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1.
Magn Reson Med ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To obtain high-sensitivity CEST maps by exploiting the spatiotemporal correlation between CEST images. METHODS: A postprocessing method accomplished by multilinear singular value decomposition (MLSVD) was used to enhance the CEST SNR by exploiting the correlation between the Z-spectrum for each voxel and the low-rank property of the overall CEST data. The performance of this method was evaluated using CrCEST in ischemic mouse brain at 11.7 tesla. Then, MLSVD CEST was applied to obtain Cr, amide, and amine CEST maps of the ischemic mouse brain to demonstrate its general applications. RESULTS: Complex-valued Gaussian noise was added to CEST k-space data to mimic a low SNR situation. MLSVD CEST analysis was able to suppress the noise, recover the degraded CEST peak, and provide better CrCEST quality compared to the smoothing and singular value decomposition (SVD)-based denoising methods. High-resolution Cr, amide, and amine CEST maps of an ischemic stroke using MLSVD CEST suggest that CrCEST is also a sensitive pH mapping method, and a wide range of pH changes can be detected by combing CrCEST with amine CEST at high magnetic fields. CONCLUSION: MLSVD CEST provides a simple and efficient way to improve the SNR of CEST images.

2.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion MRI is routinely used to evaluate brain injury in neonatal encephalopathy. Although abnormal mean diffusivity (MD) is often attributed to cytotoxic edema, the specific contribution from neuronal pathology is unclear. PURPOSE: To determine whether MD from high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can detect variable degrees of neuronal degeneration and pathology in piglets with brain injury induced by excitotoxicity or global hypoxia-ischemia (HI) with or without overt infarction. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. ANIMAL MODEL: Excitotoxic brain injury was induced in six neonatal piglets by intrastriatal stereotaxic injection of the glutamate receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QA). Three piglets underwent global HI or a sham procedure. Piglets recovered for 20-96 hours before undergoing MRI (n = 9). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0T MRI with DTI, T1 - and T2 -weighted imaging. ASSESSMENT: MD, fractional anisotropy (FA), and qualitative T2 injury were assessed in the putamen and caudate. The cell bodies of normal neurons, degenerating neurons (excitotoxic necrosis, ischemic necrosis, or necrosis-apoptosis cell death continuum), and injured neurons with equivocal degeneration were counted by histopathology. STATISTICAL TESTS: Spearman correlations were used to compare MD and FA to normal, degenerating, and injured neurons. T2 injury and neuron counts were evaluated by descriptive analysis. RESULTS: The QA insult generated titratable levels of neuronal pathology. In QA, HI, and sham piglets, lower MD correlated with higher ratios of degenerating-to-total neurons (P < 0.05), lower ratios of normal-to-total neurons (P < 0.05), and greater numbers of degenerating neurons (P < 0.05). MD did not correlate with abnormal neurons exhibiting nascent injury (P > 0.99). Neuron counts were not related to FA (P > 0.30) or to qualitative injury from T2 -weighted MRI. DATA CONCLUSION: MD is more accurate than FA for detecting neuronal degeneration and loss during acute recovery from neonatal excitotoxic and HI brain injury. MD does not reliably detect nonfulminant, nascent, and potentially reversible neuronal injury. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.

3.
BMC Neurosci ; 21(1): 22, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polynitroxylated PEGylated hemoglobin (PNPH, aka SanFlow) possesses superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic activities that may directly protect the brain from oxidative stress. Stabilization of PNPH with bound carbon monoxide prevents methemoglobin formation during storage and permits it to serve as a carbon monoxide donor. We determined whether small volume transfusion of hyperoncotic PNPH is neuroprotective in a polytrauma model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) plus hemorrhagic shock. Guinea pigs were used because, like humans, they do not synthesize their own ascorbic acid, which is important in reducing methemoglobin. RESULTS: TBI was produced by controlled cortical impact and was followed by 20 mL/kg hemorrhage to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg. At 90 min, animals were resuscitated with 20 mL/kg lactated Ringer's solution or 10 mL/kg PNPH. Resuscitation with PNPH significantly augmented the early recovery of MAP after hemorrhagic shock by 10-18 mmHg; whole blood methemoglobin was only 1% higher and carboxyhemoglobin was 2% higher. At 9 days of recovery, unbiased stereology analysis revealed that, compared to animals resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution, those treated with PNPH had significantly more viable neurons in the hippocampus CA1 + 2 region (59 ± 10% versus 87 ± 18% of sham and naïve mean value) and in the dentate gyrus (70 ± 21% versus 96 ± 24%; n = 12 per group). CONCLUSION: PNPH may serve as a small-volume resuscitation fluid for polytrauma involving TBI and hemorrhagic shock. The neuroprotection afforded by PNPH seen in other species was sustained in a species without endogenous ascorbic acid synthesis, thereby supporting potential translatability for human use.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5926, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245979

RESUMO

Existing cerebrovascular blood pressure autoregulation metrics have not been translated to clinical care for pediatric cardiac arrest, in part because signal noise causes high index time-variability. We tested whether a wavelet method that uses near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) or intracranial pressure (ICP) decreases index variability compared to that of commonly used correlation indices. We also compared whether the methods identify the optimal arterial blood pressure (ABPopt) and lower limit of autoregulation (LLA). 68 piglets were randomized to cardiac arrest or sham procedure with continuous monitoring of cerebral blood flow using laser Doppler, NIRS and ICP. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was gradually reduced until it dropped to below the LLA. Several autoregulation indices were calculated using correlation and wavelet methods, including the pressure reactivity index (PRx and wPRx), cerebral oximetry index (COx and wCOx), and hemoglobin volume index (HVx and wHVx). Wavelet methodology had less index variability with smaller standard deviations. Both wavelet and correlation methods distinguished functional autoregulation (ABP above LLA) from dysfunctional autoregulation (ABP below the LLA). Both wavelet and correlation methods also identified ABPopt with high agreement. Thus, wavelet methodology using NIRS may offer an accurate vasoreactivity monitoring method with reduced signal noise after pediatric cardiac arrest.

5.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 30(4): 462-468, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current pediatric resuscitation guidelines suggest that resuscitators using an advanced airway deliver 8-10 breaths per minute while carefully avoiding excessive ventilation. In the intraoperative setting, having a dedicated ventilation rescuer may be difficult because of limited personnel. Continuing pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation during resuscitation for intraoperative cardiac arrest reduces personnel needed and the risk of hyperventilation but might risk hypoventilation during chest compression delivery. AIMS: To determine whether the use of pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation at prearrest settings provides normoxia and normocarbia during resuscitation from cardiac arrest. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed combined data from preclinical randomized controlled trials. Two-week-old swine (3-4 kg) underwent asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest. Animals were resuscitated with periods of basic and advanced life support. During resuscitation, pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation was delivered at the prearrest respiratory rate, peak inspiratory pressure, and positive end-expiratory pressure. Arterial blood gases were measured prearrest, at 11 minutes of asphyxia, and at 8 and 20 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. RESULTS: Piglets (n = 154) received pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation before and during cardiopulmonary resuscitation with a peak inspiratory pressure of 14-15 cm H2 O, positive end-expiratory pressure of 4 cm H2 O, 20 breaths/minute, and an inspiratory:expiratory ratio of 1:2. During asphyxia, the arterial blood gas showed the expected severe hypercarbia and hypoxia. Continuing pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation using prearrest parameters and increasing the FiO2 to 1.0 returned the PaCO2 to prearrest levels and slightly increased the partial pressure of arterial oxygen at 8 and 20 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. CONCLUSION: In this piglet model of resuscitation from asphyxial arrest, pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation at the prearrest ventilator settings with an FiO2 of 1.0 provides adequate oxygenation and restores normocarbia. Clinical investigation is warranted to determine the benefits of continuing pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation at prearrest parameters during pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

6.
Dev Neurosci ; 41(3-4): 166-176, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553983

RESUMO

The arachidonic acid pathway metabolite 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) contributes to ischemia/reperfusion brain injury. Inhibition of 20-HETE formation can protect the developing brain from global ischemia. Here, we examined whether treatment with the 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor N-hydroxy-N-4-butyl-2-methylphenylformamidine (HET0016) can protect the immature brain from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Male rats at postnatal day 9-10 underwent controlled cortical impact followed by intraperitoneal injection with vehicle or HET0016 (1 mg/kg, 5 min and 3 h post-injury). HET0016 decreased the lesion volume by over 50% at 3 days of recovery, and this effect persisted at 30 days as the brain matured. HET0016 decreased peri-lesion gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1ß [IL-1ß]) at 1 day and increased reparative cytokine (IL-4, IL-10) expression at 3 days. It also partially preserved microglial ramified processes, consistent with less activation. HET0016 decreased contralateral hindlimb foot faults and improved outcome on the novel object recognition memory task 30 days after TBI. In cultured BV2 microglia, HET0016 attenuated the lipopolysaccharide-evoked increase in release of TNF-α. Our data show that HET0016 improves acute and long-term histologic and functional outcomes, in association with an attenuated neuroinflammatory response after contusion of an immature rat brain.

7.
Resuscitation ; 143: 50-56, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390531

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the relationship between survival and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) throughout resuscitation from paediatric asphyxial cardiac arrest. METHODS: Retrospective, secondary analysis of 200 swine resuscitations. Swine underwent asphyxial cardiac arrest and were resuscitated with predefined periods of basic and advanced life support (BLS and ALS, respectively). DBP was recorded every 30 s. Survival was defined as 20-min sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). RESULTS: During BLS, DBP peaked between 1-3 min and was greater in survivors (20.0 [11.3, 33.3] mmHg) than in non-survivors (5.0 [1.0, 10.0] mmHg; p < 0.001). After this transient increase, the DBP in survivors progressively decreased but remained greater than that of non-survivors after 10 min of resuscitation (9.0 [6.0, 13.8] versus 3.0 [1.0, 6.8] mmHg; p < 0.001). During ALS, the magnitude of DBP change after the first adrenaline (epinephrine) administration was greater in survivors (22.0 [16.5, 36.5] mmHg) than in non-survivors (6.0 [2.0, 11.0] mmHg; p < 0.001). Survival rate was greater when DBP improved by ≥26 mmHg after the first dose of adrenaline (20/21; 95%) than when DBP improved by ≤10 mmHg (1/99; 1%). The magnitude of DBP change after the first adrenaline administration correlated with the timetoROSC (r = -0.54; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Survival after asphyxial cardiac arrest is associated with a higher DBP throughout resuscitation, but the difference between survivors and non-survivors was reduced after prolonged BLS. During ALS, response to adrenaline administration correlates with survival and time to ROSC. If confirmed clinically, these findings may be useful for titrating adrenaline during resuscitation and prognosticating likelihood of ROSC. Institutional Protocol Numbers: SW14M223 and SW17M101.

8.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 20(7): e352-e361, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31149967

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of the duration of asphyxial arrest on the survival benefit previously seen with end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery. DESIGN: Preclinical randomized controlled study. SETTING: University animal research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Two-week-old swine. INTERVENTIONS: After either 17 or 23 minutes of asphyxial arrest, animals were randomized to standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation or end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery. Standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation was optimized by marker, monitor, and verbal feedback about compression rate, depth, and release. End-tidal CO2-guided delivery used adjustments to chest compression rate and depth to maximize end-tidal CO2 level without other feedback. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation for both groups proceeded from 10 minutes of basic life support to 10 minutes of advanced life support or return of spontaneous circulation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: After 17 minutes of asphyxial arrest, mean end-tidal CO2 during 10 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was 18 ± 9 torr in the standard group and 33 ± 15 torr in the end-tidal CO2 group (p = 0.004). The rate of return of spontaneous circulation was three of 14 (21%) in the standard group rate and nine of 14 (64%) in the end-tidal CO2 group (p = 0.05). After a 23-minute asphyxial arrest, neither end-tidal CO2 values (20 vs 26) nor return of spontaneous circulation rate (3/14 vs 1/14) differed between the standard and end-tidal CO2-guided groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our previously observed survival benefit of end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery after 20 minutes of asphyxial arrest was confirmed after 17 minutes of asphyxial arrest. The poor survival after 23 minutes of asphyxia shows that the benefit of end-tidal CO2-guided chest compression delivery is limited by severe asphyxia duration.

9.
Circ Res ; 124(12): 1686-1688, 2019 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170044
10.
Dev Neurosci ; 41(1-2): 17-33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31108487

RESUMO

Therapeutic hypothermia is the standard of clinical care for moderate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We investigated the independent and interactive effects of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and temperature on neuronal survival and injury in basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in neonatal piglets. Male piglets were randomized to receive HI injury or sham procedure followed by 29 h of normothermia, sustained hypothermia induced at 2 h, or hypothermia with rewarming during fentanyl-nitrous oxide anesthesia. Viable and injured neurons and apoptotic profiles were counted in the anterior putamen, posterior putamen, and motor cortex at 29 h after HI injury or sham procedure. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) identified genomic DNA fragmentation to confirm cell death. Though hypothermia after HI preserved viable neurons in the anterior and posterior putamen, hypothermia prevented neuronal injury in only the anterior putamen. Hypothermia initiated 2 h after injury did not protect against apoptotic cell death in either the putamen or motor cortex, and rewarming from hypothermia was associated with increased apoptosis in the motor cortex. In non-HI shams, sustained hypothermia during anesthesia was associated with neuronal injury and corresponding viable neuron loss in the anterior putamen and motor cortex. TUNEL confirmed increased neurodegeneration in the putamen of hypothermic shams. Anesthetized, normothermic shams did not show abnormal neuronal cytopathology in the putamen or motor cortex, thereby demonstrating minimal contribution of the anesthetic regimen to neuronal injury during normothermia. We conclude that the efficacy of hypothermic protection after HI is region specific and that hypothermia during anesthesia in the absence of HI may be associated with neuronal injury in the developing brain. Studies examining the potential interactions between hypothermia and anesthesia, as well as with longer durations of hypothermia, are needed.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Hipotermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Masculino , Suínos
11.
Dev Neurosci ; : 1-13, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048593

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The optimal method to detect impairments in cerebrovascular pressure autoregulation in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is unclear. Improving autoregulation monitoring methods would significantly advance neonatal neurocritical care. METHODS: We tested several mathematical algorithms from the frequency and time domains in a piglet model of HIE, hypothermia, and hypotension. We used laser Doppler flowmetry and induced hypotension to delineate the gold standard lower limit of autoregulation (LLA). Receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were used to determine which indices could distinguish blood pressure above the LLA from that below the LLA in each piglet. RESULTS: Phase calculation in the frequency band with maximum coherence, as well as the correlation between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and near-infrared spectroscopy relative total tissue hemoglobin (HbT) or regional oxygen saturation (rSO2), accurately discriminated functional from dysfunctional autoregulation. Neither hypoxia-ischemia nor hypothermia affected the accuracy of these indices. Coherence alone and gain had low diagnostic value relative to phase and correlation. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that phase shift is the most accurate component of autoregulation monitoring in the developing brain, and it can be measured using correlation or by calculating phase when coherence is maximal. Phase and correlation autoregulation indices from MAP and rSO2 and vasoreactivity indices from MAP and HbT are accurate metrics that are suitable for clinical HIE studies.

12.
Behav Brain Res ; 369: 111921, 2019 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009645

RESUMO

Neonatal brain injury from hypoxia-ischemia (HI) causes major morbidity. Piglet HI is an established method for testing neuroprotective treatments in large, gyrencephalic brain. Though many neurobehavior tests exist for rodents, such tests and their associations with neuropathologic injury remain underdeveloped and underutilized in large, neonatal HI animal models. We examined whether spatial T-maze and inclined beam tests distinguish cognitive and motor differences between HI and sham piglets and correlate with neuropathologic injury. Neonatal piglets were randomized to whole-body HI or sham procedure, and they began T-maze and inclined beam testing 17 days later. HI piglets had more incorrect T-maze turns than did shams. Beam walking time did not differ between groups. Neuropathologic evaluations at 33 days validated the injury with putamen neuron loss after HI to below that of sham procedure. HI decreased the numbers of CA3 pyramidal neurons but not CA1 pyramidal neurons or dentate gyrus granule neurons. Though the number of hippocampal parvalbumin-positive interneurons did not differ between groups, HI reduced the number of CA1 interneuron dendrites. Piglets with more incorrect turns had greater CA3 neuron loss, and piglets that took longer in the maze had fewer CA3 interneurons. The number of putamen neurons was unrelated to T-maze or beam performance. We conclude that neonatal HI causes hippocampal CA3 neuron loss, CA1 interneuron dendritic attrition, and putamen neuron loss at 1-month recovery. The spatial T-maze identifies learning and memory deficits that are related to loss of CA3 pyramidal neurons and fewer parvalbumin-positive interneurons independent of putamen injury.

14.
Stem Cells Dev ; 28(8): 515-527, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30760110

RESUMO

White matter damage persists in hypoxic-ischemic newborns even when treated with hypothermia. We have previously shown that intraventricular delivery of human glial progenitors (GPs) at the neonatal stage is capable of replacing abnormal host glia and rescuing the lifespan of dysmyelinated mice. However, such transplantation in the human brain poses significant challenges as related to high-volume ventricles and long cell migration distances. These challenges can only be studied in large animal model systems. In this study, we developed a three dimensional (3D)-printed model of the ventricular system sized to a newborn pig to investigate the parameters that can maximize a global biodistribution of injected GPs within the ventricular system, while minimizing outflow to the subarachnoid space. Bioluminescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging were used to image the biodistribution of luciferase-transduced GPs in simple fluid containers and a custom-designed, 3D-printed model of the piglet ventricular system. Seven independent variables were investigated. The results demonstrated that a low volume (0.1 mL) of cell suspension is essential to keep cells within the ventricular system. If higher volumes (1 mL) are needed, a very slow infusion speed (0.01 mL/min) is necessary. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) labeling significantly alters the rheological properties of the GP suspension, such that, even at high speeds and high volumes, the outflow to the subarachnoid space is reduced. Several other factors, including GP species (human vs. mouse), type of catheter tip (end hole vs. side hole), catheter length (0.3 vs. 7.62 m), and cell concentration, had less effect on the overall distribution of GPs. We conclude that the use of a 3D-printed phantom model represents a robust, reproducible, and cost-saving alternative to in vivo large animal studies for determining optimal injection parameters.


Assuntos
Ventrículos Cerebrais , Modelos Anatômicos , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neuroglia/citologia , Impressão Tridimensional , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Ventrículos Cerebrais/citologia , Ventrículos Cerebrais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ventrículos Cerebrais/metabolismo , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacocinética , Humanos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/análise , Camundongos , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Suínos , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 39(10): 1961-1973, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739265

RESUMO

Laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that therapeutic hypothermia (TH), when applied as soon as possible after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA), results in better neurological outcome. This study tested the hypothesis that TH would promote cerebral blood flow (CBF) restoration and its maintenance after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) from CA. Twelve Wistar rats resuscitated from 7-min asphyxial CA were randomized into two groups: hypothermia group (7 H, n = 6), treated with mild TH (33-34℃) immediately after ROSC and normothermia group (7 N, n = 6,37.0 ± 0.5℃). Multiple parameters including mean arterial pressure, CBF, electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded. The neurological outcomes were evaluated using electrophysiological (information quantity, IQ, of EEG) methods and a comprehensive behavior examination (neurological deficit score, NDS). TH consistently promoted better CBF restoration approaching the baseline levels in the 7 H group as compared with the 7 N group. CBF during the first 5-30 min post ROSC of the two groups was 7 H:90.5% ± 3.4% versus 7 N:76.7% ± 3.5% (P < 0.01). Subjects in the 7 H group showed significantly better IQ scores after ROSC and better NDS scores at 4 and 24 h. Early application of TH facilitates restoration of CBF back to baseline levels after CA, which in turn results in the restoration of brain electrical activity and improved neurological outcome.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Animais , Pressão Arterial , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Homeostase , Hipotermia Induzida/métodos , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
16.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 39(8): 1531-1543, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485354

RESUMO

20-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite synthesized by cytochrome P450 4A, plays an important role in acute brain damage from ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage. We tested the hypothesis that 20-HETE inhibition has a protective effect after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and then investigated its effect on angiogenesis. We exposed hippocampal slice cultures to hemoglobin and induced ICH in mouse brains by intrastriatal collagenase injection to investigate the protective effect of 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor N-hydroxy-N'-(4-n-butyl-2-methylphenyl)-formamidine (HET0016). Hemoglobin-induced neuronal death was assessed by propidium iodide after 18 h in vitro. Lesion volume, neurologic deficits, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS), neuroinflammation, and angiogenesis were evaluated at different time points after ICH. In cultured mouse hippocampal slices, HET0016 attenuated hemoglobin-induced neuronal death and decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and ROS. In vivo, HET0016 reduced brain lesion volume and neurologic deficits, and decreased neuronal death, ROS production, gelatinolytic activity, and the inflammatory response at three days after ICH. However, HET0016 did not inhibit angiogenesis, as levels of CD31, VEGF, and VEGFR2 were unchanged on day 28. We conclude that 20-HETE is involved in ICH-induced brain damage. Inhibition of 20-HETE synthesis may provide a viable means to mitigate ICH injury without inhibition of angiogenesis.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Animais , Hemorragia Cerebral/patologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(20): e009415, 2018 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371275

RESUMO

Background Neurological deficits in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, even with therapeutic hypothermia, are partially attributed to white matter injury. We theorized that proteasome insufficiency contributes to white matter injury. Methods and Results Neonatal piglets received hypoxia-ischemia ( HI ) or sham procedure with normothermia, hypothermia, or hypothermia+rewarming. Some received a proteasome activator drug (oleuropein) or white matter-targeted, virus-mediated proteasome knockdown. We measured myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, proteasome subunit 20S (P20S), proteasome activity, and carbonylated and ubiquitinated protein levels in white matter and cerebral cortex. HI reduced myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein levels regardless of temperature, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein loss was associated with increased ubiquitinated and carbonylated protein levels. Ubiquitinated and carbonyl-damaged proteins increased in white matter 29 hours after HI during hypothermia to exceed levels at 6 to 20 hours. In cortex, ubiquitinated proteins decreased. Ubiquitinated and carbonylated protein accumulation coincided with lower P20S levels in white matter; P20S levels also decreased in cerebral cortex. However, proteasome activity in white matter lagged behind that in cortex 29 hours after HI during hypothermia. Systemic oleuropein enhanced white matter P20S and protected the myelin, whereas proteasome knockdown exacerbated myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein loss and ubiquitinated protein accumulation after HI . At the cellular level, temperature and HI interactively affected macroglial P20S enrichment in subcortical white matter. Rewarming alone increased macroglial P20S immunoreactivity, but this increase was blocked by HI . Conclusions Oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins accumulate with HI -induced white matter injury. Proteasome insufficiency may drive this injury. Hypothermia did not prevent myelin damage, protect the proteasome, or preserve oxidized and ubiquitinated protein clearance after HI .


Assuntos
Asfixia/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Leucoencefalopatias/etiologia , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/deficiência , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/deficiência , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hipotermia/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Iridoides/farmacologia , Masculino , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Reaquecimento , Suínos , Substância Branca/metabolismo
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(19): e009728, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371318

RESUMO

Background The American Heart Association recommends use of physiologic feedback when available to optimize chest compression delivery. We compared hemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in which either end-tidal carbon dioxide ( ETCO 2) or diastolic blood pressure ( DBP ) levels were used to guide chest compression delivery after asphyxial cardiac arrest. Methods and Results One- to 2-week-old swine underwent a 17-minute asphyxial-fibrillatory cardiac arrest followed by alternating 2-minute periods of ETCO 2-guided and DBP -guided chest compressions during 10 minutes of basic life support and 10 minutes of advanced life support. Ten animals underwent resuscitation. We found significant changes to ETCO 2 and DBP levels within 30 s of switching chest compression delivery methods. The overall mean ETCO 2 level was greater during ETCO 2-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation (26.4±5.6 versus 22.5±5.2 mm Hg; P=0.003), whereas the overall mean DBP was greater during DBP -guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation (13.9±2.3 versus 9.4±2.6 mm Hg; P=0.003). ETCO 2-guided chest compressions resulted in a faster compression rate (149±3 versus 120±5 compressions/min; P=0.0001) and a higher intracranial pressure (21.7±2.3 versus 16.0±1.1 mm Hg; P=0.002). DBP -guided chest compressions were associated with a higher myocardial perfusion pressure (6.0±2.8 versus 2.4±3.2; P=0.02) and cerebral perfusion pressure (9.0±3.0 versus 5.5±4.3; P=0.047). Conclusions Using the ETCO 2 or DBP level to optimize chest compression delivery results in physiologic changes that are method-specific and occur within 30 s. Additional studies are needed to develop protocols for the use of these potentially conflicting physiologic targets to improve outcomes of prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal/complicações , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Massagem Cardíaca/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Asfixia Neonatal/fisiopatologia , Diástole , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Suínos
19.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; 38(12): 2092-2111, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149778

RESUMO

Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia resulting in death or lifelong disabilities remains a major clinical disorder. Neonatal models of hypoxia-ischemia in rodents have enhanced our understanding of cellular mechanisms of neural injury in developing brain, but have limitations in simulating the range, accuracy, and physiology of clinical hypoxia-ischemia and the relevant systems neuropathology that contribute to the human brain injury pattern. Large animal models of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia, such as partial or complete asphyxia at the time of delivery of fetal monkeys, umbilical cord occlusion and cerebral hypoperfusion at different stages of gestation in fetal sheep, and severe hypoxia and hypoperfusion in newborn piglets, have largely overcome these limitations. In monkey, complete asphyxia produces preferential injury to cerebellum and primary sensory nuclei in brainstem and thalamus, whereas partial asphyxia produces preferential injury to somatosensory and motor cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus. Mid-gestational fetal sheep provide a valuable model for studying vulnerability of progenitor oligodendrocytes. Hypoxia followed by asphyxia in newborn piglets replicates the systems injury seen in term newborns. Efficacy of post-insult hypothermia in animal models led to the success of clinical trials in term human neonates. Large animal models are now being used to explore adjunct therapy to augment hypothermic neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Asfixia Neonatal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Animais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041768

RESUMO

20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4A/4F-derived metabolite of arachidonic acid, directly contributes to ischemic neuronal injury. However, little is known about mediators of 20-HETE neurotoxicity after ischemia. Here, we focus on the role of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in 20-HETE-induced neurotoxicity. Our results showed that TRPV1 and CYP4A immunoreactivity were colocalized in neurons. TRPV1 inhibition attenuated 20-HETE mimetic 20-5,14-HEDGE-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and neuronal injury in cultured neurons and protected ischemic neurons in vitro and in vivo. TRPV1 inhibition in combination with 20-HETE synthesis inhibitor HET0016 did not produce additional protective effects. Furthermore, TRPV1 genetic inhibition and NADPH oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-dat each attenuated ROS production to a similar extent. However, combined treatment did not achieve additional reduction. Therefore, we conclude that TRPV1 channels are involved in 20-HETE's ROS generation and neurotoxicity after ischemia.


Assuntos
Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/efeitos adversos , Isquemia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP4A/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxieicosatetraenoicos/farmacologia , Isquemia/induzido quimicamente , Isquemia/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética
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