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1.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754749

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Heterogeneity in individuals with type 1 diabetes has become more generally appreciated, but has not yet been extensively and systematically characterised. Here, we aimed to characterise type 1 diabetes heterogeneity by creating immunological, genetic and clinical profiles for individuals with juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Participants were HLA-genotyped to determine HLA-DR-DQ risk, and SNP-genotyped to generate a non-HLA genetic risk score (GRS) based on 93 type 1 diabetes-associated SNP variants outside the MHC region. Islet autoimmunity was assessed as T cell proliferation upon stimulation with the beta cell antigens GAD65, islet antigen-2 (IA-2), preproinsulin (PPI) and defective ribosomal product of the insulin gene (INS-DRIP). Clinical parameters were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: Of 80 individuals, 67 had proliferation responses to one or more islet antigens, with vast differences in the extent of proliferation. Based on the multitude and amplitude of the proliferation responses, individuals were clustered into non-, intermediate and high responders. High responders could not be characterised entirely by enrichment for the highest risk HLA-DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 genotype. However, high responders did have a significantly higher non-HLA GRS. Clinically, high T cell responses to beta cell antigens did not reflect in worsened glycaemic control, increased complications, development of associated autoimmunity or younger age at disease onset. The number of beta cell antigens that an individual responded to increased with disease duration, pointing to chronic islet autoimmunity and epitope spreading. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Collectively, these data provide new insights into type 1 diabetes disease heterogeneity and highlight the importance of stratifying patients on the basis of their genetic and autoimmune signatures for immunotherapy and personalised disease management.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.

3.
Brain ; 142(11): 3473-3481, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608925

RESUMO

Rare genetic variants can cause epilepsy, and genetic testing has been widely adopted for severe, paediatric-onset epilepsies. The phenotypic consequences of common genetic risk burden for epilepsies and their potential future clinical applications have not yet been determined. Using polygenic risk scores (PRS) from a European-ancestry genome-wide association study in generalized and focal epilepsy, we quantified common genetic burden in patients with generalized epilepsy (GE-PRS) or focal epilepsy (FE-PRS) from two independent non-Finnish European cohorts (Epi25 Consortium, n = 5705; Cleveland Clinic Epilepsy Center, n = 620; both compared to 20 435 controls). One Finnish-ancestry population isolate (Finnish-ancestry Epi25, n = 449; compared to 1559 controls), two European-ancestry biobanks (UK Biobank, n = 383 656; Vanderbilt biorepository, n = 49 494), and one Japanese-ancestry biobank (BioBank Japan, n = 168 680) were used for additional replications. Across 8386 patients with epilepsy and 622 212 population controls, we found and replicated significantly higher GE-PRS in patients with generalized epilepsy of European-ancestry compared to patients with focal epilepsy (Epi25: P = 1.64×10-15; Cleveland: P = 2.85×10-4; Finnish-ancestry Epi25: P = 1.80×10-4) or population controls (Epi25: P = 2.35×10-70; Cleveland: P = 1.43×10-7; Finnish-ancestry Epi25: P = 3.11×10-4; UK Biobank and Vanderbilt biorepository meta-analysis: P = 7.99×10-4). FE-PRS were significantly higher in patients with focal epilepsy compared to controls in the non-Finnish, non-biobank cohorts (Epi25: P = 5.74×10-19; Cleveland: P = 1.69×10-6). European ancestry-derived PRS did not predict generalized epilepsy or focal epilepsy in Japanese-ancestry individuals. Finally, we observed a significant 4.6-fold and a 4.5-fold enrichment of patients with generalized epilepsy compared to controls in the top 0.5% highest GE-PRS of the two non-Finnish European cohorts (Epi25: P = 2.60×10-15; Cleveland: P = 1.39×10-2). We conclude that common variant risk associated with epilepsy is significantly enriched in multiple cohorts of patients with epilepsy compared to controls-in particular for generalized epilepsy. As sample sizes and PRS accuracy continue to increase with further common variant discovery, PRS could complement established clinical biomarkers and augment genetic testing for patient classification, comorbidity research, and potentially targeted treatment.

4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00727, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in SCN1A cause variable epilepsy disorders with different disease severities. We here investigate whether common variation in the promoter region of the unaffected SCN1A allele could reduce normal expression, leading to a decreased residual function of Nav1.1, and therefore to more severe clinical outcomes in patients affected by pathogenic SCN1A variants. METHODS: Five different SCN1A promoter-haplotypes were functionally assessed in SH-SY5Y cells using Firefly and Renilla luciferase assays. The SCN1A promoter region was analyzed in a cohort of 143 participants with SCN1A pathogenic variants. Differences in clinical features and outcomes between participants with and without common variants in the SCN1A promoter-region of their unaffected allele were investigated. RESULTS: All non-wildtype haplotypes showed a significant reduction in luciferase expression, compared to the wildtype promoter-region (65%-80%, p = 0.039-0.0023). No statistically significant differences in clinical outcomes were observed between patients with and without common promoter variants. However, patients with a wildtype promoter-haplotype on their unaffected SCN1A allele showed a nonsignificant trend for milder phenotypes. CONCLUSION: The nonsignificant observed trends in our study warrant replication studies in larger cohorts to explore the potential modifying role of these common SCN1A promoter-haplotypes.

5.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(5): 643-652, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879928

RESUMO

The relation of heavy cannabis use with decreased neuropsychological function has frequently been described but the underlying biological mechanisms are still largely unknown. This study investigates the relation of cannabis use with genome wide gene expression and subsequently examines the relations with neuropsychological function. Genome-wide gene expression in whole blood was compared between heavy cannabis users (N = 90) and cannabis naïve participants (N = 100) that were matched for psychotic like experiences. The results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Psychotic like experiences were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychotic Experiences (CAPE). Neuropsychological function was estimated using four subtasks of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Subsequent in vitro studies in monocytes and a neuroblastoma cell line investigated expression changes in response to two major psychotropic components of cannabis; tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). mRNA expression of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type F Polypeptide-Interacting-Protein Alpha-2 (PPFIA2) was significantly higher in cannabis users (LogFold Change 0.17) and confirmed by qPCR analysis. PPFIA2 expression level was negatively correlated with estimated intelligence (B=-22.9, p = 0.002) also in the 100 non-users (B=-28.5, p = 0.037). In vitro exposure of monocytes to CBD led to significant increase in PPFIA2 expression. However, exposure of monocytes to THC and neuroblastoma cells to THC or CBD did not change PPFIA2 expression. Change in PPFIA2 gene expression in response to cannabinoids is a putative mechanism by which cannabis could influence neuropsychological functions. The findings warrant further exploration of the role of PPFIA2 in cannabis induced changes of neuropsychological function, particularly in relation to CBD.

6.
Epilepsy Behav ; 90: 252-259, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527252

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Differentiating between Dravet syndrome and non-Dravet SCN1A-related phenotypes is important for prognosis regarding epilepsy severity, cognitive development, and comorbidities. When a child is diagnosed with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) or febrile seizures (FS), accurate prognostic information is essential as well, but detailed information on seizure course, seizure freedom, medication use, and comorbidities is lacking for this milder patient group. In this cross-sectional study, we explore disease characteristics in milder SCN1A-related phenotypes and the nature, occurrence, and relationships of SCN1A-related comorbidities in both patients with Dravet and non-Dravet syndromes. METHODS: A cohort of 164 Dutch participants with SCN1A-related seizures was evaluated, consisting of 116 patients with Dravet syndrome and 48 patients with either GEFS+, febrile seizures plus (FS+), or FS. Clinical data were collected from medical records, semi-structured telephone interviews, and three questionnaires: the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Measurement Model, and the Child or Adult Behavior Checklists (CBCL/ABCL). RESULTS: Walking disabilities and severe behavioral problems affect 71% and 43% of patients with Dravet syndrome respectively and are almost never present in patients with non-Dravet syndromes. These comorbidities are strongly correlated to lower quality-of-life (QoL) scores. Less severe comorbidities occur in patients with non-Dravet syndromes: learning problems and psychological/behavioral problems are reported for 27% and 38% respectively. The average QoL score of the non-Dravet group was comparable with that of the general population. The majority of patients with non-Dravet syndromes becomes seizure-free after 10 years of age (85%). CONCLUSIONS: Severe behavioral problems and walking disabilities are common in patients with Dravet syndrome and should receive specific attention during clinical management. Although the epilepsy course of patients with non-Dravet syndromes is much more favorable, milder comorbidities frequently occur in this group as well. Our results may be of great value for clinical care and informing newly diagnosed patients and their parents about prognosis.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/epidemiologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Síndromes Epilépticas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Epilépticas/epidemiologia , Síndromes Epilépticas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões Febris/diagnóstico , Convulsões Febris/epidemiologia , Convulsões Febris/genética , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/epidemiologia , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome is a severe genetic encephalopathy, caused by pathogenic variants in SCN1A. Low-grade parental mosaicism occurs in a substantial proportion of families (7%-13%) and has important implications for recurrence risks. However, parental mosaicism can remain undetected by methods regularly used in diagnostics. In this study, we use single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIP), a technique with high sensitivity for detecting low-grade mosaic variants and high cost-effectiveness, to investigate the incidence of parental mosaicism of SCN1A variants in a cohort of 90 families and assess the feasibility of this technique. METHODS: Deep sequencing of SCN1A was performed using smMIPs. False positive rates for each of the proband's pathogenic variants were determined in 145 unrelated samples. If parents showed corresponding variant alleles at a significantly higher rate than the established noise ratio, mosaicism was confirmed by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). RESULTS: Sequence coverage of at least 100× at the location of the corresponding pathogenic variant was reached for 80 parent couples. The variant ratio was significantly higher than the established noise ratio in eight parent couples, of which four (5%) were regarded as true mosaics, based on ddPCR results. The false positive rate of smMIP analysis without ddPCR was therefore 50%. Three of these variants had previously been considered de novo in the proband by Sanger sequencing. CONCLUSION: smMIP technology combined withnext generation sequencing (NGS) performs better than Sanger sequencing in the detection of parental mosaicism. Because parental mosaicism has important implications for genetic counselling and recurrence risks, we stress the importance of implementing high-sensitivity NGS-based assays in standard diagnostics.

8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(24): 4333-4343, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30215709

RESUMO

Birdshot Uveitis (Birdshot) is a rare eye condition that affects HLA-A29-positive individuals and could be considered a prototypic member of the recently proposed 'MHC-I (major histocompatibility complex class I)-opathy' family. Genetic studies have pinpointed the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP1) and (ERAP2) genes as shared associations across MHC-I-opathies, which suggests ERAP dysfunction may be a root cause for MHC-I-opathies. We mapped the ERAP1 and ERAP2 haplotypes in 84 Dutch cases and 890 controls. We identified association at variant rs10044354, which mediated a marked increase in ERAP2 expression. We also identified and cloned an independently associated ERAP1 haplotype (tagged by rs2287987) present in more than half of the cases; this ERAP1 haplotype is also the primary risk and protective haplotype for other MHC-I-opathies. We show that the risk ERAP1 haplotype conferred significantly altered expression of ERAP1 isoforms in transcriptomic data (n = 360), resulting in lowered protein expression and distinct enzymatic activity. Both the association for rs10044354 (meta-analysis: odds ratio (OR) [95% CI]=2.07[1.58-2.71], P = 1.24 × 10(-7)) and rs2287987 (OR[95% CI]: =2.01[1.51-2.67], P = 1.41 × 10(-6)) replicated and showed consistent direction of effect in an independent Spanish cohort of 46 cases and 2103 controls. In both cohorts, the combined rs2287987-rs10044354 haplotype associated with Birdshot more strongly than either variant alone [meta-analysis: P=3.9 × 10(-9)]. Finally, we observed that ERAP2 protein expression is dependent on the ERAP1 background across three European populations (n = 3353). In conclusion, a functionally distinct combination of ERAP1 and ERAP2 are a hallmark of Birdshot and provide rationale for strategies designed to correct ERAP function for treatment of Birdshot and MHC-I-opathies more broadly.

9.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 136(10): 1128-1136, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30073298

RESUMO

Importance: To date, several targeted genetic studies on chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) have been performed; however, unbiased genome-wide studies into the genetics of cCSC have not been reported. To discover new genetic loci associated with cCSC and to better understand the causative mechanism of this disease, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on patients with cCSC. Objective: To discover new genetic loci and pathways associated with cCSC and to predict the association of genetic variants with gene expression in patients with cCSC. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control GWAS was completed in the general community, 3 referral university medical centers, and outpatient care on Europeans individuals with cCSC and population-based control participants. Genotype data was collected from May 2013 to August 2017, and data analysis occurred from August 2017 to November 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Associations of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, haplotypes, genetic pathways, and predicted gene expression with cCSC. Results: A total of 521 patients with cCSC (median age, 51 years; interquartile range [IQR], 44-59 years; 420 [80.6%] male) and 3577 European population-based control participants (median age, 52 years; IQR, 37-71 years; 1630 [45.6%] male) were included. One locus on chromosome 1 at the complement factor H (CFH) gene reached genome-wide significance and was associated with an increased risk of cCSC (rs1329428; odds ratio [OR], 1.57 [95% CI, 1.38-1.80]; P = 3.12 × 10-11). The CFH haplotypes H1 and H3 were protective for cCSC (H1: OR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.53-0.77]; P = 2.18 × 10-6; H3: OR, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.42-0.70]; P = 2.49 × 10-6), whereas haplotypes H2, H4, H5, and the aggregate of rare CFH haplotypes conferred increased risk (H2: OR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.30-1.89]; P = 2.18 × 10-6; H4: OR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.13-1.80]; P = 2.49 × 10-3; H5: OR, 1.80 [95% CI, 1.36-2.39]; P = 4.61 × 10-5; rare haplotypes: OR, 1.99 [95% CI, 1.43-2.77]; P = 4.59 × 10-5). Pathway analyses showed involvement of the complement cascade and alternative open reading frame (ARF) pathway in cCSC. Using PrediXcan, we identified changes in predicted expression of complement genes CFH, complement factor H related 1 (CFHR1), complement factor related 4 (CFHR4), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP/CD46). Additionally, the potassium sodium-activated channel subfamily T member 2 (KCNT2) and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10a (TNFRSF10A) genes were differentially expressed in patients with cCSC. Conclusions and Relevance: In this GWAS on cCSC, we identified a locus on chromosome 1 at the CFH gene that was significantly associated with cCSC, and we report protective and risk-conferring haplotypes in this gene. Pathway analyses were enriched for complement genes, and gene expression analysis suggests a role for CFH, CFHR1, CFHR4, CD46, KCNT2, and TNFRSF10A in the disease. Taken together, these results underscore the potential importance of the complement pathway in the causative mechanisms of cCSC.

10.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 1048-1053, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29942082

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a frequent feature of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), but little is known about genetic differences between NDDs with and without epilepsy. We analyzed de novo variants (DNVs) in 6,753 parent-offspring trios ascertained to have different NDDs. In the subset of 1,942 individuals with NDDs with epilepsy, we identified 33 genes with a significant excess of DNVs, of which SNAP25 and GABRB2 had previously only limited evidence of disease association. Joint analysis of all individuals with NDDs also implicated CACNA1E as a novel disease-associated gene. Comparing NDDs with and without epilepsy, we found missense DNVs, DNVs in specific genes, age of recruitment, and severity of intellectual disability to be associated with epilepsy. We further demonstrate the extent to which our results affect current genetic testing as well as treatment, emphasizing the benefit of accurate genetic diagnosis in NDDs with epilepsy.

11.
Epilepsia ; 59(6): 1154-1165, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic variants in SCN1A can give rise to extremely variable disease severities that may be indistinguishable at their first presentation. We aim to find clinical features that can help predict the evolution of seizures into Dravet syndrome and clinical features that predict cognitive outcome in Dravet syndrome. We specifically investigate the role of contraindicated medication (CIM) as a possible modifier of cognitive decline. METHODS: A cohort of 164 Dutch participants with SCN1A-related seizures was evaluated. Clinical data were collected from medical records and semistructured telephone interviews. Cognitive function was classified by a child neurologist, neuropsychologist, and clinical geneticist. Several clinical variables, including duration of CIM use in the first 5 years of disease, were evaluated in univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: A longer duration of CIM use in the first 5 years after seizure onset was significantly associated with a worse cognitive outcome at time of inclusion, and with lower interpolated intelligence quotient/developmental quotient scores after the first 5 years of disease in Dravet syndrome patients. CIM use remained a significant predictor for cognitive outcome in a multivariate regression model, as did age at the first observation of developmental delay and age at first afebrile seizure. Age at first afebrile seizure was the most accurate predictor for evolution of seizures into Dravet syndrome for the complete cohort. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that a longer CIM use in the first 5 years of disease can have negative effects on cognitive outcome in Dravet syndrome. An early diagnosis is essential to avoid these drugs. Furthermore, we identified age at first afebrile seizure as an important predictor for evolution of seizures into Dravet syndrome and for the severity of Dravet syndrome, which can be used to counsel parents of young patients with SCN1A-related seizures.

12.
Diabetologia ; 61(7): 1650-1661, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671030

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sphingolipids play important roles in beta cell physiology, by regulating proinsulin folding and insulin secretion and in controlling apoptosis, as studied in animal models and cell cultures. Here we investigate whether sphingolipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of human type 1 diabetes and whether increasing the levels of the sphingolipid sulfatide would prevent models of diabetes in NOD mice. METHODS: We examined the amount and distribution of sulfatide in human pancreatic islets by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Transcriptional analysis was used to evaluate expression of sphingolipid-related genes in isolated human islets. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a T cell proliferation assay were used to identify type 1 diabetes related polymorphisms and test how these affect cellular islet autoimmunity. Finally, we treated NOD mice with fenofibrate, a known activator of sulfatide biosynthesis, to evaluate the effect on experimental autoimmune diabetes development. RESULTS: We found reduced amounts of sulfatide, 23% of the levels in control participants, in pancreatic islets of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, which were associated with reduced expression of enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Next, we discovered eight gene polymorphisms (ORMDL3, SPHK2, B4GALNT1, SLC1A5, GALC, PPARD, PPARG and B4GALT1) involved in sphingolipid metabolism that contribute to the genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes. These gene polymorphisms correlated with the degree of cellular islet autoimmunity in a cohort of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Finally, using fenofibrate, which activates sulfatide biosynthesis, we completely prevented diabetes in NOD mice and even reversed the disease in half of otherwise diabetic animals. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results indicate that islet sphingolipid metabolism is abnormal in type 1 diabetes and suggest that modulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach. DATA AVAILABILITY: The RNA expression data is available online at https://www.dropbox.com/s/93mk5tzl5fdyo6b/Abnormal%20islet%20sphingolipid%20metabolism%20in%20type%201%20diabetes%2C%20RNA%20expression.xlsx?dl=0 . A list of SNPs identified is available at https://www.dropbox.com/s/yfojma9xanpp2ju/Abnormal%20islet%20sphingolipid%20metabolism%20in%20type%201%20diabetes%20SNP.xlsx?dl=0 .


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Sulfoglicoesfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Autoimunidade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fenofibrato/farmacologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/imunologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/ultraestrutura , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Polimorfismo Genético , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
13.
Epilepsia ; 59(3): 690-703, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Phenotypes caused by de novo SCN1A pathogenic variants are very variable, ranging from severely affected patients with Dravet syndrome to much milder genetic epilepsy febrile seizures plus cases. The most important determinant of disease severity is the type of variant, with variants that cause a complete loss of function of the SCN1A protein (α-subunit of the neuronal sodium channel Nav1.1) being detected almost exclusively in Dravet syndrome patients. However, even within Dravet syndrome disease severity ranges greatly, and consequently other disease modifiers must exist. A better prediction of disease severity is very much needed in daily practice to improve counseling, stressing the importance of identifying modifying factors in this patient group. We evaluated 128 participants with de novo, pathogenic SCN1A variants to investigate whether mosaicism, caused by postzygotic mutation, is a major modifier in SCN1A-related epilepsy. METHODS: Mosaicism was investigated by reanalysis of the pathogenic SCN1A variants using single molecule molecular inversion probes and next generation sequencing with high coverage. Allelic ratios of pathogenic variants were used to determine whether mosaicism was likely. Selected mosaic variants were confirmed by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of different tissues. Developmental outcome was classified based on available data on intelligence quotient and school functioning/education. RESULTS: Mosaicism was present for 7.5% of de novo pathogenic SCN1A variants in symptomatic patients. Mosaic participants were less severely affected than nonmosaic participants if only participants with truncating variants are considered (distribution of developmental outcome scores, Mann-Whitney U, P = .023). SIGNIFICANCE: Postzygotic mutation is a common phenomenon in SCN1A-related epilepsies. Participants with mosaicism have on average milder phenotypes, suggesting that mosaicism can be a major modifier of SCN1A-related diseases. Detection of mosaicism has important implications for genetic counseling and can be achieved by deep sequencing of unique reads.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Mosaicismo , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/diagnóstico , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neurosci Lett ; 667: 10-16, 2018 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347857

RESUMO

The search for genes associated with common epilepsy, including both focal and generalised epilepsies, has been intensive in the past few decades. Consequently, our understanding of the genetic background of common epilepsy has improved considerably, and current genetic studies have optimised their design accordingly, showing much promise for the future. Nevertheless, we can only explain a fraction of the heritability of common epilepsy with the currently known genetic factors. These factors have been identified with a range of different gene mapping techniques, including linkage analysis of epilepsy families, association studies, and recent large scale sequencing studies, which individually are optimal to detect a certain class of genetic variation. Here, we give a selected overview of the genetic studies that illustrate the evolution of epilepsy genetics and contribute to the evidence for a polygenic basis of common epilepsy that likely involves both rare and common disease variants.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo
15.
Neurology ; 90(4): e332-e341, 2018 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize, among European and Han Chinese populations, the genetic predictors of maculopapular exanthema (MPE), a cutaneous adverse drug reaction common to antiepileptic drugs. METHODS: We conducted a case-control genome-wide association study of autosomal genotypes, including Class I and II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, in 323 cases and 1,321 drug-tolerant controls from epilepsy cohorts of northern European and Han Chinese descent. Results from each cohort were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: We report an association between a rare variant in the complement factor H-related 4 (CFHR4) gene and phenytoin-induced MPE in Europeans (p = 4.5 × 10-11; odds ratio [95% confidence interval] 7 [3.2-16]). This variant is in complete linkage disequilibrium with a missense variant (N1050Y) in the complement factor H (CFH) gene. In addition, our results reinforce the association between HLA-A*31:01 and carbamazepine hypersensitivity. We did not identify significant genetic associations with MPE among Han Chinese patients. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of genetic predictors of MPE in CFHR4 and CFH, members of the complement factor H-related protein family, suggest a new link between regulation of the complement system alternative pathway and phenytoin-induced hypersensitivity in European-ancestral patients.

16.
Epilepsia ; 58(10): 1734-1741, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28857179

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is a common epilepsy syndrome that is often poorly controlled by antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. Comparative AED effectiveness studies in this condition are lacking. We report retention, efficacy, and tolerability in a cohort of patients with MTLE-HS. METHODS: Clinical data were collected from a European database of patients with epilepsy. We estimated retention, 12-month seizure freedom, and adverse drug reaction (ADR) rates for the 10 most commonly used AEDs in patients with MTLE-HS. RESULTS: Seven hundred sixty-seven patients with a total of 3,249 AED trials were included. The highest 12-month retention rates were observed with carbamazepine (85.9%), valproate (85%), and clobazam (79%). Twelve-month seizure freedom rates varied from 1.2% for gabapentin and vigabatrin to 11% for carbamazepine. Response rates were highest for AEDs that were prescribed as initial treatment and lowest for AEDs that were used in a third or higher instance. ADRs were reported in 47.6% of patients, with the highest rates observed with oxcarbazepine (35.7%), topiramate (30.9%), and pregabalin (27.4%), and the lowest rates with clobazam (6.5%), gabapentin (8.9%), and lamotrigine (16.6%). The most commonly reported ADRs were lethargy and drowsiness, dizziness, vertigo and ataxia, and blurred vision and diplopia. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results did not demonstrate any clear advantage of newer versus older AEDs. Our results provide useful insights into AED retention, efficacy, and ADR rates in patients with MTLE-HS.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/tratamento farmacológico , Hipocampo/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aminas/uso terapêutico , Ataxia/induzido quimicamente , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/análogos & derivados , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Clobazam , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/uso terapêutico , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diplopia/induzido quimicamente , Tontura/induzido quimicamente , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/patologia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Frutose/análogos & derivados , Frutose/uso terapêutico , Gabapentina , Humanos , Lamotrigina , Letargia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxcarbazepina , Pregabalina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Esclerose , Topiramato , Resultado do Tratamento , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Vertigem/induzido quimicamente , Vigabatrina/uso terapêutico , Transtornos da Visão/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/uso terapêutico
17.
JAMA Neurol ; 74(10): 1228-1236, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806457

RESUMO

Importance: Knowing the range of symptoms seen in patients with a missense or loss-of-function variant in KCNB1 and how these symptoms correlate with the type of variant will help clinicians with diagnosis and prognosis when treating new patients. Objectives: To investigate the clinical spectrum associated with KCNB1 variants and the genotype-phenotype correlations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study summarized the clinical and genetic information of patients with a presumed pathogenic variant in KCNB1. Patients were identified in research projects or during clinical testing. Information on patients from previously published articles was collected and authors contacted if feasible. All patients were seen at a clinic at one of the participating institutes because of presumed genetic disorder. They were tested in a clinical setting or included in a research project. Main Outcomes and Measures: The genetic variant and its inheritance and information on the patient's symptoms and characteristics in a predefined format. All variants were identified with massive parallel sequencing and confirmed with Sanger sequencing in the patient. Absence of the variant in the parents could be confirmed with Sanger sequencing in all families except one. Results: Of 26 patients (10 female, 15 male, 1 unknown; mean age at inclusion, 9.8 years; age range, 2-32 years) with developmental delay, 20 (77%) carried a missense variant in the ion channel domain of KCNB1, with a concentration of variants in region S5 to S6. Three variants that led to premature stops were located in the C-terminal and 3 in the ion channel domain. Twenty-one of 25 patients (84%) had seizures, with 9 patients (36%) starting with epileptic spasms between 3 and 18 months of age. All patients had developmental delay, with 17 (65%) experiencing severe developmental delay; 14 (82%) with severe delay had behavioral problems. The developmental delay was milder in 4 of 6 patients with stop variants and in a patient with a variant in the S2 transmembrane element rather than the S4 to S6 region. Conclusions and Relevance: De novo KCNB1 missense variants in the ion channel domain and loss-of-function variants in this domain and the C-terminal likely cause neurodevelopmental disorders with or without seizures. Patients with presumed pathogenic variants in KCNB1 have a variable phenotype. However, the type and position of the variants in the protein are (imperfectly) correlated with the severity of the disorder.


Assuntos
Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Canais de Potássio Shab/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Epilepsia ; 58(7): 1227-1233, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain possible determinants of carbamazepine (CBZ)- and oxcarbazepine (OXC)-induced hyponatremia in a large cohort of people with epilepsy. METHODS: We collected data on serum sodium levels in people with epilepsy who were attending a tertiary epilepsy center while on treatment with CBZ or OXC. We defined hyponatremia as Na+ ≤134 mEq/L and severe hyponatremia as Na+ ≤128 mEq/L. RESULTS: We identified 1,782 people who had used CBZ (n = 1,424) or OXC (n = 358), of whom 50 were treated with both drugs. Data on sodium level measurements were available in 1,132 on CBZ and in 289 on OXC. Hyponatremia occurred in 26% of those taking CBZ and 46% of those taking OXC. This was severe in 7% in the CBZ group and 22% in the OXC group. Hyponatremia was symptomatic in 48% and led to admissions in 3%. Age over 40 years, high serum levels of CBZ and OXC, and concomitant use of other antiepileptic drugs were the main risk factors for hyponatremia in both treatment groups. Female patients on OXC were at a higher risk than male patients of hyponatremia. The risk of hyponatremia on CBZ was significantly associated with the risk of hyponatremia on OXC within a subgroup that used both drugs consecutively. SIGNIFICANCE: Hyponatremia is a common problem in people taking CBZ or OXC. Regular ascertainment of sodium levels in those taking either drug is recommended and results should be acted on.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Carbamazepina/análogos & derivados , Carbamazepina/efeitos adversos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiponatremia/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiponatremia/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxcarbazepina , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Sódio/sangue
19.
Br J Haematol ; 177(5): 782-790, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444748

RESUMO

MicroRNAs have been recognized as critical regulators of gene expression and might affect the risk of venous thrombosis. We aimed to identify 3' untranslated region (UTR) variants in coagulation genes that influence coagulation factor levels and venous thrombosis risk. The 3'UTR of coagulation genes were sequenced in subjects with extremely high or low plasma levels of these factors in two case-control studies. In total, 28 variants were identified. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predominantly present in one extreme level group (F2 rs1799963, F8 rs1050705 and F11 rs4253429, rs4253430 and rs1062547). Additional to F2 rs1799963, F8 rs1050705 (in men) and F11 rs4253430 were associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis albeit confidence intervals were wide. The three F11 SNPs were in high linkage disequilibrium with functional variants rs2289252 and rs2036914. Rs1062547 and rs4253430 were associated with a significant increase of plasma FXI activity in heterozygotes and homozygotes in wild-type controls. In silico prediction revealed that these SNPs might disturb the binding sites of miR-544 and miR-513a-3p. Only miR-544 provoked a significant decrease of the luciferase activity that was not observed with a rs4253430 mutated vector. In conclusion, these results reinforce that microRNAs are candidates to play a role in haemostasis and complex disorders, such as thrombosis.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Trombose Venosa/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
Lancet Neurol ; 16(2): 101-102, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28102142
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