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1.
Palliat Care ; 11: 1178224218785139, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038500

RESUMO

Context: During the last decade, numerous in-patient Palliative Care Consultation Service (PCCS) units were established throughout Germany. Objective: To provide an epidemiological overview on a whole year cohort of palliative patients in terms of demography, complaints, and therapy on admission to PCCS and the impact of PCCS treatment, and identify differences and similarities in different palliative patient subgroups. Methods: Chi-square, analysis of variance (ANOVA), Kruskal-Wallis followed by Games-Howell analysis of HOspice and Palliative care Evaluation (HOPE 2013) data on 4 PCCS centers and in total 919 patients, with solid tumors (237), metastatic cancer (397), leukemia and lymphoma (99), neurological (109, mostly multiple sclerosis [MS]), and noncancer, nonneurological disease (NCNND, 77). Results: A mostly uniform block of 3 cancer subgroups in terms of demographics, admission complaints, and initial pharmacological treatment diverged from the neurologic/MS disease subgroup. The "intermediate," NCNND subgroup coalesced with the cancer or the neurologic/MS subgroups in part of the demographics, complaint, and drug parameters. Tetraparesis, requirement for nursing, and help with daily living were more, and pain, dyspnea, weakness, appetite loss, and fatigue were less frequent in neurologic patients compared with the cancer subgroups. Neurologic patients also showed more common use of coanalgetics and antidepressives, less opiates and nonopiate analgetics, corticosteroids, and antiemetics and antacids. NCNND patients had a particularly high rate of disorientation (48%) and death during PCCS (39%). In the 3 cancer subgroups, dyspnea, weakness, appetite loss, and anxiolytic use were less frequent in solid tumor patients. Palliative Care Consultation Service treatment was associated with reduction in symptom severity independent of subgroup entity. All listed differences were significant at P < .05 level. Conclusion: Despite divergence in demographics, symptoms, and medication, the data underline general usefulness of PCCS care in all end-stage patients and not only the cancer subgroups. Nevertheless, the strong differences revealed in the current study also underscore the need for a carefully tuned, disease-specific therapeutic approach to these subgroups of palliative patients.

2.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 11: 1756286418774973, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872456

RESUMO

Background: Up to every fourth woman with multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) suffers a clinically relevant relapse during pregnancy. High doses of steroids bear some serious risks, especially within the first trimester of pregnancy. Immunoadsorption (IA) is an effective and more selective treatment option in disabling MS relapse than plasma exchange. Data on the use of IA during pregnancy and breastfeeding are scarce. Methods: In this retrospective multicenter study, we analyzed the safety and efficacy of IA treatment in acute relapses during pregnancy or breastfeeding. The primary outcome parameter - change of acute relapse-related disability after IA - was assessed using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and visual acuity (VA) measurements for patients with optic neuritis (ON). Results: A total of 24 patients were analyzed, 23 with relapsing-remitting MS, and 1 with NMOSD. Twenty patients were treated with IA during pregnancy. Four patients received IA postnatally during the breastfeeding period. Treatment was started at a mean 22.5 [standard deviation (SD) 13.9] days after onset of relapse. Patients were treated with a series of 5.8 (mean, SD 0.7) IA treatments within 7-10 days. Sixteen patients received IA because of steroid-refractory relapse, eight were treated without preceding steroid pulse therapy. EDSS improved clinically relevant from 3.5 [median, interquartile range (IQR) 2] before IA to 2.5 (median, IQR 1.1) after IA, p < 0.001. In patients with ON, VA improved in four out of five patients. Altogether, in 83% of patients, a rapid and marked improvement of relapse-related symptoms was observed after IA with either a decrease of ⩾1 EDSS grade or improvement in VA ⩾20%. No clinically relevant side effect was reported in 138 IA treatments. Conclusions: Tryptophan-IA was found to be effective and well tolerated in MS/NMOSD relapses, both as an escalation option after insufficient response to steroid pulse therapy and as first-line relapse treatment during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

3.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 11: 1756285617749802, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29399053

RESUMO

Background: In relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), 'no evidence of disease activity' (NEDA) is regarded as a key treatment goal. The increasing number of treatments allows for individualized treatment optimization in patients with suboptimal response to first-line disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). Therefore, monitoring of clinical and subclinical disease activity on DMTs has been recognized as an important component of long-term patient management. Methods: EPIDEM was a multicenter non-interventional retrospective study in a large cohort of RRMS patients receiving injectable DMTs for at least 2 years in outpatient centers throughout Germany. It documented measures and ratings of disease activity on DMTs to characterize the factors that made the treating neurologists consider to switch therapy towards potentially more effective or better-tolerated drugs. Results: The cohort included predominantly female patients with a mean age of 45 years and a mean disease duration of 9.6 years, who had been continuously treated with an injectable DMT for a median duration of 54 months. Overall, 34.0% of the patients had experienced ⩾1 relapse on any DMT in the previous 2 years; 21.0% exhibited magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity, and the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score increased by at least 0.5 points in 20.1%. Overall, 50.3% of the patients with EDSS progression and 70.6% of the patients with relapses were assessed as clinically stable by the neurologists. A change of treatment was considered in a fraction of patients with disease activity: in 22.8% of those with relapse activity, in 37.8% of those with MRI activity and in 20.1% of those with EDSS progression. Conclusion: The results of EPIDEM underline the importance of standardized evaluation and documentation of ongoing disease activity and disability deterioration. Judged from the present data, the current paradigm of low tolerance for disease activity and recommendations for early treatment optimization have not been turned fully into action as yet. More widespread implementation of current guideline recommendations may allow patients to more benefit from the growing panel of effective treatment options.

4.
Eur Neurol ; 71 Suppl 1: 10-5, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24457847

RESUMO

Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) represent a diverse and heterogeneous population varying in terms of disease type, its severity and variable progression/time-course, and with regard to the wide range of presenting symptoms. Consequently, detailed experience with individual patients is important to provide examples of therapy to specific patient types. In this article, real-life data from clinical practice showing specific aspects relating to use of 9-delta-tetrahydocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®) in patients with moderate to severe spasticity resistant to usual therapy will be presented. Three common clinical scenarios will be considered: MS patients with resistance to usual spasticity therapies; patients with impairment in MS spasticity symptoms; MS patients with relevant impairment in quality of life/activities of daily living (QoL/ADL). These case reports highlight the diverse nature of the MS spasticity population and they show the possible usefulness of THC:CBD oromucosal spray in individual patients with moderate to severe spasticity resistant to existing therapies, within the frame of use approved after large clinical trial results. Perhaps the most important finding is the possibility of obtaining relevant improvements in QoL/ADL in some patients with resistant MS spasticity, allowing them to engage back in physical and social activities.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Espasticidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia , Parassimpatolíticos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Canabidiol , Dronabinol , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Espasticidade Muscular/patologia , Sprays Orais , Parassimpatolíticos/administração & dosagem , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Medula Espinal/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Neurosci ; 124(9): 652-6, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24392812

RESUMO

This detailed medical charts' data collection study conducted at a multiple sclerosis (MS) clinic in Germany evaluated the effectiveness of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray in patients with resistant MS spasticity. Over a 15-month timeframe, THC:CBD spray was initiated in 166 patients. Mean follow-up was 9 months. In all, 120 patients remained on treatment for a response rate of 72%. THC:CBD spray was used as add-on therapy in 95 patients and as monotherapy in 25 patients to achieve best-possible therapeutic results. Among responders, the mean spasticity 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS) score decreased by 57%, from 7.0 before treatment to 3.0 within 10 days of starting THC:CBD spray. The mean dosage was 4 sprays/day. Most patients who withdrew from treatment (40/46) had been receiving THC:CBD spray for less than 60 days. Main reasons for treatment discontinuation were: adverse drug reactions, mainly dizziness, fatigue and oral discomfort (23 patients; 13.9%); lack of efficacy (14 patients; 8.4%); or need for a baclofen pump (9 patients; 5.4%). No new safety signals were noted with THC:CBD spray during the evaluation period. In this routine clinical practice setting at an MS clinic in Germany, THC:CBD spray was effective and well tolerated as add-on therapy or as monotherapy in a relevant proportion of patients with resistant MS spasticity.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/uso terapêutico , Dronabinol/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Espasticidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Espasticidade Muscular/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Expert Rev Neurother ; 13(12 Suppl): 61-6, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24289846

RESUMO

Spasticity is one of the main symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Epidemiological studies indicate that approximately two-thirds of MS patients experience spasticity and, in a relevant proportion of this group, spasticity is moderate to severe. Yet, spasticity remains largely undertreated. The most commonly used oral antispasticity agents (e.g., baclofen, tizanidine, gabapentin) generally do not reduce spasticity adequately at dosages that are well tolerated by patients. This review of MS spasticity cases from around Europe presents current knowledge of considerations for administration of a new agent (tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol-based nabiximols [Sativex®] oromucosal spray) for management of MS spasticity, with the aim of ensuring appropriate and optimal use for best outcomes. Assessment of the European clinical experience is intended to provide a better understanding of the prescribing regulations for MS spasticity treatments, facilitate identification of suitable candidate patients for Sativex and increase awareness of alternative management approaches for MS-related spasticity.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Espasticidade Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Canabidiol , Dronabinol , Combinação de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Atheroscler Suppl ; 14(1): 167-73, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23357160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with a frequently relapsing or progressive course. For steroid-resistant relapse, plasma exchange (PE) has been established as guidelines-recommended treatment option. While PE is a non-selective extracorporeal blood purification process with elimination of plasma and subsequent substitution, immunoadsorption (IA) is a selective technique for the removal of autoantibodies and immune complexes with less adverse effects. So far there are only few reports on the treatment of MS by IA. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the efficacy and safety of IA as an escalation therapy in MS patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 60 patients with steroid-refractory MS relapse were treated by IA and analyzed retrospectively. Patients received six standardized IA sessions using a non-regenerable tryptophan immunoadsorber, at average 58 days after first indications of relapse. The treated plasma volume was two liters per IA session. Outcome was measured as improvement in relapse symptoms. From the pilot phase of the study comprising the first fourteen patients, detailed neurological examinations before and after IA such as Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Functional System Score (FS) and visual acuity are reported. Of the following 46 patients, only qualitative data regarding the therapeutic success, and in addition clinical data on tolerability, are presently available. RESULTS: In 53 of 60 patients clinically relevant improvement of the main symptom of MS relapse was noted after IA, there was no change in six patients, deterioration in one. This corresponds to a response rate of 88%. Symptomatic improvement was first registered on average after the third IA. 87.5% of patients could be treated through a peripheral venous access. Only 12.5% needed a central venous catheter. In four of 396 single treatments (1%) significant complications occurred, mild side effects or discomfort were registered 16 times (4%). If peripheral venous access was chosen, missed puncture or puncture hematoma occurred in 22 cases (5.5%). CONCLUSION: Immunoadsorption for the treatment of steroid-refractory MS relapse is safe and effective. The response rate was 88% and non-inferior to previous results with plasma exchange. Due to good tolerability, the treatment with immunoadsorption, which is usually possible through a peripheral venous access, can be performed on an outpatient basis.


Assuntos
Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/sangue , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Técnicas de Imunoadsorção , Imunoadsorventes/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/terapia , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Absorção , Adulto , Autoimunidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Remoção de Componentes Sanguíneos/efeitos adversos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Técnicas de Imunoadsorção/efeitos adversos , Imunoadsorventes/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual
8.
J Neurol ; 254(1): 67-77, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17273808

RESUMO

Interferon beta (IFN beta) preparations are the most frequently prescribed therapies for patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). Several open-label observational studies report similar efficacy among IFN beta preparations. The Quality Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis Therapy (QUASIMS) study is a large, open-label observational study designed to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of available IFN beta preparations as disease-modifying therapies for relapsing MS across a wide range of clinical practice settings. This retrospective, controlled cohort study was conducted by chart review at 510 sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Enrolled patients had received one of the four available IFN beta preparations/dosing regimens (intramuscular IFN beta-1a 30 microg 1x/week [Avonex], subcutaneous (SC) IFN beta-1a 22 or 44 microg 3 x/week [Rebif], or SC IFN beta-1b 250 microg 3.5x/week [Betaferon/Betaseron]) for >or= 2 years. Pre-planned outcomes at 1 and 2 years included change from baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, percentage of progression-free patients (< 1.0 EDSS point), annualised relapse rate (RR), percentage of relapse-free patients, and reasons for therapy change. Of 4754 evaluable patients, 3991 (84%) received IFN beta as initial therapy. There were no significant differences among IFN betas when used as initial or follow-up therapy on almost all outcome variables. Relapse rate was consistently higher and percentage of relapse-free patients consistently lower for all products used as follow-up versus initial therapy. Results of QUASIMS showed similar effectiveness among IFN beta products. Benefits were consistently superior when IFN beta was used as initial rather than follow-up therapy. Our results suggest that patients do not benefit in terms of disease outcome from switching between IFN beta preparations/dosing regimens.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Avaliação da Deficiência , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Observação/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
J Neurol ; 253 Suppl 1: I21-5, 2006 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16477481

RESUMO

Symptoms related to alterations of the autonomic nervous system are frequent in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Bladder or bowel dysfunction or impairment of sexual performance is highly distressing for most MS patients,whereas the clinical relevance of other autonomic symptoms is less clear. Cardiovascular autonomic alterations might relate to clinical signs such as orthostatic intolerance; a relationship with fatigue is uncertain. However, the frequency of abnormal findings in tests for the cardiovascular autonomic system varies due to the lack of standardized test performance or differentially used cut-off values. The incidence of additional symptoms such as pupillomotor or sweating alterations and especially their relationship to overall autonomic nervous system abnormalities is not well known. Although their impact on daily life is low, they can at least serve as diagnostic tools. Beside these clinical aspects, alterations of the autonomic nervous system have also been reported to alter immunological cascades in experimental conditions. However, corresponding results have not been confirmed in clinical trials yet.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/etiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pupila/fisiologia , Sudorese/fisiologia , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/fisiopatologia
10.
Clin Chem ; 50(10): 1809-13, 2004 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15271859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis is observed in several inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system, but its detection by current laboratory tests is either tedious or relatively insensitive. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of an assay for kappa free light chains (kappaFLC) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum, and compared it with traditional tests for intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis. METHODS: kappaFLCs were measured by nephelometry in CSF/serum pairs from 112 patients. Samples were excluded if blood contamination of CSF as a result of traumatic lumbar puncture (n = 12) or monoclonal bands in both CSF and serum (n = 5) were present. The remaining sample pairs were grouped according to the presence (n = 71) or absence (n = 24) of oligoclonal bands. Data were analyzed as kappaFLC concentrations in CSF, as kappaFLC CSF/serum ratios, and by use of the quotient diagram described previously for immunoglobulins. RESULTS: Both kappaFLC concentrations in CSF and the kappaFLC CSF/serum ratio identified patients with oligoclonal bands with high specificity and sensitivity. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.991 (95% confidence interval, 0.944-0.998) and 0.978 (0.924-0.996), respectively. Exclusion of patients with impaired blood-CSF barrier function further improved diagnostic accuracy. To account for patients with impaired blood-CSF barrier function, data were also analyzed in a quotient diagram. Only two patients without detectable oligoclonal bands would have been misclassified by this approach. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that the nephelometric assay for kappaFLCs in CSF reliably detects intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis. This automated and quantitative method could simplify the diagnostic procedure for CSF analysis in the routine laboratory.


Assuntos
Cadeias kappa de Imunoglobulina/biossíntese , Cadeias kappa de Imunoglobulina/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Humanos , Cadeias kappa de Imunoglobulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria , Bandas Oligoclonais , Curva ROC , Padrões de Referência
11.
Pediatr Neurol ; 30(5): 320-3, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15165633

RESUMO

We report normative data of masseter reflex from a group of 54 children 2-16 years of age. For statistical analysis, the patients were divided into five age groups: 2-4, 5-7, 8-10, 11-13, and 14-16 years of age. A tap to the chin, using a hammer with a trigger device, elicited the masseter reflex. The response was recorded by surface electrodes. The onset latency and peak-to-peak amplitude of the averaged curve of eight reflex responses were measured. The reflex response could be recorded in all children and adolescents of all groups. The mean latency shortened from age 2 to 7 and was stable at the age of 8 years. As a sign of maturation, the increase of amplitude corresponded to the shortening of latency and was also stable at the age of 8 years. Abnormal side differences in latency of 0.9 ms (age group 2-4 years), 1.1 ms (age group 5-7 years), and 0.8 ms (age group 8-16 years) were evaluated. An amplitude ratio (lower amplitude divided by higher one) above 0.33 was calculated as normal.


Assuntos
Músculo Masseter/fisiologia , Reflexo/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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