n = 202), moderately elevated (n = 885), and markedly elevated (n = 609) baseline BNP were 20.0%, 9.8%, 17.7%, and 26.1%, respectively. In adjusted models, compared to a normal baseline BNP, low [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-5.0, P-value 0.005], moderately elevated (adjusted HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6, P-value 0.06), and markedly elevated (adjusted HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5, P-value 0.003) BNP were associated with increased all-cause mortality, driven by cardiovascular mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of patients with severe symptomatic AS and preserved LVEF undergoing TAVR, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates at 2 years were higher in patients with low and markedly elevated BNP levels. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ unique identifier #NCT01314313, #NCT02184442, #NCT03222128, and #NCT03222141.

20.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv ; 12(11): e007938, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No data exist about the characteristics of infective endocarditis (IE) post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) according to transcatheter valve type. We aimed to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients with IE post-TAVR treated with balloon-expandable valve (BEV) versus self-expanding valve (SEV) systems. METHODS: Data from the multicenter Infectious Endocarditis After TAVR International Registry was used to compare IE patients with BEV versus SEV. RESULTS: A total of 245 patients with IE post-TAVR were included (SEV, 47%; BEV, 53%). The timing between TAVR and IE was similar between groups (SEV, 5.5 [1.2-15] months versus BEV, 5.3 [1.7-11.4] months; P=0.89). Enterococcal IE was more frequent in the SEV group (36.5% versus 15.4%; P<0.01), and vegetation location differed according to valve type (stent frame, SEV, 18.6%; BEV, 6.9%; P=0.01; valve leaflet, SEV, 23.9%; BEV, 38.5%; P=0.01). BEV recipients had a higher rate of stroke/systemic embolism (20.0% versus 8.7%, adjusted OR: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.04-5.82, P=0.04). Surgical explant of the transcatheter valve (SEV, 8.7%; BEV, 13.8%; P=0.21), and in-hospital death at the time of IE episode (SEV, 35.6%; BEV, 37.7%; P=0.74) were similar between groups. After a mean follow-up of 13±12 months, 59.1% and 54.6% of the SEV and BEV recipients, respectively, had died (P=0.66). CONCLUSIONS: The characteristics of IE post-TAVR, including microorganism type, vegetation location, and embolic complications but not early or late mortality, differed according to valve type. These results may help to guide the diagnosis and management of IE and inform future research studies in the field.

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