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1.
SSM Popul Health ; 18: 101094, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35601218

RESUMO

Introduction: Numerous studies have examined the consequences of childhood adversity (CA) and socioeconomic status (SES) for health over the life course. However, few studies have examined the relation between childhood SES and CA as well as the influence of CA on adult SES. The objective of this study was to examine direct and indirect associations between childhood SES, CA and adult SES. Methods: Participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, (N = 6844) reported on nine CA experiences. Childhood SES was characterized as a composite measure of parental highest education level, median household income, and parental occupational status. Adult SES was characterized as composite measure of highest education level attained at age 37, median household income and occupation. Results: In mediation analyses, adjusted for age, race and sex pathways were noted in that lower child SES was associated with CAs and CAs were associated with lower adult SES. Furthermore, CAs partially mediated the relation between childhood SES and adult SES. The proportion mediated by CA was small and only noted among African-American (4%) and White participants (5%). Conclusions: Childhood SES is associated with CAs. In turn, CAs are associated with lower adult SES, independent of childhood SES supporting the notion that intervening on CAs early on in the lifecourse could influence health and wellbeing throughout the life course.

2.
Psychosom Med ; 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471987

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metabolomic profiling may provide insights into biological mechanisms underlying the strong epidemiologic links observed between early abuse and cardiometabolic disorders in later life. METHODS: We examined the associations between early abuse and midlife plasma metabolites in two non-overlapping sub-samples from the Nurses' Health Study II, comprising 803 (mean age: 40 years) and 211 women (mean age: 61 years). LC-MS/MS assays were used to measure metabolomic profiles, with 283 metabolites consistently measured in both sub-samples. Physical and sexual abuse before age 18 was retrospectively assessed by validated questions integrating type/frequency of abuse. Analyses were conducted in each sample and pooled using meta-analysis, with multiple testing adjustment using the q-value approach for controlling the positive false discovery rate. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, race, menopausal status, body size at age 5 and childhood socioeconomic indicators, more severe early abuse was consistently associated with five metabolites at midlife (q-value<0.20 in both samples), including lower levels of serotonin and C38:3 phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) plasmalogen and higher levels of alanine, proline and C40:6 PE. Other metabolites potentially associated with early abuse (q-value<0.05 in the meta-analysis) included triglycerides, phosphatidylcholine plasmalogens, bile acids, tyrosine, glutamate and cotinine. The association between early abuse and midlife metabolomic profiles was partly mediated by adulthood BMI (32% mediated) and psychosocial distress (13-26% mediated), but not by other lifestyle factors. CONCLUSIONS: Early abuse was associated with distinct metabolomic profiles of multiple amino acids and lipids in middle-aged women. BMI and psychosocial factors in adulthood may be important intermediates for the observed association.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449297

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk loci for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, how they confer PTSD risk remains unclear. We aimed to identify genes that confer PTSD risk through their effects on brain protein abundance to provide new insights into PTSD pathogenesis. To that end, we integrated human brain proteomes with PTSD GWAS results to perform a proteome-wide association study (PWAS) of PTSD, followed by Mendelian randomization, using a discovery and confirmatory study design. Brain proteomes (N = 525) were profiled from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using mass spectrometry. The Million Veteran Program (MVP) PTSD GWAS (n = 186,689) was used for the discovery PWAS, and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium PTSD GWAS (n = 174,659) was used for the confirmatory PWAS. To understand whether genes identified at the protein-level were also evident at the transcript-level, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) using human brain transcriptomes (N = 888) and the MVP PTSD GWAS results. We identified 11 genes that contribute to PTSD pathogenesis via their respective cis-regulated brain protein abundance. Seven of 11 genes (64%) replicated in the confirmatory PWAS and 4 of 11 also had their cis-regulated brain mRNA levels associated with PTSD. High confidence level was assigned to 9 of 11 genes after considering evidence from the confirmatory PWAS and TWAS. Most of the identified genes are expressed in other PTSD-relevant brain regions and several are preferentially expressed in excitatory neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. These genes are novel, promising targets for mechanistic and therapeutic studies to find new treatments for PTSD.

4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(3): 1394-1404, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35241783

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder that may arise in response to severe traumatic event and is diagnosed based on three main symptom clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) per the Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders (version DSM-IV-TR). In this study, we characterized the biological heterogeneity of PTSD symptom clusters by performing a multi-omics investigation integrating genetically regulated gene, splicing, and protein expression in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tissue within a sample of US veterans enrolled in the Million Veteran Program (N total = 186,689). We identified 30 genes in 19 regions across the three PTSD symptom clusters. We found nine genes to have cell-type specific expression, and over-representation of miRNA-families - miR-148, 30, and 8. Gene-drug target prioritization approach highlighted cyclooxygenase and acetylcholine compounds. Next, we tested molecular-profile based phenome-wide impact of identified genes with respect to 1678 phenotypes derived from the Electronic Health Records of the Vanderbilt University biorepository (N = 70,439). Lastly, we tested for local genetic correlation across PTSD symptom clusters which highlighted metabolic (e.g., obesity, diabetes, vascular health) and laboratory traits (e.g., neutrophil, eosinophil, tau protein, creatinine kinase). Overall, this study finds comprehensive genomic evidence including clinical and regulatory profiles between PTSD, hematologic and cardiometabolic traits, that support comorbidities observed in epidemiologic studies of PTSD.

5.
Neurobiol Stress ; 17: 100439, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35242894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is triggered by environmental stressors. Empathy may predispose an individual to respond to life events differently if high empathizers are emotionally more sensitive to trauma. For the first time, we test this hypothesis using genetic information. METHODS: We applied polygenic scoring (PGS) to investigate the shared genetics linking empathy (measured using the Empathy Quotient (EQ), a self-report measure of empathy; N = 46,861) and PTSD symptom severity (measured using the 6-item PTSD Checklist 6-item (PCL-6)) in the UK Biobank (N = 126,219). Follow-up analyses were performed in the context of (1) experiencing any of 16 potential traumas, (2) the total number of traumas endorsed, and (3) the context of trauma. Autism, depression, generalized anxiety, and PCL-17 PGS were included as covariates to verify the specificity of the effect. RESULTS: EQPGS associated with PCL-6 (R 2  = 0.012%, P = 9.35 × 10-5). This effect remained significant after accounting for autism, depression, PTSD, and anxiety PGS but was observed only in those who endorsed experiencing at least one traumatic event. EQPGS showed the strongest effect on PCL-6 (ß = 2.32, s.e. = 0.762, P = 0.002) among those who endorsed childhood neglect/abuse (felt hated as a child). With respect to case status, the highest probability of PTSD was 17.93% and 10.04% for those who endorsed "feeling hated as a child" and those who did not, respectively (P diff = 0.011; Cohen's d = 1.951, 95%CI 1.70-2.20). CONCLUSIONS: A genetic predisposition to higher empathy, which may index greater emotional sensitivity, predisposes an individual to more severe PTSD symptoms, especially after early-life adversity.

6.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 140: 105736, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adversity exposure and the negative psychological responses that often result have been linked with poor physical health outcomes and deteriorative physiological processes, like dysregulated circulating cortisol. Individuals exposed to early adversity who also demonstrate positive psychological functioning may be characterized as psychologically resilient, but few studies have evaluated whether psychological resilience may disrupt the health-damaging effects of adversity. We tested the hypothesis that among young adults exposed to early adversity, those who are psychologically resilient may manifest more normative diurnal cortisol patterns relative to those who experience more psychological distress. METHODS: Data are from Growing Up Today Study I participants who provided information on psychological resilience and diurnal salivary cortisol (n = 916). Psychological resilience was derived from self-report questionnaires administered between 2007 and 2010, and salivary cortisol was obtained from saliva samples collected between 2011 and 2014. The predictor of interest, psychological resilience, was defined using two domains: (1) adversity exposure measured via a count of 7 potential psychosocial adversities experienced before age 18, and (2) psychological health in young adulthood measured via a composite score reflecting low psychological distress and high positive affect. The outcome was mean log-transformed diurnal salivary cortisol across 4 samples from one day. Linear regressions evaluated associations of adversity, psychological health, and their potential multiplicative interaction with mean diurnal log-transformed cortisol, adjusting for baseline socio-demographic variables and biological and behavioral factors from the day of saliva sampling. RESULTS: Relatively few individuals with high adversity demonstrated positive psychological health. Both adversity exposure and psychological health were independently associated with mean log cortisol levels. Models stratified by lower versus higher adversity suggested complex relationships with cortisol, however the interaction between adversity and psychological health was not statistically significant. High adversity was associated with blunted cortisol levels, regardless of psychological health. Conversely, among those with lower adversity, overall levels of cortisol were higher and psychological health associated with more normative, lower cortisol levels. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological resilience domains were independently associated with diurnal salivary cortisol in young adulthood. High burden of early adversity may disrupt the physiological stress system, while psychological health may be associated with more normative cortisol levels when adversity is low.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Saúde Mental , Saliva , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 311: 114510, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35349860

RESUMO

The mechanisms through which exposure to differing trauma types become biologically embedded to shape the risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is unclear. DNA methylation (5-mC), particularly in stress-relevant genes, may play a role in this relationship. Here, we conducted path analysis using generalized structural equation modeling to investigate whether blood-derived 5-mC in Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells 1 (NFATC1) mediates the prospective association between each of five different trauma types ("assaultive violence", "other injury or shocking experience", "learning of trauma to loved one", "sudden, unexpected death of a close friend or relative", and "other") and lifetime PTSD. All five trauma types were significantly associated with reduced methylation at NFATC1 CpG site, cg17057218. Two of the five trauma types were significantly associated with increased methylation at NFATC1 CpG site, cg22324981. Moreover, methylation at cg17057218 significantly mediated 21-32% of the total effect for four of the five trauma types, while methylation at cg22324981 mediated 27-40% of the total effect for two of the five trauma types. These CpG sites were differentially associated with transcription factor binding sites and chromatin state signatures. NFATC1 5-mC may be a potential mechanism in the relationship between some trauma types and prospective risk for PTSD.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Linfócitos T , Violência
8.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35262616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Past suicide attempt (SA) is one of the most important risk factors for suicide death. An ideation-to-action framework posits that impulsivity, potentially traumatic events, and mental disorders also play a role in increasing suicide risk. This study aimed to assess the association between trait impulsivity, lifetime exposure to trauma, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with SA in a sample of Brazilian college students. METHODS: A total of 2,137 participants filled self-reported questionnaires consisting of a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire, Trauma History Questionnaire, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian version, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. RESULTS: Our findings suggest that trait impulsivity may be interpreted as exerting a distal effect on SA, even in the presence of other variables - such as trauma history, psychological neglect, and PTSD - which also increase the odds of SA. High and medium levels of impulsivity, history of trauma, and PTSD increased the likelihood of SA. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention strategies to prevent SA may target trait impulsivity and exposure to traumatic experiences.

9.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(4): 2225-2246, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35177824

RESUMO

Despite experiencing a significant trauma, only a subset of World Trade Center (WTC) rescue and recovery workers developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Identification of biomarkers is critical to the development of targeted interventions for treating disaster responders and potentially preventing the development of PTSD in this population. Analysis of gene expression from these individuals can help in identifying biomarkers of PTSD. We established a well-phenotyped sample of 371 WTC responders, recruited from a longitudinal WTC responder cohort using stratified random sampling, by obtaining blood, self-reported and clinical interview data. Using bulk RNA-sequencing from whole blood, we examined the association between gene expression and WTC-related PTSD symptom severity on (i) highest lifetime Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score, (ii) past-month CAPS score, and (iii) PTSD symptom dimensions using a 5-factor model of re-experiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, dysphoric arousal and anxious arousal symptoms. We corrected for sex, age, genotype-derived principal components and surrogate variables. Finally, we performed a meta-analysis with existing PTSD studies (total N = 1016), using case/control status as the predictor and correcting for these variables. We identified 66 genes significantly associated with total highest lifetime CAPS score (FDR-corrected p < 0.05), and 31 genes associated with total past-month CAPS score. Our more granular analyses of PTSD symptom dimensions identified additional genes that did not reach statistical significance in our analyses with total CAPS scores. In particular, we identified 82 genes significantly associated with lifetime anxious arousal symptoms. Several genes significantly associated with multiple PTSD symptom dimensions and total lifetime CAPS score (SERPINA1, RPS6KA1, and STAT3) have been previously associated with PTSD. Geneset enrichment of these findings has identified pathways significant in metabolism, immune signaling, other psychiatric disorders, neurological signaling, and cellular structure. Our meta-analysis revealed 10 genes that reached genome-wide significance, all of which were downregulated in cases compared to controls (CIRBP, TMSB10, FCGRT, CLIC1, RPS6KB2, HNRNPUL1, ALDOA, NACA, ZNF429 and COPE). Additionally, cellular deconvolution highlighted an enrichment in CD4 T cells and eosinophils in responders with PTSD compared to controls. The distinction in significant genes between total lifetime CAPS score and the anxious arousal symptom dimension of PTSD highlights a potential biological difference in the mechanism underlying the heterogeneity of the PTSD phenotype. Future studies should be clear about methods used to analyze PTSD status, as phenotypes based on PTSD symptom dimensions may yield different gene sets than combined CAPS score analysis. Potential biomarkers implicated from our meta-analysis may help improve therapeutic target development for PTSD.

10.
Mol Psychiatry ; 27(4): 2206-2215, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181757

RESUMO

UK Biobank (UKB) is a key contributor in mental health genome-wide association studies (GWAS) but only ~31% of participants completed the Mental Health Questionnaire ("MHQ responders"). We predicted generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and major depression symptoms using elastic net regression in the ~69% of UKB participants lacking MHQ data ("MHQ non-responders"; NTraining = 50%; NTest = 50%), maximizing the informative sample for these traits. MHQ responders were more likely to be female, from higher socioeconomic positions, and less anxious than non-responders. Genetic correlation of GAD and PTSD between MHQ responders and non-responders ranged from 0.636 to 1.08; both were predicted by polygenic scores generated from independent cohorts. In meta-analyses of GAD (N = 489,579) and PTSD (N = 497,803), we discovered many novel genomic risk loci (13 for GAD and 40 for PTSD). Transcriptomic analyses converged on altered regulation of prenatal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in these disorders. Our results provide one roadmap by which sample size and statistical power may be improved for gene discovery of incompletely ascertained traits in the UKB and other biobanks with limited mental health assessment.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 304: 102-112, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies from armed conflict settings, including South Sudan, have revealed the deleterious mental health impact of exposure to war atrocities. However, there is little consensus on what is meant by war trauma, how it should be measured, and how levels of trauma vary across men and women. METHODS: We used psychometric analyses to measure war trauma among 1178 internally displaced adults (mean age = 39 years, 50% women) in the Malakal region of South Sudan. We used cross-sectional survey data and applied classical test theory, factor analysis, item response theory, and differential item functioning with the war events subscale (17 items) of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). RESULTS: We found good validity and internal consistency reliability for the HTQ. We found evidence for unidimensionality using factor analyses, and item response theory models showed that some war events (like witnessing the killing of family or friends) were more sensitive to the underlying 'war-related trauma' trait than others (like abduction). Differential item functioning analyses revealed that the measure performed differently for men and women, indicating the need for sex-stratified analysis in the measurement of trauma. LIMITATIONS: The use of self-report may lead to recall and response bias, and the study sample may not be representative of the broader population in South Sudan. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the need for cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of commonly used measurement instruments, especially in humanitarian settings where survey data are used to set priorities for mental health and psychosocial support services.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Lesões Relacionadas à Guerra , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sudão do Sul/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Guerra
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(5): e023015, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35189695

RESUMO

Background Hypertension is a prevalent condition in women and an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite women's experiences of sexual violence being common, no prospective studies have examined lifetime sexual assault and workplace sexual harassment in relationship to hypertension in large civilian samples with extended follow-up. Here, we examined whether these experiences were prospectively associated with greater risk of developing hypertension over 7 years. Methods and Results Data are from a substudy of the Nurses' Health Study II and include women free of hypertension at the time of sexual assault and workplace sexual harassment assessment in 2008 (n=33 127). Hypertension was defined as self-reported doctor diagnosis or initiating antihypertensive medication use, assessed biennially through 2015. We performed Cox proportional hazards regression models to predict time to developing hypertension associated with sexual violence exposure, adjusting for relevant covariates. Over follow-up, 7096 women developed hypertension. Sexual assault and workplace sexual harassment were prevalent (23% and 12%, respectively; 6% of women experienced both). Compared with women with no exposure, women who experienced both sexual assault and workplace sexual harassment had the highest risk of developing hypertension (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.09-1.35), followed by women who experienced workplace sexual harassment (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25) and then by women who experienced sexual assault (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03-1.19), after adjusting for relevant covariates. Conclusions Sexual assault and workplace sexual harassment are prospectively associated with greater risk of hypertension. Reducing such violence is important in its own right and may also improve women's cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Delitos Sexuais , Assédio Sexual , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Affect Disord ; 303: 161-167, 2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35167925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Life Events Checklist (LEC-5) has been widely used to assess for exposure to potentially traumatic life events (PTEs), but its psychometric properties have not been evaluated in Kenya. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency and types of PTEs within this setting and to examine the construct validity of LEC-5 in Kenya. METHODS: The LEC-5 was administered to 5316 participants in the ongoing multisite case-control study of Neuropsychiatric Genetics of African Populations-Psychosis. We used exploratory factor analysis to assess LEC-5 structure, and conducted confirmatory factor analyses to compare these results with two other models: a six-factor model based on the only prior EFA of the LEC and a theoretical seven-factor model. RESULTS: The majority (63.4% overall and 64.4% of cases and 62.4% of controls) of participants had experienced at least one PTE in their lifetime. Results of the exploratory factor analyses for LEC-5 yielded a seven-factor solution with eigenvalues greater than one, accounting for 55.3% of the common variance. Based on confirmatory factor analyses, all three models had good fit for our sample, but the theoretical seven-factor model had the best fit. LIMITATIONS: The study did not assess if the participants perceived experiences as traumatic, we did not carry out test retest reliability or and we did not consider cultural variations in perception of trauma. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of a high prevalence of traumatic life events and for the construct validity of LEC-5 in assessing PTE exposures in a Kenyan setting.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Quênia , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
14.
J Affect Disord ; 304: 85-92, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-reporting of psychotic symptoms varies significantly between cultures and ethnic groups. Yet, limited validated screening instruments are available to capture such differences in the African continent. METHODOLOGY: Among 9,059 individuals participating as controls in a multi-country case-control study of the genetic causes of psychosis, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ). We applied multi-group confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory to assess item parameters. RESULTS: The overall positive endorsement of at least one item assessing psychotic symptoms on the PSQ was 9.7%, with variability among countries (Uganda 13.7%, South Africa 11%, Kenya 10.2%, and Ethiopia 2.8%). A unidimensional model demonstrated good fit for the PSQ (root mean square error of approximation = 0.009; comparative fit index = 0.997; and Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.995). Hypomania had the weakest association with single latent factor (standardized factor loading 0.62). Sequential multi-group confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that PSQ items were measured in equivalent ways across the four countries. PSQ items gave more information at higher levels of psychosis, with hypomania giving the least discriminating information. LIMITATIONS: Participants were recruited from general medical facilities, so findings may not be generalizable to the general population. CONCLUSION: The PSQ demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure in these samples. Items were measured equivalently across all study settings, suggesting that differences in prevalence of psychotic symptoms between countries were less likely to represent measurement artifact. The PSQ is more reliable in screening for psychosis in individuals with higher degrees of psychotic experiences-hypomania excluded-and might decrease the false-positive rate from mild nonspecific psychotic experiences.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Etiópia , Humanos , Psicometria , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Child Maltreat ; 27(1): 100-113, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161764

RESUMO

Cognitive function at middle age is of particular public health interest, as it strongly predicts later dementia. Children who have experienced abuse subsequently have worse cognitive function than those who have not. However, it remains unclear whether the association of abuse with cognitive function persists into middle age. In 2014-2016, 14,151 women ages 49-69 years who had previously responded to a childhood abuse questionnaire completed a cognitive battery. In models adjusted for childhood socioeconomic status and head trauma, combined physical, emotional, and sexual abuse was associated with lower scores on both Learning/Working Memory (severe abuse, lower scores similar to that observed in women 4.8 years older in our data) and Psychomotor Speed/Attention (severe abuse, lower scores similar to that observed in women to 2.9 years older in our data). Adjustment for adulthood socioeconomic status and health factors (e.g., smoking, hypertension) slightly attenuated associations. In exploratory analyses further adjusted for psychological distress, associations were attenuated. Women exposed versus unexposed to childhood abuse had poorer cognitive function at mid-life. Associations were particularly strong for learning and working memory and were not accounted for by adulthood health factors. Childhood abuse should be investigated as a potential risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia in old age.

16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(2): 349-359, 2022 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668974

RESUMO

Social epidemiology aims to identify social structural risk factors, thus informing targets and timing of interventions. Ascertaining which interventions will be most effective and when they should be implemented is challenging because social conditions vary across the life course and are subject to time-varying confounding. Marginal structural models (MSMs) may be useful but can present unique challenges when studying social epidemiologic exposures over the life course. We describe selected MSMs corresponding to common theoretical life-course models and identify key issues for consideration related to time-varying confounding and late study enrollment. Using simulated data mimicking a cohort study evaluating the effects of depression in early, mid-, and late life on late-life stroke risk, we examined whether and when specific study characteristics and analytical strategies may induce bias. In the context of time-varying confounding, inverse-probability-weighted estimation of correctly specified MSMs accurately estimated the target causal effects, while conventional regression models showed significant bias. When no measure of early-life depression was available, neither MSMs nor conventional models were unbiased, due to confounding by early-life depression. To inform interventions, researchers need to identify timing of effects and consider whether missing data regarding exposures earlier in life may lead to biased estimates.


Assuntos
Causalidade , Modelos Estruturais , Modelos Teóricos , Viés , Simulação por Computador , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
17.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 16(2): 773-780, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553332

RESUMO

Traumatic experiences have been linked to poor mental and physical health. However, there has been little examination of their relationship to neuroimaging markers of cerebrovascular risk. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are markers of brain small vessel disease. WMHs can be detected decades before the onset of dementia and other disorders and can serve as early markers for these brain disorders. We tested whether traumatic experiences were associated with brain WMH volume among midlife women. In the MsBrain study, 145 women (mean age = 59 years) without cardiovascular disease, stroke, or dementia were recruited. Women completed questionnaires [trauma checklist, depression, post-traumatic stress measures]; physical measures [body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP)]; phlebotomy; actigraphy sleep measurement, and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance brain imaging for WMHs. Cross-sectional associations between traumatic experiences and WMH volume were assessed in linear regression models. Covariates were age, race/ethnicity, education, BMI, BP, lipids, preeclampsia, sleep, and additionally depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. 68% of women endorsed at least one of the traumas assessed. The most common trauma was sexual assault (23% of women). Women with trauma exposure had greater WMH volume than women without trauma [B(SE) = .24 (.09), p = .01, multivariable]. The single trauma most associated with WMH was sexual assault [B(SE) = .25 (.11), p = .02, multivariable]. Results persisted adjusting for depressive or post-traumatic stress symptoms. A trauma history, particularly sexual assault, was associated with greater WMH volume controlling for covariates, including depressive and post-traumatic symptoms. Sexual assault may place women at risk for poor brain health.


Assuntos
Demência , Leucoaraiose , Delitos Sexuais , Substância Branca , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
18.
Depress Anxiety ; 39(1): 56-70, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of the extent to which prior occurrences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE) predict psychopathological reactions to subsequent traumas might be useful in targeting posttraumatic preventive interventions. METHODS: Data come from 1306 patients presenting to 29 U.S. emergency departments (EDs) after a motor vehicle collision (MVC) in the advancing understanding of recovery after trauma study. Patients completed self-reports in the ED and 2-weeks, 8-weeks, and 3-months post-MVC. Associations of pre-MVC probable PTSD and probable MDE histories with subsequent 3-months post-MVC probable PTSD and probable MDE were examined along with mediation through intervening peritraumatic, 2-, and 8-week disorders. RESULTS: 27.6% of patients had 3-month post-MVC probable PTSD and/or MDE. Pre-MVC lifetime histories of these disorders were not only significant (relative risk = 2.6-7.4) but were dominant (63.1% population attributable risk proportion [PARP]) predictors of this 3-month outcome, with 46.6% prevalence of the outcome among patients with pre-MVC disorder histories versus 9.9% among those without such histories. The associations of pre-MVC lifetime disorders with the 3-month outcome were mediated largely by 2- and 8-week probable PTSD and MDE (PARP decreasing to 22.8% with controls for these intervening disorders). Decomposition showed that pre-MVC lifetime histories predicted both onset and persistence of these intervening disorders as well as the higher conditional prevalence of the 3-month outcome in the presence of these intervening disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Assessments of pre-MVC PTSD and MDE histories and follow-ups at 2 and 8 weeks could help target early interventions for psychopathological reactions to MVCs.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Acidentes de Trânsito , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia
19.
J Adolesc Health ; 70(2): 258-266, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521575

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Childhood adversity is associated with adverse health outcomes, in part owing to its effects on healthy lifestyle. We examined whether psychological resilience to adversity may promote healthier behaviors and body weight in young adulthood. METHODS: Data are from the Growing Up Today Study, a longitudinal cohort of young adults (n = 3,767) who are children of participants of the Nurses' Health Study II, a separate longitudinal cohort. After characterizing psychological resilience as per levels of adversity exposure before the age of 18 years and young adult psychological health (defined by a composite of low psychological distress and high positive affect), we derived a categorical measure by cross-classifying adversity (exposed vs. unexposed) and psychological health (high vs. lower). We considered five outcomes self-reported at baseline (2010) and five years later: healthy body weight and four healthy lifestyle components including being a nonsmoker, moderate alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, and healthy diet. Poisson regression models evaluated associations of each outcome with psychological resilience, comparing psychologically resilient individuals with those who were not resilient or who were unexposed to adversity, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: We did not identify differences between psychologically resilient individuals and those unexposed to adversity who were psychologically healthy with respect to meeting recommendations for most healthy lifestyle components and associations were largely stable over time. Across most outcomes, nonresilient individuals were less likely to be healthy relative to resilient individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological resilience may disrupt negative effects of childhood adversity on having a healthy lifestyle in young adulthood.


Assuntos
Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Criança , Nível de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 30(5): 588-602, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common among women and associated with negative health outcomes across the life course. Relatively few studies, however, have examined the epidemiology of trauma, PTSD, and treatment among middle-aged and older civilian women, who are at elevated risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to characterize trauma, PTSD, and trauma-related treatment prevalence and correlates in a large cohort of middle-aged and older women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, nested substudy within the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. SETTING: United States, 2018-2020. PARTICIPANTS: 33,327 current or former nurses, aged 53-74 years. MEASUREMENTS: 16-item modified version of the Brief Trauma Questionnaire; modified PTSD Checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Version 5. RESULTS: The majority (82.2%) of women reported one or more lifetime traumas. The most common trauma types were unexpected death of a loved one (44.9%) and interpersonal violence (43.5%). Almost 30% reported occupational (nursing-related) trauma. Among the trauma-exposed, 10.5% met criteria for lifetime PTSD and 1.5% had past-month PTSD. One-third of lifetime PTSD cases were due to interpersonal violence event types. One-third of women with lifetime PTSD-and nearly half of those with PTSD from a nursing-related trauma-reported never receiving trauma-related treatment. Women aged 65 years and older with PTSD were less likely to be in treatment than those aged less than 65 years. CONCLUSION: History of trauma and PTSD is prevalent in this population, and a treatment gap persists. Addressing this treatment gap is warranted, particularly among older women and those with nursing-related trauma.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Violência
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