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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10878, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350436

RESUMO

As a first host barrier, the skin is constantly exposed to environmental insults that perturb its integrity. Tight regulation of skin homeostasis is largely controlled by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Here, we demonstrate that Henna and its major pigment, the naphthoquinone Lawsone activate AhR, both in vitro and in vivo. In human keratinocytes and epidermis equivalents, Lawsone exposure enhances the production of late epidermal proteins, impacts keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation, and regulates skin inflammation. To determine the potential use of Lawsone for therapeutic application, we harnessed human, murine and zebrafish models. In skin regeneration models, Lawsone interferes with physiological tissue regeneration and inhibits wound healing. Conversely, in a human acute dermatitis model, topical application of a Lawsone-containing cream ameliorates skin irritation. Altogether, our study reveals how a widely used natural plant pigment is sensed by the host receptor AhR, and how the physiopathological context determines beneficial and detrimental outcomes.

2.
EMBO Rep ; 20(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30872316

RESUMO

Cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) are important second messenger molecules in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Within host cells, cytosolic CDNs are detected by STING and alert the host by activating innate immunity characterized by type I interferon (IFN) responses. Extracellular bacteria and dying cells can release CDNs, but sensing of extracellular CDNs (eCDNs) by mammalian cells remains elusive. Here, we report that endocytosis facilitates internalization of eCDNs. The DNA sensor cGAS facilitates sensing of endocytosed CDNs, their perinuclear accumulation, and subsequent STING-dependent release of type I IFN Internalized CDNs bind cGAS directly, leading to its dimerization, and the formation of a cGAS/STING complex, which may activate downstream signaling. Thus, eCDNs comprise microbe- and danger-associated molecular patterns that contribute to host-microbe crosstalk during health and disease.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 211(11): 1831-41, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25505299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The recombinant BCG ΔureC::hly (rBCG) vaccine candidate induces improved protection against tuberculosis over parental BCG (pBCG) in preclinical studies and has successfully completed a phase 2a clinical trial. However, the mechanisms responsible for the superior vaccine efficacy of rBCG are still incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the underlying biological mechanisms elicited by the rBCG vaccine candidate relevant to its protective efficacy. METHODS: THP-1 macrophages were infected with pBCG or rBCG, and inflammasome activation and autophagy were evaluated. In addition, mice were vaccinated with pBCG or rBCG, and gene expression in the draining lymph nodes was analyzed by microarray at day 1 after vaccination. RESULTS: BCG-derived DNA was detected in the cytosol of rBCG-infected macrophages. rBCG infection was associated with enhanced absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome activation, increased activation of caspases and production of interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-18, as well as induction of AIM2-dependent and stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-dependent autophagy. Similarly, mice vaccinated with rBCG showed early increased expression of Il-1ß, Il-18, and Tmem173 (transmembrane protein 173; also known as STING). CONCLUSIONS: rBCG stimulates AIM2 inflammasome activation and autophagy, suggesting that these cell-autonomous functions should be exploited for improved vaccine design.


Assuntos
Autofagia/imunologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-18/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Linfonodos/química , Linfonodos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
4.
Nature ; 512(7515): 387-92, 2014 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25119038

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a highly conserved ligand-dependent transcription factor that senses environmental toxins and endogenous ligands, thereby inducing detoxifying enzymes and modulating immune cell differentiation and responses. We hypothesized that AhR evolved to sense not only environmental pollutants but also microbial insults. We characterized bacterial pigmented virulence factors, namely the phenazines from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the naphthoquinone phthiocol from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as ligands of AhR. Upon ligand binding, AhR activation leads to virulence factor degradation and regulated cytokine and chemokine production. The relevance of AhR to host defence is underlined by heightened susceptibility of AhR-deficient mice to both P. aeruginosa and M. tuberculosis. Thus, we demonstrate that AhR senses distinct bacterial virulence factors and controls antibacterial responses, supporting a previously unidentified role for AhR as an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, and identify bacterial pigments as a new class of pathogen-associated molecular patterns.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/imunologia , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Humanos , Ligantes , Ativação de Macrófagos , Camundongos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Fenazinas/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Infecções por Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Piocianina/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/química , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
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