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1.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35192186

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early life presents a pivotal period during which nutritional exposures are more likely to cause epigenetic modifications, which may impact an individual's health during adulthood. This article reviews the current evidence regarding maternal and early childhood nutritional exposures and their role in epigenetic aging. RECENT FINDINGS: Maternal and early life consumption of diets higher in fiber, antioxidants, polyphenols, B vitamins, vitamin D, and ω-3 fatty acids is associated with slower epigenetic aging. Conversely, diets higher in glycemic load, fat, saturated fat, and ω-6 fatty acids demonstrate a positive association with epigenetic aging. Maternal and early life nutrition directly and indirectly influences epigenetic aging via changes in one-carbon metabolism, cardiometabolic health, and the microbiome. Clinical trials are warranted to determine the specific foods, dietary patterns, and dietary supplements that will normalize or lower epigenetic aging across the life course.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 115(1): 118-127, 2022 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34591100

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal nutrition is associated with epigenetic and cardiometabolic risk factors in offspring. Research in humans has primarily focused on assessing the impact of individual nutrients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to assess the collective impact of maternal dietary MUFAs, PUFAs, and SFAs on epigenetic aging and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy newborn infants using a geometric framework approach. METHODS: Body fatness (n = 162), aortic intima-media thickness (aIMT; n = 131), heart rate variability (n = 118), and epigenetic age acceleration (n = 124) were assessed in newborn infants. Maternal dietary intake was cross-sectionally assessed in the immediate postpartum period via a validated 80-item self-administered FFQ. Generalized additive models were used to explore interactive associations of nutrient intake, with results visualized as response surfaces. RESULTS: After adjustment for total energy intake, maternal age, gestational age, and sex there was a 3-way interactive association of MUFAs, PUFAs, and SFAs (P = 0.001) with newborn epigenetic aging. This suggests that the nature of each fat class association depends upon one another. Response surfaces revealed MUFAs were positively associated with newborn epigenetic age acceleration only at proportionately lower intakes of SFAs or PUFAs. We also demonstrate a potential beneficial association of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs with newborn epigenetic age acceleration (P = 0.008). There was no significant association of fat class with newborn aIMT, heart rate variability, or body fatness. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrated an association between maternal dietary fat class composition and epigenetic aging in newborns. Future research should consider other characteristics such as the source of maternal dietary fatty acids.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Epigênese Genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez
4.
Clin Nutr ; 40(7): 4762-4771, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with fasting triglycerides (TG) <150 mg/dL can experience a deleterious postprandial TG response ≥220 mg/dL to a high-fat meal (HFM). The purpose of this study was to identify individuals based on fasting TG that would benefit most from additional postprandial screening. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of 7 studies from our laboratories featuring 156 disease-free participants (64 M, 92 F; age 18-70 years; BMI 18.5-30 kg/m2). Participants observed a 10-12 h overnight fast, after which they consumed an HFM (10-13 kcal/kg body mass; 61-64% kcal from fat). Two methods were used to identify lower and upper fasting TG cut points. Method 1 identified the lower limit as the TG concentration at which ≥90% of individuals presented peak postprandial TG (PPTG) <220 mg/dL and the upper limit as the concentration which ≥90% of individuals presented PPTG ≥220 mg/dL. Method 2 utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and identified the lower limit as the fasting TG concentration where sensitivity was ≈95% and the upper limit as the concentration at which specificity was ≈95%. RESULTS: In Method 1, 90% of individuals with fasting TG >130 mg/dL (>1.50 mmol/L) exhibited PPTG ≥220 mg/dL (≥2.50 mmol/L), while 100% of individuals with fasting TG <66 mg/dL (0.75 mmol/L) had PPTG that did not exceed 220 mg/dL (2.50 mmol/L). In Method 2, when sensitivity was ≈95%, the corresponding fasting TG concentration was 70 mg/dL (0.79 mmol/L). When specificity was ≈95%, the corresponding fasting TG concentration was 114 mg/dL (1.29 mmol/L). Based on methods 1 and 2, there was a moderate positive association (r = 0.37, p < 0.004) between fasting and PPTG for individuals with fasting TG between 70 and 130 mg/dL (0.79-1.50 mmol/L), in which 24% exhibited PPTG ≥220 mg/dL (≥2.50 mmol/L) while 76% did not. CONCLUSIONS: Postprandial TG testing is likely most useful for individuals with fasting TG concentrations between 70 and 130 mg/dL (0.79-1.50 mmol/L). Outside of this range, postprandial TG responses are largely predictable. Establishing a specific patient group for which postprandial TG testing is most useful may lead to earlier risk detection in these individuals.


Assuntos
Hipertrigliceridemia/diagnóstico , Período Pós-Prandial , Medição de Risco/métodos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 428-435, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is predictive of cardiovascular disease risk, but the current method for assessing PPL is a burdensome process. Recently, the validity of an abbreviated fat tolerance test (AFTT) has been demonstrated. As a continuation of this research, the purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the AFTT and compare it to the reliability of the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). METHODS: In this randomized crossover trial, 20 healthy adults (10 male and 10 female) completed 2 AFTTs and 2 OGTTs, each separated by a 1-week washout. For the AFTT, triglycerides (TG) were measured at baseline and 4 h post-consumption of a high-fat meal, during which time participants were able to leave the lab. For the OGTT, we measured blood glucose at baseline and 2 h post-consumption of a 75-g pure glucose solution, and participants remained in the lab. To determine reliability, we calculated within-subject coefficient of variation (WCV) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: The mean 4-h TG WCV for the AFTT was 12.6%, while the mean 2-h glucose WCV for the OGTT was 10.5%. ICC values for 4-h TG and TG change were 0.79 and 0.71, respectively, while ICC values for 2-h glucose and glucose change were 0.66 and 0.56, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on WCV and ICC, the TG response to an AFTT was similarly reliable to the glucose response to an OGTT in our sample of healthy adults, supporting the AFTT's potential as a standard clinical test for determining PPL. However, reliability of the AFTT needs to be further tested in individuals at greater risk for cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Triglicerídeos
6.
Liver Int ; 41(5): 894-904, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33506572

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of liver disease that is becoming more prevalent in concert with obesity and poor lifestyle habits. Although NAFLD is treatable via lifestyle modification in early stages, more advanced liver pathologies (eg non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]) are harder to reverse. There is no Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacological treatment for NAFLD, and little research has been done to identify compounds that target key NAFLD mechanisms. Bile acids and bile acid receptors have been implicated in NAFLD pathogenesis and modulating bile acids and bile acid receptors has recently been targeted as a therapeutic treatment option for NAFLD. Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a nutritionally regulated post-prandial hormone, is a chief regulator of bile acid metabolism and an important player in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, including key mechanisms of NAFLD pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss recent findings related to FGF19-regulated processes involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We summarize known and conjectural frameworks and limitations for the clinical application of FGF19-targeted therapies as they relate to NAFLD.


Assuntos
Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo
8.
Nutr Res ; 83: 73-85, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032071

RESUMO

This study examined whether an acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) attenuated postprandial responses to a high fat meal (HFM) similarly in younger versus older adult men, and probed relationships among skeletal muscle mass (SMM), age, the metabolic load index (MLI) response, and the improvement in the MLI elicited by RE versus CON. Eleven younger (24 ±â€¯4y) and 9 older (61 ±â€¯5y) men completed RE or control (CON) the night prior to a HFM. Before and 1, 3, and 5 hours after the HFM, blood triglycerides (TG), glucose (GLU), MLI, and cholesterol concentrations were quantified. Following a 7 ±â€¯1-day washout period, participants returned and completed the opposite condition. Independent of age, TGs were 32.1 ±â€¯27.1 mg/dL and 52.7 ±â€¯26.8 mg/dL lower in RE than CON at 3 and 5 hours, respectively. MLI was also 24.3 to 56.9 mg/dL lower in RE than CON from 1 to 5 hours post-meal independent of age. The TG and MLI area under the curves (AUCs) were 15% to 31% lower in RE than CON. The GLU response was greater in the older than younger men at 1 to 5 hours post-meal. Moreover, the average GLU response was 5.6 ±â€¯2.5 mg/dL lower in RE versus CON and was inversely related to SMM across the sample (r = -0.615). However, age, volume, or SMM were not related to the MLIAUC, nor to the improvement elicited by RE. Therefore, although the older men displayed a greater postprandial glucose response than the younger men, RE attenuated the postprandial metabolic response to a HFM similarly in younger and older men.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Período Pós-Prandial , Treinamento de Força , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Área Sob a Curva , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; : 1-8, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908019

RESUMO

The consumption of a high-fat meal can induce postprandial lipemia and endothelial dysfunction. The authors assessed the impact of age and physical activity on metabolic and vascular outcomes following meal consumption in healthy adults. The authors recruited four groups: younger active (age 22.1 ± 1.4 years; n = 9), younger inactive (age 22.6 ± 3.7 years; n = 8), older active (age 68.4 ± 7.7 years; n = 8), and older inactive (age 67.7 ± 7.2 years; n = 7). The metabolic outcomes were measured at the baseline and hourly for 6 hr post high-fat meal consumption (12 kcal/kg; 63% fat). Flow-mediated dilation was measured at the baseline, 2 hr, and 4 hr postmeal. The total area under the curve for triglycerides was significantly lower in the more active groups, but did not differ based on age (younger active = 6.5 ± 1.4 mmol/L × 6 hr, younger inactive = 11.7 ± 4.8, older active = 6.8 ± 2.7, older inactive = 12.1 ± 1.7; p = .0004). After adjusting for artery diameter, flow-mediated dilation differed between groups at the baseline (younger active = 4.8 ± 1.6%, younger inactive = 2.5 ± 0.5, older active = 3.4 ± 0.9, older inactive = 2.2 ± 0.4; p < .001) and decreased significantly across groups 4 hr postmeal (mean difference = 0.82; 95% CI [0.02, 1.6]; p = .04). These findings highlight the beneficial effect of regular physical activity on postprandial lipemia, independent of age.

10.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 319(4): G512-G518, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845171

RESUMO

Regular aerobic exercise has numerous benefits on human physiology, arguably by serving as a hormetic stressor resulting in positive adaptations over time. It has long been known that aerobic exercise at a variety of intensities and durations induces intestinal permeability, which is a feature of many pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract and metabolic diseases. Given the health benefits of exercise, it seems unlikely that intestinal permeability induced by exercise outweighs the positive adaptations. In fact, a growing body of evidence suggests adoption of exercise regimens lasting weeks to months improves indicators of intestinal permeability. In this brief review, we summarize factors contributing to acute exercise-induced intestinal permeability and what is known about chronic exercise and the gut barrier. Additionally, we outline known and theoretical adaptations of the gut to chronic exercise that may explain emerging reports that exercise improves markers of gut integrity.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Hormese/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular , Absorção Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Imunidade/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Permeabilidade , Circulação Esplâncnica/fisiologia , Termotolerância/fisiologia
11.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipemia (PPL) is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. However, the effects of different fat sources on PPL remain unclear. We aimed to determine the postprandial response in triglycerides (TG) to four dietary fat sources in adults. METHODS: Participants completed four randomized meal trials. For each meal trial, participants (n = 10; 5M/5F) consumed a high-fat meal (HFM) (13 kcal/kg; 61% of total kcal from fat) with the fat source derived from butter, coconut oil, olive oil, or canola oil. Blood was drawn hourly for 6 h post-meal to quantify PPL. RESULTS: Two-way ANOVA of TG revealed a time effect (p < 0.0001), but no time-meal interaction (p = 0.56), or meal effect (p = 0.35). Meal trials did not differ with regard to TG total (p = 0.33) or incremental (p = 0.14) area-under-the-curve. When stratified by sex and the TG response was averaged across meals, two-way ANOVA revealed a time effect (p < 0.0001), time-group interaction (p = 0.0001), and group effect (p = 0.048), with men exhibiting a greater response than women, although this difference could be attributed to the pronounced difference in BMI between men and women within the sample. CONCLUSION: In our sample of young adults, postprandial TG responses to a single HFM comprised of different fat sources did not differ.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Lipídeos/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Insect Physiol ; 116: 25-31, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009622

RESUMO

Predators feed on a diversity of prey that can vary widely in nutrient content. While prey nutrient content is known to have important consequences for life history traits, less is known about how it affects physiology and behavior. The purpose of this study was to test how diet affected the physiology and behavior of the wolf spider Hogna carolinensis. We hypothesized that higher protein intake would result in a lower metabolic rate due to less energy intake. Further, we also expected the high protein group to exhibit increased activity levels and aggression in an attempt to increase energy intake. Spiders were maintained on three different treatment diets in order to simulate prey with differing macronutrient composition: high protein, intermediate, and high lipid. Spider respiration was measured to quantify the baseline metabolic rate (SMR), digestive metabolic rate (SDA), and active metabolic rate (AMR). We found no significant effect of diet on metabolic rates. However, the SDA coefficient (i.e. digestive cost relative to prey content) was higher in the high protein group, meaning that this group metabolized a greater portion of their prey during digestion and had a lower net energy intake from prey. In our behavioral assays, spiders in the high protein group were significantly more active and attacked prey more quickly in their first trial. Our results demonstrate that diet had relatively little effect on predator metabolism but more of an effect on behavior. These findings suggest that diet regulation should be analyzed by studying multiple responses together, including metabolism and behavior, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of diet on organism performance and fitness.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/metabolismo , Comportamento Predatório , Aranhas/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Aranhas/metabolismo
13.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30654471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large post-meal triglyceride (TG) response is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but postprandial lipemia assessments are not clinically practical in their current form. Therefore, we assessed the validity of an abbreviated, clinically feasible protocol in measuring postprandial lipemia. METHOD: Eighteen healthy adults (8 male and 10 female) completed 3 high-fat meal trials in random order: (1) a Standard in Lab (SL) protocol wherein blood draws (to determine TG) were made from a catheter at baseline and hourly for 6 h; (2) an Abbreviated in Lab (AL) protocol in which participants remained in the laboratory but blood draws were only made at baseline and 4 h post-meal; and (3) an Abbreviated with Freedom (AF) protocol in which participants vacated the laboratory between the meal and the 4-h blood draw. RESULTS: TG increase from baseline was very similar (p = 0.93) across the 3 trials (SL: 68.5 ± 62.7 mg/dL; AL: 71.1 ± 58.0 mg/dL; AF: 66.7 ± 46.4 mg/dL), as were 4-h TG levels (SL: 144.6 ± 84.2 mg/dL; AL: 171.4 ± 88.2 mg/dL; AF: 157.7 ± 76.7 mg/dL; p = 0.49). Similarly, total and incremental area under the curve (AUC) were not significantly different across the trials (p = 0.12 and 0.91, respectively). CONCLUSION: The TG results of the clinically feasible, abbreviated protocol were similar to those of the more exhaustive standard protocol. The AF protocol could be a valid and feasible clinical tool for measurement of postprandial lipemia and assessment of cardiovascular risk, although studies in larger and more diverse cohorts are needed.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/diagnóstico , Período Pós-Prandial , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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