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1.
Genet Med ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in the X-linked gene NEXMIF (previously KIAA2022) are associated with intellectual disability (ID), autism spectrum disorder, and epilepsy. We aimed to delineate the female and male phenotypic spectrum of NEXMIF encephalopathy. METHODS: Through an international collaboration, we analyzed the phenotypes and genotypes of 87 patients with NEXMIF encephalopathy. RESULTS: Sixty-three females and 24 males (46 new patients) with NEXMIF encephalopathy were studied, with 30 novel variants. Phenotypic features included developmental delay/ID in 86/87 (99%), seizures in 71/86 (83%) and multiple comorbidities. Generalized seizures predominated including myoclonic seizures and absence seizures (both 46/70, 66%), absence with eyelid myoclonia (17/70, 24%), and atonic seizures (30/70, 43%). Males had more severe developmental impairment; females had epilepsy more frequently, and varied from unaffected to severely affected. All NEXMIF pathogenic variants led to a premature stop codon or were deleterious structural variants. Most arose de novo, although X-linked segregation occurred for both sexes. Somatic mosaicism occurred in two males and a family with suspected parental mosaicism. CONCLUSION: NEXMIF encephalopathy is an X-linked, generalized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy characterized by myoclonic-atonic epilepsy overlapping with eyelid myoclonia with absence. Some patients have developmental encephalopathy without epilepsy. Males have more severe developmental impairment. NEXMIF encephalopathy arises due to loss-of-function variants.

2.
Genet Med ; 22(8): 1413-1417, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366965

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study characterizes the clinical and genetic features of nine unrelated patients with de novo variants in the NR4A2 gene. METHODS: Variants were identified and de novo origins were confirmed through trio exome sequencing in all but one patient. Targeted RNA sequencing was performed for one variant to confirm its splicing effect. Independent discoveries were shared through GeneMatcher. RESULTS: Missense and loss-of-function variants in NR4A2 were identified in patients from eight unrelated families. One patient carried a larger deletion including adjacent genes. The cases presented with developmental delay, hypotonia (six cases), and epilepsy (six cases). De novo status was confirmed for eight patients. One variant was demonstrated to affect splicing and result in expression of abnormal transcripts likely subject to nonsense-mediated decay. CONCLUSION: Our study underscores the importance of NR4A2 as a disease gene for neurodevelopmental disorders and epilepsy. The identified variants are likely causative of the seizures and additional developmental phenotypes in these patients.

3.
Neurobiol Aging ; 92: 153.e1-153.e5, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409253

RESUMO

Because hyper-excitability has been shown to be a shared pathophysiological mechanism, we used the latest and largest genome-wide studies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 36,052) and epilepsy (n = 38,349) to determine genetic overlap between these conditions. First, we showed no significant genetic correlation, also when binned on minor allele frequency. Second, we confirmed the absence of polygenic overlap using genomic risk score analysis. Finally, we did not identify pleiotropic variants in meta-analyses of the 2 diseases. Our findings indicate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and epilepsy do not share common genetic risk, showing that hyper-excitability in both disorders has distinct origins.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Resultados Negativos , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Risco
4.
Genome Med ; 12(1): 28, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Classifying pathogenicity of missense variants represents a major challenge in clinical practice during the diagnoses of rare and genetic heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). While orthologous gene conservation is commonly employed in variant annotation, approximately 80% of known disease-associated genes belong to gene families. The use of gene family information for disease gene discovery and variant interpretation has not yet been investigated on a genome-wide scale. We empirically evaluate whether paralog-conserved or non-conserved sites in human gene families are important in NDDs. METHODS: Gene family information was collected from Ensembl. Paralog-conserved sites were defined based on paralog sequence alignments; 10,068 NDD patients and 2078 controls were statistically evaluated for de novo variant burden in gene families. RESULTS: We demonstrate that disease-associated missense variants are enriched at paralog-conserved sites across all disease groups and inheritance models tested. We developed a gene family de novo enrichment framework that identified 43 exome-wide enriched gene families including 98 de novo variant carrying genes in NDD patients of which 28 represent novel candidate genes for NDD which are brain expressed and under evolutionary constraint. CONCLUSION: This study represents the first method to incorporate gene family information into a statistical framework to interpret variant data for NDDs and to discover new NDD-associated genes.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Família Multigênica , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Loci Gênicos , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0219106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134913

RESUMO

Dravet syndrome is caused by dominant loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A which cause reduced activity of Nav1.1 leading to lack of neuronal inhibition. On the other hand, gain-of-function mutations in SCN8A can lead to a severe epileptic encephalopathy subtype by over activating NaV1.6 channels. These observations suggest that Nav1.1 and Nav1.6 represent two opposing sides of the neuronal balance between inhibition and activation. Here, we hypothesize that Dravet syndrome may be treated by either enhancing Nav1.1 or reducing Nav1.6 activity. To test this hypothesis we generated and characterized a novel DS zebrafish model and tested new compounds that selectively activate or inhibit the human NaV1.1 or NaV1.6 channel respectively. We used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate two separate Scn1Lab knockout lines as an alternative to previous zebrafish models generated by random mutagenesis or morpholino oligomers. Using an optimized locomotor assay, spontaneous burst movements were detected that were unique to Scn1Lab knockouts and disappear when introducing human SCN1A mRNA. Besides the behavioral phenotype, Scn1Lab knockouts show sudden, electrical discharges in the brain that indicate epileptic seizures in zebrafish. Scn1Lab knockouts showed increased sensitivity to the GABA antagonist pentylenetetrazole and a reduction in whole organism GABA levels. Drug screenings further validated a Dravet syndrome phenotype. We tested the NaV1.1 activator AA43279 and two novel NaV1.6 inhibitors MV1369 and MV1312 in the Scn1Lab knockouts. Both type of compounds significantly reduced the number of spontaneous burst movements and seizure activity. Our results show that selective inhibition of NaV1.6 could be just as efficient as selective activation of NaV1.1 and these approaches could prove to be novel potential treatment strategies for Dravet syndrome and other (genetic) epilepsies. Compounds tested in zebrafish however, should always be further validated in other model systems for efficacy in mammals and to screen for potential side effects.

6.
Ann Neurol ; 87(6): 897-906, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32215971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms by which antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) cause birth defects (BDs) are unknown. Data suggest that AED-induced BDs may result from a genome-wide increase of de novo variants in the embryo, a mechanism that we investigated. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing data from child-parent trios were interrogated for de novo single-nucleotide variants/indels (dnSNVs/indels) and de novo copy number variants (dnCNVs). Generalized linear models were applied to assess de novo variant burdens in children exposed prenatally to AEDs (AED-exposed children) versus children without BDs not exposed prenatally to AEDs (AED-unexposed unaffected children), and AED-exposed children with BDs versus those without BDs, adjusting for confounders. Fisher exact test was used to compare categorical data. RESULTS: Sixty-seven child-parent trios were included: 10 with AED-exposed children with BDs, 46 with AED-exposed unaffected children, and 11 with AED-unexposed unaffected children. The dnSNV/indel burden did not differ between AED-exposed children and AED-unexposed unaffected children (median dnSNV/indel number/child [range] = 3 [0-7] vs 3 [1-5], p = 0.50). Among AED-exposed children, there were no significant differences between those with BDs and those unaffected. Likely deleterious dnSNVs/indels were detected in 9 of 67 (13%) children, none of whom had BDs. The proportion of cases harboring likely deleterious dnSNVs/indels did not differ significantly between AED-unexposed and AED-exposed children. The dnCNV burden was not associated with AED exposure or birth outcome. INTERPRETATION: Our study indicates that prenatal AED exposure does not increase the burden of de novo variants, and that this mechanism is not a major contributor to AED-induced BDs. These results can be incorporated in routine patient counseling. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:897-906.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/genética , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Carga Genética , Variação Genética/genética , Teratogênios , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , DNA/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Paterna , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez
7.
Epilepsia ; 61(4): 657-666, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141622

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Drug resistance is a major concern in the treatment of individuals with epilepsy. No genetic markers for resistance to individual antiseizure medication (ASM) have yet been identified. We aimed to identify the role of rare genetic variants in drug resistance for three common ASMs: levetiracetam (LEV), lamotrigine (LTG), and valproic acid (VPA). METHODS: A cohort of 1622 individuals of European descent with epilepsy was deeply phenotyped and underwent whole exome sequencing (WES), comprising 575 taking LEV, 826 LTG, and 782 VPA. We performed gene- and gene set-based collapsing analyses comparing responders and nonresponders to the three drugs to determine the burden of different categories of rare genetic variants. RESULTS: We observed a marginally significant enrichment of rare missense, truncating, and splice region variants in individuals who were resistant to VPA compared to VPA responders for genes involved in VPA pharmacokinetics. We also found a borderline significant enrichment of truncating and splice region variants in the synaptic vesicle glycoprotein (SV2) gene family in nonresponders compared to responders to LEV. We did not see any significant enrichment using a gene-based approach. SIGNIFICANCE: In our pharmacogenetic study, we identified a slightly increased burden of damaging variants in gene groups related to drug kinetics or targeting in individuals presenting with drug resistance to VPA or LEV. Such variants could thus determine a genetic contribution to drug resistance.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Variantes Farmacogenômicos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lamotrigina/uso terapêutico , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
8.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(4): e1103, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SCN1A is one of the most important epilepsy-related genes, with pathogenic variants leading to a range of phenotypes with varying disease severity. Different modifying factors have been hypothesized to influence SCN1A-related phenotypes. We investigate the presence of rare and more common variants in epilepsy-related genes as potential modifiers of SCN1A-related disease severity. METHODS: 87 patients with SCN1A-related epilepsy were investigated. Whole-exome sequencing was performed by the Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI). Functional variants in 422 genes associated with epilepsy and/or neuronal excitability were investigated. Differences in proportions of variants between the epilepsy genes and four control gene sets were calculated, and compared to the proportions of variants in the same genes in the ExAC database. RESULTS: Statistically significant excesses of variants in epilepsy genes were observed in the complete cohort and in the combined group of mildly and severely affected patients, particularly for variants with minor allele frequencies of <0.05. Patients with extreme phenotypes showed much greater excesses of epilepsy gene variants than patients with intermediate phenotypes. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that relatively common variants in epilepsy genes, which would not necessarily be classified as pathogenic, may play a large role in modulating SCN1A phenotypes. They may modify the phenotypes of both severely and mildly affected patients. Our results may be a first step toward meaningful testing of modifier gene variants in regular diagnostics for individual patients, to provide a better estimation of disease severity for newly diagnosed patients.

9.
Diabetologia ; 63(2): 351-361, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754749

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Heterogeneity in individuals with type 1 diabetes has become more generally appreciated, but has not yet been extensively and systematically characterised. Here, we aimed to characterise type 1 diabetes heterogeneity by creating immunological, genetic and clinical profiles for individuals with juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Participants were HLA-genotyped to determine HLA-DR-DQ risk, and SNP-genotyped to generate a non-HLA genetic risk score (GRS) based on 93 type 1 diabetes-associated SNP variants outside the MHC region. Islet autoimmunity was assessed as T cell proliferation upon stimulation with the beta cell antigens GAD65, islet antigen-2 (IA-2), preproinsulin (PPI) and defective ribosomal product of the insulin gene (INS-DRIP). Clinical parameters were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: Of 80 individuals, 67 had proliferation responses to one or more islet antigens, with vast differences in the extent of proliferation. Based on the multitude and amplitude of the proliferation responses, individuals were clustered into non-, intermediate and high responders. High responders could not be characterised entirely by enrichment for the highest risk HLA-DR3-DQ2/DR4-DQ8 genotype. However, high responders did have a significantly higher non-HLA GRS. Clinically, high T cell responses to beta cell antigens did not reflect in worsened glycaemic control, increased complications, development of associated autoimmunity or younger age at disease onset. The number of beta cell antigens that an individual responded to increased with disease duration, pointing to chronic islet autoimmunity and epitope spreading. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Collectively, these data provide new insights into type 1 diabetes disease heterogeneity and highlight the importance of stratifying patients on the basis of their genetic and autoimmune signatures for immunotherapy and personalised disease management.

10.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(4): 563-571, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819912

RESUMO

Objective: Clinical and genetic predictors of response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are largely unknown. We examined predictors of lacosamide response in a real-world clinical setting. Methods: We tested the association of clinical predictors with treatment response using regression modeling in a cohort of people with refractory epilepsy. Genetic assessment for lacosamide response was conducted via genome-wide association studies and exome studies, comprising 281 candidate genes. Results: Most patients (479/483) were treated with LCM in addition to other AEDs. Our results corroborate previous findings that patients with refractory genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) may respond to treatment with LCM. No clear clinical predictors were identified. We then compared 73 lacosamide responders, defined as those experiencing greater than 75% seizure reduction or seizure freedom, to 495 nonresponders (<25% seizure reduction). No variants reached the genome-wide significance threshold in our case-control analysis. Significance: No genetic predictor of lacosamide response was identified. Patients with refractory GGE might benefit from treatment with lacosamide.

11.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(4): 609-617, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819917

RESUMO

Objective: Genetic causes are increasingly identified in patients with focal epilepsy. These genetic causes may be related to the effectiveness of epilepsy surgery. We aimed to assess the use and yield of genetic testing in a large cohort of patients who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery. Methods: We performed a retrospective single-center consecutive cohort study of patients who were evaluated for surgery between 1990 and 2016. Within this cohort, we assessed the use of genetic testing-either before or after presurgical decision-making. We evaluated genetic results as well as the outcome of presurgical decision-making and surgery, and compared these end points for different subgroups-especially MRI-positive vs MRI-negative patients. Patients with tuberous sclerosis (TSC) and KRIT1 mutations were excluded from analysis. Results: Of the 2385 epilepsy patients who were evaluated for surgery, 1280 (54%) received surgical treatment in our center. Of the entire cohort, 325 (14%) underwent genetic testing, comprising 156 of 450 MRI-negative patients (35%) vs 169 of 1935 MRI-positive patients (9%). A genetic cause of epilepsy was found in 40 of the 325 patients (12%, 2% of the entire cohort), mainly consisting of mutations in ion channel function and synaptic transmission genes, and mTOR pathway gene mutations. Three of the seven patients with mTOR pathway gene mutations underwent surgery; two achieved complete seizure freedom. One of the 17 patients with germline mutations in ion channel function and synaptic transmission genes received resective surgery but was not rendered seizure-free; two other patients underwent invasive intracranial EEG-monitoring before being rejected. Significance: This study shows that genetic testing is increasingly applied in focal epilepsy patients who are considered for epilepsy surgery. The diagnostic yield of genetic testing is highest in next generation sequencing techniques, and the outcome of genetic testing assists selecting eligible patients for invasive intracranial monitoring and resective surgery.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.


Assuntos
Fibrose/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 21: 100518, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641590

RESUMO

Altered vitamin B6 metabolism due to pathogenic variants in the gene PNPO causes early onset epileptic encephalopathy, which can be treated with high doses of vitamin B6. We recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence PNPO expression in the brain are associated with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). However, it is not known whether any of these GGE-associated SNPs influence vitamin B6 metabolite levels. Such an influence would suggest that vitamin B6 could play a role in GGE therapy. Here, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to assess the influence of GGE associated genetic variants on measures of vitamin B6 metabolism in blood plasma in 2232 healthy individuals. We also asked if SNPs that influence vitamin B6 were associated with GGE in 3122 affected individuals and 20,244 controls. Our GWAS of vitamin B6 metabolites reproduced a previous association and found a novel genome-wide significant locus. The SNPs in these loci were not associated with GGE. We found that 84 GGE-associated SNPs influence expression levels of PNPO in the brain as well as in blood. However, these SNPs were not associated with vitamin B6 metabolism in plasma. By leveraging polygenic risk scoring (PRS), we found suggestive evidence of higher catabolism and lower levels of the active and transport forms of vitamin B6 in GGE, although these findings require further replication.

14.
Brain ; 142(11): 3473-3481, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608925

RESUMO

Rare genetic variants can cause epilepsy, and genetic testing has been widely adopted for severe, paediatric-onset epilepsies. The phenotypic consequences of common genetic risk burden for epilepsies and their potential future clinical applications have not yet been determined. Using polygenic risk scores (PRS) from a European-ancestry genome-wide association study in generalized and focal epilepsy, we quantified common genetic burden in patients with generalized epilepsy (GE-PRS) or focal epilepsy (FE-PRS) from two independent non-Finnish European cohorts (Epi25 Consortium, n = 5705; Cleveland Clinic Epilepsy Center, n = 620; both compared to 20 435 controls). One Finnish-ancestry population isolate (Finnish-ancestry Epi25, n = 449; compared to 1559 controls), two European-ancestry biobanks (UK Biobank, n = 383 656; Vanderbilt biorepository, n = 49 494), and one Japanese-ancestry biobank (BioBank Japan, n = 168 680) were used for additional replications. Across 8386 patients with epilepsy and 622 212 population controls, we found and replicated significantly higher GE-PRS in patients with generalized epilepsy of European-ancestry compared to patients with focal epilepsy (Epi25: P = 1.64×10-15; Cleveland: P = 2.85×10-4; Finnish-ancestry Epi25: P = 1.80×10-4) or population controls (Epi25: P = 2.35×10-70; Cleveland: P = 1.43×10-7; Finnish-ancestry Epi25: P = 3.11×10-4; UK Biobank and Vanderbilt biorepository meta-analysis: P = 7.99×10-4). FE-PRS were significantly higher in patients with focal epilepsy compared to controls in the non-Finnish, non-biobank cohorts (Epi25: P = 5.74×10-19; Cleveland: P = 1.69×10-6). European ancestry-derived PRS did not predict generalized epilepsy or focal epilepsy in Japanese-ancestry individuals. Finally, we observed a significant 4.6-fold and a 4.5-fold enrichment of patients with generalized epilepsy compared to controls in the top 0.5% highest GE-PRS of the two non-Finnish European cohorts (Epi25: P = 2.60×10-15; Cleveland: P = 1.39×10-2). We conclude that common variant risk associated with epilepsy is significantly enriched in multiple cohorts of patients with epilepsy compared to controls-in particular for generalized epilepsy. As sample sizes and PRS accuracy continue to increase with further common variant discovery, PRS could complement established clinical biomarkers and augment genetic testing for patient classification, comorbidity research, and potentially targeted treatment.

15.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(3): 420-430, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440723

RESUMO

Objective: To study the effectiveness and tolerability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) commonly used in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Methods: People with JME were identified from a large database of individuals with epilepsy, which includes detailed retrospective information on AED use. We assessed secular changes in AED use and calculated rates of response (12-month seizure freedom) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for the five most common AEDs. Retention was modeled with a Cox proportional hazards model. We compared valproate use between males and females. Results: We included 305 people with 688 AED trials of valproate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and topiramate. Valproate and carbamazepine were most often prescribed as the first AED. The response rate to valproate was highest among the five AEDs (42.7%), and significantly higher than response rates for lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and topiramate; the difference to the response rate to levetiracetam (37.1%) was not significant. The rates of ADRs were highest for topiramate (45.5%) and valproate (37.5%). Commonest ADRs included weight change, lethargy, and tremor. In the Cox proportional hazards model, later start year (1.10 [1.08-1.13], P < 0.001) and female sex (1.41 [1.07-1.85], P = 0.02) were associated with shorter trial duration. Valproate was associated with the longest treatment duration; trials with carbamazepine and topiramate were significantly shorter (HR [CI]: 3.29 [2.15-5.02], P < 0.001 and 1.93 [1.31-2.86], P < 0.001). The relative frequency of valproate trials shows a decreasing trend since 2003 while there is an increasing trend for levetiracetam. Fewer females than males received valproate (76.2% vs 92.6%, P = 0.001). Significance: In people with JME, valproate is an effective AED; levetiracetam emerged as an alternative. Valproate is now contraindicated in women of childbearing potential without special precautions. With appropriate selection and safeguards in place, valproate should remain available as a therapy, including as an alternative for women of childbearing potential whose seizures are resistant to other treatments.

16.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(7): e00727, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in SCN1A cause variable epilepsy disorders with different disease severities. We here investigate whether common variation in the promoter region of the unaffected SCN1A allele could reduce normal expression, leading to a decreased residual function of Nav1.1, and therefore to more severe clinical outcomes in patients affected by pathogenic SCN1A variants. METHODS: Five different SCN1A promoter-haplotypes were functionally assessed in SH-SY5Y cells using Firefly and Renilla luciferase assays. The SCN1A promoter region was analyzed in a cohort of 143 participants with SCN1A pathogenic variants. Differences in clinical features and outcomes between participants with and without common variants in the SCN1A promoter-region of their unaffected allele were investigated. RESULTS: All non-wildtype haplotypes showed a significant reduction in luciferase expression, compared to the wildtype promoter-region (65%-80%, p = 0.039-0.0023). No statistically significant differences in clinical outcomes were observed between patients with and without common promoter variants. However, patients with a wildtype promoter-haplotype on their unaffected SCN1A allele showed a nonsignificant trend for milder phenotypes. CONCLUSION: The nonsignificant observed trends in our study warrant replication studies in larger cohorts to explore the potential modifying role of these common SCN1A promoter-haplotypes.

17.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(5): 643-652, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879928

RESUMO

The relation of heavy cannabis use with decreased neuropsychological function has frequently been described but the underlying biological mechanisms are still largely unknown. This study investigates the relation of cannabis use with genome wide gene expression and subsequently examines the relations with neuropsychological function. Genome-wide gene expression in whole blood was compared between heavy cannabis users (N = 90) and cannabis naïve participants (N = 100) that were matched for psychotic like experiences. The results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Psychotic like experiences were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychotic Experiences (CAPE). Neuropsychological function was estimated using four subtasks of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Subsequent in vitro studies in monocytes and a neuroblastoma cell line investigated expression changes in response to two major psychotropic components of cannabis; tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). mRNA expression of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type F Polypeptide-Interacting-Protein Alpha-2 (PPFIA2) was significantly higher in cannabis users (LogFold Change 0.17) and confirmed by qPCR analysis. PPFIA2 expression level was negatively correlated with estimated intelligence (B=-22.9, p = 0.002) also in the 100 non-users (B=-28.5, p = 0.037). In vitro exposure of monocytes to CBD led to significant increase in PPFIA2 expression. However, exposure of monocytes to THC and neuroblastoma cells to THC or CBD did not change PPFIA2 expression. Change in PPFIA2 gene expression in response to cannabinoids is a putative mechanism by which cannabis could influence neuropsychological functions. The findings warrant further exploration of the role of PPFIA2 in cannabis induced changes of neuropsychological function, particularly in relation to CBD.

18.
Epilepsia Open ; 4(1): 102-109, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868120

RESUMO

Objective: To ascertain the clinical and genetic factors contributing to carbamazepine- and oxcarbazepine-induced hyponatremia (COIH), and to carbamazepine (CBZ) metabolism, in a retrospectively collected, cross-sectional cohort of people with epilepsy. Methods: We collected data on serum sodium levels and antiepileptic drug levels in people with epilepsy attending a tertiary epilepsy center while on treatment with CBZ or OXC. We defined hyponatremia as Na+ ≤134 mEq/L. We estimated the CBZ metabolic ratio defined as the log transformation of the ratio of metabolite CBZ-diol to unchanged drug precursor substrate as measured in serum. Results: Clinical and genetic data relating to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine trials were collected in 1141 patients. We did not observe any genome-wide significant associations with sodium level in a linear trend or hyponatremia as a dichotomous trait. Age, sex, number of comedications, phenytoin use, phenobarbital use, and sodium valproate use were significant predictors of CBZ metabolic ratio. No genome-wide significant associations with CBZ metabolic ratio were found. Significance: Although we did not detect a genetic predictor of hyponatremia or CBZ metabolism in our cohort, our findings suggest that the determinants of CBZ metabolism are multifactorial.

19.
J Med Genet ; 56(2): 75-80, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30368457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dravet syndrome is a severe genetic encephalopathy, caused by pathogenic variants in SCN1A. Low-grade parental mosaicism occurs in a substantial proportion of families (7%-13%) and has important implications for recurrence risks. However, parental mosaicism can remain undetected by methods regularly used in diagnostics. In this study, we use single-molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIP), a technique with high sensitivity for detecting low-grade mosaic variants and high cost-effectiveness, to investigate the incidence of parental mosaicism of SCN1A variants in a cohort of 90 families and assess the feasibility of this technique. METHODS: Deep sequencing of SCN1A was performed using smMIPs. False positive rates for each of the proband's pathogenic variants were determined in 145 unrelated samples. If parents showed corresponding variant alleles at a significantly higher rate than the established noise ratio, mosaicism was confirmed by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). RESULTS: Sequence coverage of at least 100× at the location of the corresponding pathogenic variant was reached for 80 parent couples. The variant ratio was significantly higher than the established noise ratio in eight parent couples, of which four (5%) were regarded as true mosaics, based on ddPCR results. The false positive rate of smMIP analysis without ddPCR was therefore 50%. Three of these variants had previously been considered de novo in the proband by Sanger sequencing. CONCLUSION: smMIP technology combined withnext generation sequencing (NGS) performs better than Sanger sequencing in the detection of parental mosaicism. Because parental mosaicism has important implications for genetic counselling and recurrence risks, we stress the importance of implementing high-sensitivity NGS-based assays in standard diagnostics.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Mosaicismo , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sondas Moleculares , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 90: 252-259, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527252

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Differentiating between Dravet syndrome and non-Dravet SCN1A-related phenotypes is important for prognosis regarding epilepsy severity, cognitive development, and comorbidities. When a child is diagnosed with genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) or febrile seizures (FS), accurate prognostic information is essential as well, but detailed information on seizure course, seizure freedom, medication use, and comorbidities is lacking for this milder patient group. In this cross-sectional study, we explore disease characteristics in milder SCN1A-related phenotypes and the nature, occurrence, and relationships of SCN1A-related comorbidities in both patients with Dravet and non-Dravet syndromes. METHODS: A cohort of 164 Dutch participants with SCN1A-related seizures was evaluated, consisting of 116 patients with Dravet syndrome and 48 patients with either GEFS+, febrile seizures plus (FS+), or FS. Clinical data were collected from medical records, semi-structured telephone interviews, and three questionnaires: the Functional Mobility Scale (FMS), the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Measurement Model, and the Child or Adult Behavior Checklists (CBCL/ABCL). RESULTS: Walking disabilities and severe behavioral problems affect 71% and 43% of patients with Dravet syndrome respectively and are almost never present in patients with non-Dravet syndromes. These comorbidities are strongly correlated to lower quality-of-life (QoL) scores. Less severe comorbidities occur in patients with non-Dravet syndromes: learning problems and psychological/behavioral problems are reported for 27% and 38% respectively. The average QoL score of the non-Dravet group was comparable with that of the general population. The majority of patients with non-Dravet syndromes becomes seizure-free after 10 years of age (85%). CONCLUSIONS: Severe behavioral problems and walking disabilities are common in patients with Dravet syndrome and should receive specific attention during clinical management. Although the epilepsy course of patients with non-Dravet syndromes is much more favorable, milder comorbidities frequently occur in this group as well. Our results may be of great value for clinical care and informing newly diagnosed patients and their parents about prognosis.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/epidemiologia , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Epilepsia/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Síndromes Epilépticas/diagnóstico , Síndromes Epilépticas/epidemiologia , Síndromes Epilépticas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões Febris/diagnóstico , Convulsões Febris/epidemiologia , Convulsões Febris/genética , Espasmos Infantis/diagnóstico , Espasmos Infantis/epidemiologia , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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