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1.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571431

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The association of perinatal psychological adversity (ie, stressors and distress) with infant lung function (ILF) and development is not well studied in Africa and elsewhere. We determined the association between maternal perinatal psychological adversity and ILF in African infants. DESIGN: Prospective longitudinal follow up of the Drakenstein Child Health Study birth cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred and sixty-two infants aged 6 to 10 weeks and 485 infants who had data for both maternal perinatal psychological adversity and ILF (measured at 6 to 10 weeks and 12 months). METHODS: The main analyses were based on cross-sectional measures of ILF at each assessment (6 to 10 weeks or 12 months), using generalized linear models, and then on the panel-data of both longitudinal ILF assessments, using generalised estimating equations, that allowed specification of the within-group correlation structure. RESULTS: Prenatal intimate partner violence (IPV) exposure was associated with reduced respiratory resistance at 6 to 10 weeks (beta coefficient [ß] = -.131, P = .023); postnatal IPV with reduced ratio of time to peak tidal expiratory flow over total expiratory time (tPTEF /tE ) at 12 months (ß = -.206, P = .016); and prenatal depression with lower respiratory rate at 6 to 10 weeks (ß = -.044, P = .032) and at 12 months (ß = -.053, P = .021). Longitudinal analysis found an association of prenatal IPV with reduced tPTEF /tE (ß = -.052, P < .0001); postnatal IPV with decreased functional residual capacity (FRC; ß = -.086, P < .0001); prenatal posttraumatic stress disorder with increased FRC (ß = .017, P < .0001); prenatal depression with increased FRC (ß = .026, P < .0001) and postnatal depression with increased FRC (ß = .021, P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Screening for psychological adversity and understanding the mechanisms involved may help identify children at risk of altered lung development and inform approaches to treatment.

2.
PLoS Med ; 16(9): e1002920, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 250 million (43%) children under the age of 5 years in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are failing to meet their developmental potential. Risk factors are recognised to contribute to this loss of human potential. Expanding understanding of the risks that lead to poor outcomes and which protective factors contribute to resilience in children may be critical to improving disparities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Drakenstein Child Health Study is a population-based birth cohort in the Western Cape, South Africa. Pregnant women were enrolled between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation from two community clinics from 2012 to 2015; sociodemographic and psychosocial data were collected antenatally. Mothers and children were followed through birth until 2 years of age. Developmental assessments were conducted by trained assessors blinded to background, using the Bayley-III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III), validated for use in South Africa, at 24 months of age. The study assessed all available children at 24 months; however, some children were not able to attend, because of loss to follow-up or unavailability of a caregiver or child at the correct age. Of 1,143 live births, 1,002 were in follow-up at 24 months, and a total of 734 children (73%) had developmental assessments, of which 354 (48.2%) were girls. This sample was characterised by low household employment (n = 183; 24.9%) and household income (n = 287; 39.1% earning 1 domain affected, and 75 (10.2%) had delay in all domains. Bivariate and multivariable analyses revealed several factors that were associated with developmental outcomes. These included protective factors (maternal education, higher birth weight, and socioeconomic status) and risk factors (maternal anaemia in pregnancy, depression or lifetime intimate partner violence, and maternal HIV infection). Boys consistently performed worse than girls (in cognition [ß = -0.74; 95% CI -1.46 to -0.03, p = 0.042], receptive language [ß = -1.10; 95% CI -1.70 to -0.49, p < 0.001], expressive language [ß = -1.65; 95% CI -2.46 to -0.84, p < 0.001], and fine motor [ß = -0.70; 95% CI -1.20 to -0.20, p = 0.006] scales). There was evidence that child sex interacted with risk and protective factors including birth weight, maternal anaemia in pregnancy, and socioeconomic factors. Important limitations of the study include attrition of sample from birth to assessment age and missing data in some exposure areas from those assessed. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides reliable developmental data from a sub-Saharan African setting in a well-characterised sample of mother-child dyads. Our findings highlight not only the important protective effects of maternal education, birth weight, and socioeconomic status for developmental outcomes but also sex differences in developmental outcomes and key risk and protective factors for each group.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 259: 279-287, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal depression affects 21-50% of women in South Africa and poses significant health risks to mothers and children. Trajectories of depressive symptoms change over time and have not been well characterized during the perinatal period in low and middle-income countries. METHODS: Data from women enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in Paarl, South Africa with at least 3 depression measures from pregnancy through 18 months postpartum (N = 831) were analyzed. Depressive symptoms were measured continuously using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Group-based trajectory models were used to estimate trajectories of depressive symptoms during the perinatal period and multinomial multivariable models to identify predictors of trajectory group membership. RESULTS: Five distinct trajectory patterns of depressive symptoms were identified: moderate levels of depressive symptoms during pregnancy but minimal postpartum (3.5%), minimal levels during pregnancy and increasing postpartum (3.7%), unstable levels peaking at 12 months postpartum (6.6%), mild levels with slight decrease postpartum (82.9%), and severe levels during pregnancy and postpartum (3.1%). Membership in the chronic severe symptom group was associated with stressful life events, sexual intimate partner violence and tobacco use. LIMITATIONS: Modeling limitations prevented determining how changes in psychosocial predictors over time may influence depressive symptom trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Mild to severe depressive symptoms during pregnancy/postpartum were common among this South African cohort. Interventions to treat women with severe chronic depressive symptoms with co-occurring psychosocial issues are urgently needed.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2548, 2019 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186427

RESUMO

Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , DNA/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Sangue Fetal , Genótipo , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMJ Open ; 9(3): e018277, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Better understanding of psychosocial risk factors for food insecurity (FI) during pregnancy and how they interact is crucial, given long-term health implications for maternal and child health. We investigated the association between maternal childhood trauma as well as intimate partner violence (IPV) and FI among pregnant women in South Africa, in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, and whether maternal depression mediates these relationships. SETTING: Two primary care clinics in Paarl, South Africa. PARTICIPANTS: 992 pregnant women; inclusion criteria were clinic attendance and remaining in area for at least 1 year; women were excluded if a minor. METHODS: We examined psychosocial predictors of FI using multivariate regression. Mediation analyses investigated whether depression mediated the relationship between IPV and FI as well as between childhood trauma and FI, including disaggregation by two study communities. FI was assessed using an adapted US Department of Agriculture food security scale; households were coded as food insecure where 2 of 5 affirmative responses were recorded. RESULTS: Among 992 pregnant women, there were high rates of IPV (7%-27%), depression (24%) and childhood trauma (34%). In multivariate cross-sectional analysis, emotional IPV (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.60; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.46), depression (aOR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08) and childhood trauma (aOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.15) predicted FI. In mediation models, depression partially mediated the relationship between emotional IPV and FI as well as physical IPV and FI; depression partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and FI. Differing degrees of mediation were found when applied to communities. CONCLUSIONS: Antenatal maternal depression, IPV and childhood trauma were highly prevalent and associated with FI. Depression, IPV and trauma screening services should be considered within routine antenatal care and may offer an opportunity to identify and intervene. Community-level differences in risk and in mediation analyses indicate that contextual tailoring of interventions may be important.

6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 120, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902966

RESUMO

There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of Tourette syndrome (TS) as well as its underlying neurocircuitry. However, the mechanisms by which genetic variation that increases risk for TS-and its main symptom dimensions-influence relevant brain regions are poorly understood. Here we undertook a genome-wide investigation of the overlap between TS genetic risk and genetic influences on the volume of specific subcortical brain structures that have been implicated in TS. We obtained summary statistics for the most recent TS genome-wide association study (GWAS) from the TS Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Working Group (4644 cases and 8695 controls) and GWAS of subcortical volumes from the ENIGMA consortium (30,717 individuals). We also undertook analyses using GWAS summary statistics of key symptom factors in TS, namely social disinhibition and symmetry behaviour. SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA) was used to examine genetic pleiotropy-the same SNP affecting two traits-and concordance-the agreement in single nucelotide polymorphism (SNP) effect directions across these two traits. In addition, a conditional false discovery rate (FDR) analysis was performed, conditioning the TS risk variants on each of the seven subcortical and the intracranial brain volume GWAS. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSR) was used as validation of the SECA method. SECA revealed significant pleiotropy between TS and putamen (p = 2 × 10-4) and caudate (p = 4 × 10-4) volumes, independent of direction of effect, and significant concordance between TS and lower thalamic volume (p = 1 × 10-3). LDSR lent additional support for the association between TS and thalamus volume (p = 5.85 × 10-2). Furthermore, SECA revealed significant evidence of concordance between the social disinhibition symptom dimension and lower thalamus volume (p = 1 × 10-3), as well as concordance between symmetry behaviour and greater putamen volume (p = 7 × 10-4). Conditional FDR analysis further revealed novel variants significantly associated with TS (p < 8 × 10-7) when conditioning on intracranial (rs2708146, q = 0.046; and rs72853320, q = 0.035) and hippocampal (rs1922786, q = 0.001) volumes, respectively. These data indicate concordance for genetic variation involved in disorder risk and subcortical brain volumes in TS. Further work with larger samples is needed to fully delineate the genetic architecture of these disorders and their underlying neurocircuitry.

7.
J Affect Disord ; 245: 885-896, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30699873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been considerable recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as the underlying neurocircuitry of these disorders. However, there is little work on the concordance of genetic variations that increase risk for these conditions, and that influence subcortical brain structures. We undertook a genome-wide investigation of the overlap between the genetic influences from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on volumes of subcortical brain structures and genetic risk for anxiety disorders and PTSD. METHOD: We obtained summary statistics of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of anxiety disorders (Ncases = 7016, Ncontrols = 14,745), PTSD (European sample; Ncases = 2424, Ncontrols = 7113) and of subcortical brain structures (N = 13,171). SNP Effect Concordance Analysis (SECA) and Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) Score Regression were used to examine genetic pleiotropy, concordance, and genome-wide correlations respectively. SECAs conditional false discovery was used to identify specific risk variants associated with anxiety disorders or PTSD when conditioning on brain related traits. RESULTS: For anxiety disorders, we found evidence of significant concordance between increased anxiety risk variants and variants associated with smaller amygdala volume. Further, by conditioning on brain volume GWAS, we identified novel variants that associate with smaller brain volumes and increase risk for disorders: rs56242606 was found to increase risk for anxiety disorders, while two variants (rs6470292 and rs683250) increase risk for PTSD, when conditioning on the GWAS of putamen volume. LIMITATIONS: Despite using the largest available GWAS summary statistics, the analyses were limited by sample size. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary data indicate that there is genome wide concordance between genetic risk factors for anxiety disorders and those for smaller amygdala volume, which is consistent with research that supports the involvement of the amygdala in anxiety disorders. It is notable that a genetic variant that contributes to both reduced putamen volume and PTSD plays a key role in the glutamatergic system. Further work with GWAS summary statistics from larger samples, and a more extensive look at the genetics underlying brain circuits, is needed to fully delineate the genetic architecture of these disorders and their underlying neurocircuitry.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Variação Genética/genética , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia
8.
Child Abuse Negl ; 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30241702

RESUMO

Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant global problem, prevalent in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). IPV is particularly problematic during the perinatal and early postnatal period, where it is linked with negative maternal and child health outcomes. There has been little examination of profiles of IPV and early life adversity in LMIC contexts. We aimed to characterize longitudinal IPV and to investigate maternal maltreatment in childhood as a predictor of IPV exposure during pregnancy and postnatally in a low resource setting. This study was nested in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a longitudinal birth cohort. Maternal IPV (emotional, physical and sexual) was measured at six timepoints from pregnancy to two years postpartum (n = 832); sociodemographic variables and maternal maltreatment in childhood were measured antenatally at 28-32 weeks' gestation. Associations between maternal maltreatment in childhood and IPV latent class membership (to identify patterns of maternal IPV exposure) were estimated using multinomial and logistic regression. We observed high levels of maternal maltreatment during childhood (34%) and IPV during pregnancy (33%). In latent class analysis separating by IPV sub-type, two latent classes of no/low and moderate sexual IPV and three classes of low, moderate, and high emotional and physical IPV (separately) were detected. In combined latent class analysis, including all IPV sub-types together, a low, moderate and high exposure class emerged as well as a high antenatal/decreasing postnatal class. Moderate and high classes for all IPV sub-types and combined analysis showed stable intensity profiles. Maternal childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, and emotional abuse predicted membership in high IPV classes, across all domains of IPV (aORs between 1.99 and 5.86). Maternal maltreatment in childhood was associated with increased probability of experiencing high or moderate intensity IPV during and around pregnancy; emotional neglect was associated with decreasing IPV class for combined model. Intervening early to disrupt this cycle of abuse is critical to two generations.

9.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260518796522, 2018 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160637

RESUMO

Violence against women remains a significant public health problem globally. The majority of longitudinal studies documenting the negative impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on the mental health of women come from high-income countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal association between emotional, physical, or sexual IPV and depression symptoms among South African women in a prospective cohort study. Participants were 981 South African women enrolled in the Drakenstein Child Health Study-a cohort study investigating the early life determinants of child health. Interview data from four time-points (antenatal care visit, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months postpartum) were included. The primary independent variable was self-reported emotional, physical, and sexual IPV in the past 12 months. Depressive symptoms were assessed at each time-point with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS); a cutoff score of ⩾13 was used to define significant depression symptoms. We used pooled-multivariable logistic regression models to determine associations between the three different forms of IPV and significant depression symptoms while adjusting for time-fixed and time-updated covariates. The mean age of the sample at antenatal care visit was 27 years (standard deviation = 6.0). In the adjusted model including all forms of IPV and adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, substance use, and childhood trauma, emotional (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI): [1.02, 2.34]; p = .039)] and sexual (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI: [1.10, 3.72]; p < .001) IPV were significantly associated with significant depression symptoms. The relationship between physical IPV and significant depression symptoms was not statistically significant (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI: [0.44, 1.05]; p = .485). Our study confirms findings from high-income countries of the association between IPV and depressive symptoms among women in South Africa. Routine screening for IPV, including emotional IPV and intervention programs for IPV among women, is needed in South Africa.

10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 73: 320-330, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791872

RESUMO

Prenatal exposure to maternal stress and depression has been identified as a risk factor for adverse behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood. However, the molecular mechanisms through which maternal psychopathology shapes offspring development remain poorly understood. We applied transcriptome-wide screens to 149 umbilical cord blood samples from neonates born to mothers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 20), depression (n = 31) and PTSD with comorbid depression (n = 13), compared to carefully matched trauma exposed controls (n = 23) and healthy mothers (n = 62). Analyses by maternal diagnoses revealed a clear pattern of gene expression signatures distinguishing neonates born to mothers with a history of psychopathology from those without. Co-expression network analysis identified distinct gene expression perturbations across maternal diagnoses, including two depression-related modules implicated in axon-guidance and mRNA stability, as well as two PTSD-related modules implicated in TNF signaling and cellular response to stress. Notably, these disease-related modules were enriched with brain-expressed genes and genetic risk loci for autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia, which may imply a causal role for impaired developmental outcomes. These molecular alterations preceded changes in clinical measures at twenty-four months, including reductions in cognitive and socio-emotional outcomes in affected infants. Collectively, these findings indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal psychological distress induces neuronal, immunological and behavioral abnormalities in affected offspring and support the search for early biomarkers of exposures to adverse in utero environments and the classification of children at risk for impaired development.

12.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 42(2): 369-377, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29197115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cohort studies have noted associations between hazardous alcohol use during pregnancy and infant growth outcomes, but many have not controlled for potential psychosocial confounders. To assess the unique contribution of hazardous alcohol use, we examined its effect on infant growth outcomes while controlling for maternal psychosocial stressors and hazardous tobacco and drug use in a cohort of 986 pregnant South African women enrolled into the Drakenstein Child Health Study between 2012 and 2015. METHODS: Data on psychosocial stressors and maternal risk behaviors were collected between 28 and 32 weeks of gestation. Participants were categorized as hazardous alcohol users if they obtained moderate or high scores (>10) on the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test at this assessment or retrospectively reported drinking at least 2 drinks weekly during any trimester of pregnancy. Infant growth outcomes were recorded at delivery. Multivariable regression models examined correlates of hazardous alcohol use and associations between hazardous alcohol use and birth outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 13% of mothers reported hazardous alcohol use. Recent exposure to intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37, 3.18) and hazardous tobacco use (aOR = 5.03; 95% CI: 2.97, 8.52) were significant correlates of hazardous alcohol use. After controlling for potential psychosocial confounders, hazardous alcohol use remained associated with lower infant weight-for-age (B = -0.35, 95% CI: -0.56, -0.14), height-for-age (B = -0.46, 95% CI: -0.76, -0.17), and head-circumference-for-age z-scores (B = -0.43, 95% CI: -0.69, -0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to reduce hazardous alcohol use among pregnant women in South Africa are needed to prevent alcohol-related infant growth restrictions. As these growth deficits may lead to neurodevelopmental consequences, it is critical to identify alcohol-related growth restrictions at birth and link exposed infants to early interventions for neurodevelopment.

13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 9: 75, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cord blood is a commonly used tissue in environmental, genetic, and epigenetic population studies due to its ready availability and potential to inform on a sensitive period of human development. However, the introduction of maternal blood during labor or cross-contamination during sample collection may complicate downstream analyses. After discovering maternal contamination of cord blood in a cohort study of 150 neonates using Illumina 450K DNA methylation (DNAm) data, we used a combination of linear regression and random forest machine learning to create a DNAm-based screening method. We identified a panel of DNAm sites that could discriminate between contaminated and non-contaminated samples, then designed pyrosequencing assays to pre-screen DNA prior to being assayed on an array. RESULTS: Maternal contamination of cord blood was initially identified by unusual X chromosome DNA methylation patterns in 17 males. We utilized our DNAm panel to detect contaminated male samples and a proportional amount of female samples in the same cohort. We validated our DNAm screening method on an additional 189 sample cohort using both pyrosequencing and DNAm arrays, as well as 9 publically available cord blood 450K data sets. The rate of contamination varied from 0 to 10% within these studies, likely related to collection specific methods. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal blood can contaminate cord blood during sample collection at appreciable levels across multiple studies. We have identified a panel of markers that can be used to identify this contamination, either post hoc after DNAm arrays have been completed, or in advance using a targeted technique like pyrosequencing.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , DNA/análise , Sangue Fetal/química , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Contaminação por DNA , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Mães , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 187: 76-84, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28666232

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Food insecurity during pregnancy is concerning given the increased nutritional needs of the mother for proper fetal development. However, research is lacking within the South African context to investigate the association of economic and psychosocial factors and food insecurity among pregnant women, using comprehensive, conceptually driven models. OBJECTIVE: This study applies the Network-Individual-Resource (NIR) Model to investigate individual, intimate dyadic, and family level predictors of perceived household food insecurity for pregnant women. METHODS: 826 pregnant women enrolled in the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS), a birth cohort in two communities in a peri-urban area of South Africa. Hierarchical logistic regressions were used to investigate the impact of household/family, intimate dyads, and individual tangible and mental resources on perceived household food insecurity during the critical period of pregnancy. Perceived household food insecurity was assessed through an adapted version of the USDA Household Food Security Scale - Short Form. RESULTS: Among 826 pregnant women in South Africa, individual-level tangible resources (e.g. income, social assistance, HIV status) and mental resources (e. g. depression, childhood trauma) predicted perceived household food insecurity and these predictors differed by community. Intimate dyadic and family level resources did not predict household food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of the economic and psychosocial predictors of perceived household food insecurity among pregnant women in South Africa, mirror findings in general populations. This study provides support for the extension of the NIR model to perceived household food insecurity, particularly regarding individual-level mental and tangible resources, as well as the impact of community-level factors. Future research should investigate the extent to which resource sharing occurs within networks.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Percepção , Gestantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Psychol Trauma ; 9(3): 292-300, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28459271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and infant development in a South African birth cohort. METHOD: Data from the Drakenstein Child Health Study were analyzed. Maternal psychopathology was assessed using self-report and clinician-administered interviews; and 6-month infant development using the Bayley III Scales of Infant Development. Linear regression analyses explored associations between predictor and outcome variables. RESULTS: Data from 111 mothers and 112 infants (1 set of twins) were included. Most mothers (72%) reported lifetime trauma exposure; the lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 20%. Maternal PTSD was significantly associated with poorer fine motor and adaptive behavior - motor development; the latter remaining significant when adjusted for site, alcohol dependence, and infant head-circumference-for-age z score at birth. CONCLUSION: Maternal PTSD may be associated with impaired infant neurodevelopment. Further work in low- and middle-income populations may improve early childhood development in this context. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Mães/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
16.
AIDS Res Ther ; 14(1): 28, 2017 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28482927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of the negative impact of alcohol on morbidity and mortality of individuals living with HIV but limited evidence of in utero effects of HIV and alcohol on exposure on infants. METHODS: We conducted a population-based birth cohort study (N = 667 mother-infant dyads) in South Africa to investigate whether maternal alcohol use and HIV affected gestational outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was conducted for all variables using frequency distributions, measures of central tendency, and estimates of variance. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to determine whether maternal alcohol use, maternal HIV status and other risk factors (socioeconomic status, smoking, depression) predicted infant outcomes. RESULTS: Our results showed severity of recent alcohol use and lifetime alcohol use predicted low birth weight. Similarly lifetime alcohol use predicted shorter infant length, smaller head length, smaller head circumference, and early gestational age. However, HIV status was not a significant predictor of gestational outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The unexpected finding that maternal HIV status did not predict any of the gestational outcomes may be due to high rates of ART usage among HIV-infected mothers. The potentially negative effects of HIV on gestational outcomes may have been attenuated by improved maternal health due to high coverage of antiretroviral treatment in South Africa. Interventions are needed to reduce alcohol consumption among pregnant mothers and to support healthy growth and psychosocial development of infants.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/diagnóstico , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/induzido quimicamente , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , África do Sul
17.
Thorax ; 72(5): 445-450, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27856821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low lung function in early life is associated with later respiratory illness. There is limited data on lung function in African infants despite a high prevalence of respiratory disease. AIM: To assess the determinants of early lung function in African infants. METHOD: Infants enrolled in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein child health study, had lung function measured at 6-10 weeks of age. Measurements, made with the infant breathing via a facemask during natural sleep, included tidal breathing, sulfur hexafluoride multiple breath washout and the forced oscillation technique. Information on antenatal and early postnatal exposures was collected using questionnaires and urine cotinine. Household benzene exposure was measured antenatally. RESULTS: Successful tests were obtained in 645/675 (95%) infants, median (IQR) age of 51 (46-58) days. Infant size, age and male gender were associated with larger tidal volume. Infants whose mothers smoked had lower tidal volumes (-1.6 mL (95% CI -3.0 to -0.1), p=0.04) and higher lung clearance index (0.1 turnovers (95% CI 0.01 to 0.3), p=0.03) compared with infants unexposed to tobacco smoke. Infants exposed to alcohol in utero or household benzene had lower time to peak tidal expiratory flow over total expiratory time ratios, 10% (95% CI -15.4% to -3.7%), p=0.002) and 3.0% (95% CI -5.2% to -0.7%, p=0.01) lower respectively compared with unexposed infants. HIV-exposed infants had higher tidal volumes (1.7 mL (95% CI 0.06 to 3.3) p=0.04) compared with infants whose mothers were HIV negative. CONCLUSION: We identified several factors including infant size, sex, maternal smoking, maternal alcohol, maternal HIV and household benzene associated with altered early lung function, many of which are factors amenable to public health interventions. Long-term study of lung function and respiratory disease in these children is a priority to develop strategies to strengthen child health.

18.
OMICS ; 20(10): 557-564, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27636104

RESUMO

Mental disorders represent a major public health burden worldwide. This is likely to rise in the next decade, with the highest increases predicted to occur in low- and middle-income countries. Current psychotropic medication treatment guidelines focus on uniform approaches to the treatment of heterogeneous disorders and achieve only partial therapeutic success. Developing a global precision medicine approach in psychiatry appears attractive, given the value of this approach in other fields of medicine, such as oncology and infectious diseases. In this horizon scanning analysis, we review the salient opportunities and challenges for precision medicine in psychiatry over the next decade. Variants within numerous genes involved in a range of pathways have been implicated in psychotropic drug response and might ultimately be used to guide choice of pharmacotherapy. Multipronged approaches such as multi-omics (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics) analyses and systems diagnostics together with high-throughput sequencing and genotyping technologies hold promise for identifying precise and targeted treatments in mental disorders. To date, however, the vast majority of pharmacogenomics work has been undertaken in high-income countries on a relatively small proportion of the global population, and many other challenges face the field. Opportunities and challenges for establishing a global roadmap for precision medicine in psychiatry are discussed in this article.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina de Precisão , Psiquiatria/tendências , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Farmacogenética
20.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 7: 28720, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26886489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal and peripartum trauma may be associated with poor maternal-fetal outcomes. However, relatively few data on these associations exist from low-middle income countries, and populations in transition. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prevalence and risk factors for maternal trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and their association with adverse birth outcomes in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a South African birth cohort study. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited from two clinics in a peri-urban community outside Cape Town. Trauma exposure and PTSD were assessed using diagnostic interviews; validated self-report questionnaires measured other psychosocial characteristics. Gestational age at delivery was calculated and birth outcomes were assessed by trained staff. Multiple logistic regression explored risk factors for trauma and PTSD; associations with birth outcomes were investigated using linear regression. Potential confounders included study site, socioeconomic status (SES), and depression. RESULTS: A total of 544 mother-infant dyads were included. Lifetime trauma was reported in approximately two-thirds of mothers, with about a third exposed to past-year intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of current/lifetime PTSD was 19%. In multiple logistic regression, recent life stressors were significantly associated with lifetime trauma, when controlling for SES, study site, and recent IPV. Childhood trauma and recent stressors were significantly associated with PTSD, controlling for SES and study site. While no association was observed between maternal PTSD and birth outcomes, maternal trauma was significantly associated with a 0.3 unit reduction (95% CI: 0.1; 0.5) in infant head-circumference-for-age z-scores (HCAZ scores) at birth in crude analysis, which remained significant when adjusted for study site and recent stressors in a multivariate regression model. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, maternal trauma and PTSD were found to be highly prevalent, and preliminary evidence suggested that trauma may adversely affect fetal growth, as measured by birth head circumference. However, these findings are limited by a number of methodological weaknesses, and further studies are required to extend findings and delineate causal links and mechanisms of association.

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