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1.
World J Urol ; 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963916

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To validate a German translation of the convalescence and recovery evaluation (CARE) as an electronic patient-reported outcome measure (ePROM) and use it to assess recovery after major urological surgery. METHODS: The CARE questionnaire was provided to patients scheduled for major urological surgery preoperatively, at discharge and 6 weeks postoperatively, using an ePROM system. Cronbach's alpha, inter-scale correlations and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to validate the translation. Mixed linear regression models were used to identify factors influencing CARE results, and a multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to determine the predictive value of CARE results on quality of life (QoL). RESULTS: A total of 283 patients undergoing prostatectomy (n = 146, 51%), partial/radical nephrectomy (n = 70, 25%) or cystectomy (n = 67, 24%) responded to the survey. Internal consistency was high (α = 0.649-0.920) and the CFA showed a factor loading > 0.5 in 17/27 items. Significant main effects were found for the time of survey and type of surgery, while a time by type interaction was only found for the gastrointestinal subscale ([Formula: see text] = 30.37, p < 0.0001) and the total CARE score (TCS) ([Formula: see text] = 13.47, p = 0.009) for cystectomy patients, meaning a greater score decrease at discharge and lower level of recovery at follow-up. Complications demonstrated a significant negative effect on the TCS ([Formula: see text] = 8.61, p = 0.014). A high TCS at discharge was an independent predictor of a high QLQ-C30 QoL score at follow-up (OR = 5.26, 95%-CI 1.42-19.37, p = 0.013). CONCLUSION: This German translation of the CARE can serve as a valid ePROM to measure recovery and predict QoL after major urological surgery.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7960, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846417

RESUMO

Theoretically, panic disorder and agoraphobia pathology can be conceptualized as a cascade of dynamically changing defensive responses to threat cues from inside the body. Guided by this trans-diagnostic model we tested the interaction between defensive activation and vagal control as a marker of prefrontal inhibition of subcortical defensive activation. We investigated ultra-short-term changes of vagally controlled high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) during a standardized threat challenge (entrapment) in n = 232 patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia, and its interaction with various indices of defensive activation. We found a strong inverse relationship between HRV and heart rate during threat, which was stronger at the beginning of exposure. Patients with a strong increase in heart rate showed a deactivation of prefrontal vagal control while patients showing less heart rate acceleration showed an increase in vagal control. Moreover, vagal control collapsed in case of imminent threat, i.e., when body symptoms increase and seem to get out of control. In these cases of defensive action patients either fled from the situation or experienced a panic attack. Active avoidance, panic attacks, and increased sympathetic arousal are associated with an inability to maintain vagal control over the heart suggesting that teaching such regulation strategies during exposure treatment might be helpful to keep prefrontal control, particularly during the transition zone from post-encounter to circa strike defense.Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN80046034.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33915219

RESUMO

The present study aimed to expand on previous findings that pre-treatment autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning serves as a predictor of clinical outcome in adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD), while examining whether the relationship between ANS functioning and treatment outcome may vary as a function of early life maltreatment (ELM). ANS stress response was examined considering changes in heart rate (HR) and vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) over different conditions of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in a clinical sample of N = 27 adolescents across the spectrum of BPD severity. Participants received in- and/or outpatient treatment, while clinical data was assessed at routine follow-ups. Clinical outcome was defined by change in the number of fulfilled BPD criteria (as measured using the SCID-II), severity of psychopathology (CGI-S), and global level of functioning (GAF), measured 12 and 24 months after baseline assessments. Mixed-effects (random-intercept/random slope) linear regression models were calculated to examine markers of ANS function as potential predictors of clinical outcome. Irrespective of the presence of ELM exposure, both vmHRV resting-state and stress recovery measures were identified as significant predictors of clinical outcome over time. This study adds to the existing literature by replicating and expanding on preliminary findings, considering also physiological reactivity and recovery in addition to resting-state measures of ANS functioning. The present results further highlight the potential of markers of ANS functioning to serve as objective measures in the process of monitoring patient progress and to make predictions regarding treatment outcome in psychiatry research.

4.
Psychophysiology ; : e13804, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723899

RESUMO

Darwin emphasized the intimate relationship between the brain and the heart over 150 years ago. Healthy aging is associated with significant changes in both the brain and the heart. The changes between these, the two most important organs of the body, are linked via the vagus nerve. In this review, we examine the normative changes with aging and the effect that stress may have on how the brain-heart connection changes with age. We provide a framework based on the concept of neurovisceral integration and propose that stress regulation is emotion regulation. As such, studies that have investigated emotion regulation may yield insights into successful stress regulation that helps protect people from age-related decline. In addition, interventions that improve brain health also improve heart health and vice versa. We conclude by noting that significant sex and ethnic differences exist but that future studies are needed to more fully explicate how they may moderate the associations between stress and aging.

5.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 852-857, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predicting suicide attempts is a challenging task for clinicians and researchers, particularly among high-risk individuals (i.e. adolescents with lifetime suicide attempts). In this study, we examined whether adolescents were able to predict their own risk of attempting suicide in the future and whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) or depressive symptoms impacted the predictive value of self-ratings. METHODS: Structured clinical assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 months in a high-risk sample of treatment-seeking adolescents (n = 134; 12-17y.; 90% female) with at least one lifetime suicide attempt. RESULTS: During the follow-up period, n = 51 participants (38%) attempted suicide at least once. Self-rated risk was a significant predictor for the recurrence of a suicide attempt, whereas BPD and depression were not. While there was no significant interaction between self-rated risk and BPD, a negative interaction emerged between self-rated risk and depression in the prediction of a suicide attempt. Greater depression severity diminished the predictive value of self-ratings. LIMITATIONS: Depression severity was measured using a questionnaire, not a clinical interview. The findings may not be applicable to less burdened samples. CONCLUSIONS: Asking high-risk adolescents to rate their own risk of attempting suicide appears to be an easy to apply method in improving the prediction of future suicide attempts in the clinical context.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva
6.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-17, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, indexed by heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) predicts clinical outcome and therapy drop-outs in adolescents with borderline personality (BPD) pathology receiving dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT-A). We further tested for an association between changes in ANS function and clinical outcome over time. Traumatic experiences were considered as potential confounding factor. METHODS: N = 43 (95.4% female, Mage = 15.5 years) adolescents fulfilling at least sub-threshold criteria for BPD (≥3) were investigated before and after outpatient DBT-A as well as at follow-up. N = 10 patients dropped out of treatment (<50% of treatment sessions). Latent growth curve models were used for analyses. RESULTS: Greater pre-treatment resting HRV significantly predicted clinical improvement (decrease in BPD pathology/increase of global functioning) over time. Pre-treatment ANS activity was unrelated to treatment drop-out. Further, changes in ANS activity over treatment were associated with changes in clinical outcome. CONCLUSION: This study is the first providing evidence that pre-treatment HRV predicts and is related to treatment response in adolescent borderline personality pathology. Implications for the use of ANS measures in clinical practice and directions for future research are discussed.

7.
Personal Disord ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570973

RESUMO

Research has shown associations between adverse parenting experiences and (borderline) personality disorder ([B]PD). A biopsychosocial model suggests that child characteristics and the environment interact in the development of symptoms. However, prospective data in this aspect are limited. This study focused on maternal bonding impairment (MBI; 2 weeks postpartum) and its interactions with child temperament (age 5) and child sex as predictors of BPD symptoms and general personality dysfunction in adolescence. Participants were 64 mother-child dyads from a community sample who took part in a 14-year longitudinal study. Higher MBI was a significant predictor of general personality dysfunction as defined in Criterion A of the alternative model for PD of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Interactions showed that the effect of MBI on general personality dysfunction was decreased for children higher in harm avoidance and increased for children higher in novelty seeking. There was also a negative main effect of harm avoidance on (B)PD features. Regarding BPD symptoms, the MBI × Child Sex interaction indicated differential susceptibility. Girls' but not boys' BPD symptoms were dependent on maternal bonding. Our results indicate that children at risk of developing personality pathology can be identified early in life. They stress the importance of early relationship disturbances in the development of personality pathology and refine the understanding of differential susceptibility factors in the context of MBI and PD symptom development. Our findings can be applied to target at-risk dyads for selective early prevention based on temperament and maternal bonding. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

8.
Brain Struct Funct ; 226(3): 927-937, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical time for brain development. Findings from previous studies have been inconsistent, failing to distinguish the influence of pubertal status and aging on brain maturation. The current study sought to address these inconsistencies, addressing the trajectories of pubertal development and aging by longitudinally tracking structural brain development during adolescence. METHODS: Two cohorts of healthy children were recruited (cohort 1: 9-10 years old; cohort 2: 12-13 years old at baseline). MRI data were acquired for gray matter volume and white matter tract measures. To determine whether age, pubertal status, both or their interaction best modelled longitudinal data, we compared four multi-level linear regression models to the null model (general brain growth indexed by total segmented volume) using Bayesian model selection. RESULTS: Data were collected at baseline (n = 116), 12 months (n = 97) and 24 months (n = 84) after baseline. Findings demonstrated that the development of most regional gray matter volume, and white matter tract measures, were best modelled by age. Interestingly, precentral and paracentral regions of the cortex, as well as the accumbens demonstrated significant preference for the pubertal status model. None of the white matter tract measures were better modelled by pubertal status. LIMITATIONS: The major limitation of this study is the two-cohort recruitment. Although this allowed a faster coverage of the age span, a complete per person trajectory over 6 years of development (9-15 years) could not be investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing the impact of age and pubertal status on regional gray matter volume and white matter tract measures, we found age to best predict longitudinal changes. Further longitudinal studies investigating the differential influence of puberty status and age on brain development in more diverse samples are needed to replicate the present results and address mechanisms underlying norm-variants in brain development.

9.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 37: 129-133, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461056

RESUMO

Psychophysiological research methods allow important insights into normative and pathological functioning of the human organism. This position paper briefly reviews existing studies, investigating the psychophysiological concomitants of personality pathology, with an emphasis on developmental aspects. Focussing on measures, indexing autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity at rest, and its reactivity to experimental challenge, the narrative synthesis of the literature highlights current challenges in the field. Findings on the psychophysiological concomitants of personality pathology are mixed. Inconsistencies among studies arise from differences between disorders and heterogeneity within distinct diagnostic categories. The majority of studies addressed borderline personality disorder, illustrating robust alterations in ANS function linked to severe experiences of early maltreatment and trauma, and associated symptoms of dissociation. However, important life-style and secondary health-related factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) influencing ANS function are frequently neglected. Adapting a dimensional approach to personality pathology and longitudinal research designs seem promising to advance the filed in the years to come.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2554, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510335

RESUMO

In recent clinical practice, a biomarker of vagal neuroimmunomodulation (NIM), namely the ratio of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and CRP, was proposed to index the functionality of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. This study aims to transfer and extend the previous findings to two general population-based samples to explore the hypothesis that NIM-ratio is associated with all-cause mortality. Two large population studies (MIDUS 2: N = 1255 and Whitehall II wave 5: N = 7870) with complete data from a total of N = 3860 participants (36.1% females; average age = 56.3 years; 11.1% deaths, last exit 18.1 years post inclusion) were available. NIM indices were calculated using the vagally-mediated HRV measure RMSSD divided by measures of CRP (NIMCRP) or IL-6 (NIMIL6). The NIM-ratios were quartiled and entered into age, ethnicity and body mass index adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. For NIMIL6 the lowest quartile was 45% more likely to die during the observed period (max. 18 years follow-up) compared to the highest quartile (HR = 0.55 CI 0.41-0.73; p < .0001). NIMCRP parallel these results. Here we show that an easily computable index of IL-6 inhibition is associated with all-cause mortality in two large general population samples. These results suggest that this index might be useful for risk stratification and warrant further examination.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 199-208, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-endorphin (BE) has been suggested to play a central role as to why people engage in NSSI. To our knowledge, no study has systematically assessed this potential relationship in adolescents with NSSI. METHODS: 94 adolescents with NSSI (according to DSM-5 criteria) and 35 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. All participants received heat pain stimulation, with pain threshold and tolerance measured in °C. Plasma BE levels were assessed. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were obtained via semi-structured interviews and self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Adolescents with NSSI showed increased pain thresholds (t(127)=2.071, p=.040), lower pain intensity (t(114)==2.122, p=.036) and lower plasma BE levels (t127==3.182, p=.002) compared to HC. Groups did not differ on pain tolerance (t(127)=0.911, p=.364). Greater pain threshold correlated positively with borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms (r=0.182, p=.039), while pain intensity (r=-0.206, p=.033) and BE levels (r=-0.246, p=.007) correlated negatively with depression severity. No significant relationship was found between pain threshold and plasma BE (r=-0.013, p=.882). LIMITATIONS: Future studies should implement repeated plasma BE measures to assess BE release in association with pain in NSSI. Validity of plasma BE measures compared to central measures should be considered. Assessing the association between pain sensitivity (PS) and BE in a naturalistic setting presents a promising avenue for future research in NSSI. CONCLUSIONS: Findings support both reduced PS and basal opioid deficiency as independent biological correlates and potential risk-factors for NSSI. Further longitudinal and experimental studies are needed to investigate the role of BE levels and PS as well as their potential association.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Adolescente , Humanos , Dor , Limiar da Dor , Plasma , beta-Endorfina
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171141

RESUMO

Recent focus on the consequences of early life adversity (ELA) in neurobiological research led to a variety of findings suggesting alterations in several physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular system. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we focused on the relationship between early life maltreatment (ELM), one form of ELA, and resting vagal activity indexed by resting-state heart rate variability (HRV). A systematic search of the literature yielded 1'264 hits, of which 32 studies reporting data for group comparisons or correlations were included. By quantitative synthesis of existing studies using random-effect models, we found no evidence for a relationship between ELM exposure and resting vagal activity in principal. Conducting meta-regression analyses, however, we found the relationship between ELM and resting vagal activity to significantly vary as a function of both age and the presence of psychopathology. In light of the current multitude of vastly unclear pathways linking ELM to the onset of disease, we emphasize the need for further research and outline several aspects to consider in future studies.

13.
Psychophysiology ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037836

RESUMO

Understanding the association between autonomic nervous system [ANS] function and brain morphology across the lifespan provides important insights into neurovisceral mechanisms underlying health and disease. Resting-state ANS activity, indexed by measures of heart rate [HR] and its variability [HRV] has been associated with brain morphology, particularly cortical thickness [CT]. While findings have been mixed regarding the anatomical distribution and direction of the associations, these inconsistencies may be due to sex and age differences in HR/HRV and CT. Previous studies have been limited by small sample sizes, which impede the assessment of sex differences and aging effects on the association between ANS function and CT. To overcome these limitations, 20 groups worldwide contributed data collected under similar protocols of CT assessment and HR/HRV recording to be pooled in a mega-analysis (N = 1,218 (50.5% female), mean age 36.7 years (range: 12-87)). Findings suggest a decline in HRV as well as CT with increasing age. CT, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex, explained additional variance in HRV, beyond the effects of aging. This pattern of results may suggest that the decline in HRV with increasing age is related to a decline in orbitofrontal CT. These effects were independent of sex and specific to HRV; with no significant association between CT and HR. Greater CT across the adult lifespan may be vital for the maintenance of healthy cardiac regulation via the ANS-or greater cardiac vagal activity as indirectly reflected in HRV may slow brain atrophy. Findings reveal an important association between CT and cardiac parasympathetic activity with implications for healthy aging and longevity that should be studied further in longitudinal research.

14.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 159: 17-22, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075427

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown higher resting-state vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) to be related to greater memory retrieval. Research has not yet linked resting vmHRV with memory encoding and retrieval, as both are thought to play an important role in correctly distinguishing between true and false memories. The current study investigated this possible link in n = 71 undergraduate students. VmHRV was assessed during a 5-minute resting baseline period. Participants then completed the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) task, where they first viewed 6 word lists (12 words per list), and were later asked to identify previously shown words (true memories) and reject non-presented words. Results showed that participants with lower resting vmHRV were less able to discriminate true from false items. These data extend previous work on resting vmHRV and memory suggesting that resting vmHRV represents a psychophysiological pathway involved in both the proper encoding and retrieval of memories.

15.
Psychophysiology ; : e13699, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040402

RESUMO

Significant health disparities exist between African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA) in hypertension and hypertension-related disorders. Evidence suggests that this is due to impaired vasodilation in AAs. Pregnancy is a potent systemic vasodilatory state. However, differences in vasodilation between AAs and EAs have not been investigated in pregnancy. We sought to examine the effects of pregnancy on vasodilation in AA and EA women and how this might be related to discrimination and low birth weight in their offspring. Hemodynamics [blood pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), total peripheral resistance (TPR)] and heart rate variability (HF-HRV) were examined at baseline in 40 pregnant AAs (n = 20) and EAs (n = 20) and matched nonpregnant women (n = 40). The Experiences of Discrimination scale and birth weight were also measured in the offspring of the pregnant participants. Whereas pregnancy was associated with decreased MAP independent of race, AAs showed impaired vasodilation independent of pregnancy status as indicated by greater TPR despite greater HF-HRV. In AAs, but not EAs, reports of fewer incidences of discrimination were associated with greater TPR. Finally, the HF-HRV of EA mothers was inversely related to the birth weight of their offspring but was uncorrelated in AAs. We report novel evidence of impaired vasodilation to an endogenous vasodilatory stimulus in AAs. Higher TPR was related to discrimination in AAs and higher HF-HRV was related to low birth weight in EAs. These findings have implications for understanding the intergenerational transmission of impaired vasodilation in AAs.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924134

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and the consequent global lockdown posed a particular challenge for youths with mental health problems. Crucial interference with their everyday lives likely increased psychological distress while accessibility of conventional mental health care was limited. Ongoing online trials offer a unique opportunity to analyse mental health status and help-seeking behaviour of adolescents during the pandemic. The ProHEAD-online trial aims at improving help-seeking behaviour of children and adolescents with significant psychological impairment. From January to May 2020, 1,042 students had access to the ProHEAD-online platform providing information on mental illness, monitoring, peer support and professional counselling. In the week from 11 March, when schools were closed in Germany, a drastic (more than 2 standard deviations) but time-limited increase in utilization of the ProHEAD-online services became apparent. This may indicate a worsened mental health status and an increased help seeking via digital services during the lockdown. Although this finding is purely observational, it speaks to the importance of evidence-based online service in the field of mental health within the current crisis and beyond.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862250

RESUMO

Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a considerable health problem among adolescents. Affect regulation by means of self-injury may promote the maintenance of NSSI. However, existing findings have limited ecological validity. The present study aimed to assess emotional and interpersonal states preceding and following incidents of NSSI in female adolescents. Adolescents with NSSI-disorder completed ecological momentary assessments of affective and interpersonal states on an hourly basis for multiple days. Multilevel mixed-effect regression analyses were conducted to assess antecedences and consequences of acts of self-injury. Data from n = 73 female adolescents covering a total of 52 acts of self-injury were available for analyses. The urge to self-injure on the between subject-level and negative affect on the within-level were best predictors of self-injury. Surprisingly, self-injury increased negative affect and decreased feelings of attachment (mother only) in the following hour. In line with findings in adults, results illustrate the important association between negative affect and self-injury in female adolescents. However, the occurrence of NSSI itself was related to concurrent increases in negative affect, and even prospectively predicted a consecutive increase in negative affect. Therefore, improvements of negative affect following (or during) self-injury, as previously reported, are at best short-lived (< 1 h).

18.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 45: 100812, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658764

RESUMO

Important neuropsychological changes during adolescence coincide with the maturation of white matter microstructure. Few studies have investigated the association between neuropsychological development and white matter maturation longitudinally. We aimed to characterize developmental trajectories of inhibition, planning, emotion recognition and risk-taking and examine whether white matter microstructural characteristics were associated with neuropsychological development above and beyond age. In an accelerated longitudinal cohort design, n = 112 healthy adolescents between ages 9 and 16 underwent cognitive assessment and diffusion MRI over three years. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were extracted for major white matter pathways using an automatic probabilistic reconstruction technique and mixed models were used for statistical analyses. Inhibition, planning and emotion recognition performance improved linearly across adolescence. Risk-taking developed in a quadratic fashion, with stable performance between 9 and 12 and an increase between ages 12 and 16. Including cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus FA slightly improved model fit for emotion recognition across age. We found no evidence that FA or MD were related to inhibition, planning or risk-taking across age. Our results challenge the additional value of white matter microstructure to explain neuropsychological development in healthy adolescents, but more longitudinal research with large datasets is needed to identify the potential role of white matter microstructure in cognitive development.

19.
J Affect Disord ; 274: 1122-1125, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With inclusion of non-suicidal self-injury disorder (NSSID) in the DSM-5, empirical data are crucial to gather information regarding its clinical validity and relevance. Until now, research focused mostly on single diagnostic criteria of NSSID. The present study aimed to characterize NSSID with and without comorbid diagnoses in a large help-seeking adolescent sample, investigating the clinical validity and selectivity of NSSID within the theoretical framework of Robins and Guze. METHODS: Interview and self-report data of n = 464 adolescents (mean age = 14.95 years, SD = 1.43, 89.17% female) with NSSID according to DSM-5 from a German outpatient clinic were analysed with descriptive statistics. Group differences were calculated with χ2 tests or t-tests respectively. Stability of NSSID without comorbidity was investigated after 12 months. RESULTS: Within a consecutive help-seeking sample, NSSID as a stand-alone diagnosis (without comorbidity) was rare (only 3.7%), associated with low illness severity and psychopathological distress, and prospectively rather unstable. LIMITATION: Selection bias due to the help-seeking population and female preponderance. CONCLUSION: Based on the theoretical framework applied, NSSI should be considered as an unspecific precursor for psychopathological development generally and suicide specifically but it may be of limited significance as a 'pure and sole' diagnostic entity. Results add to existing claims to re-propose classification criteria to better picture the clinical group of affected adolescents.

20.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 244, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362841

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relation between cardiac vagal activity (CVA), a measure of autonomic nervous system (ANS) flexibility, and self-reported emotion regulation (ER) difficulties in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls. Methods: The sample comprised 11-17-year-old adolescents with ADHD (n=34) and controls (n = 33). Multiple linear regression analyses investigated the relation between CVA, as indexed by high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and ER difficulties as assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Supplemental analyses were performed in ADHD and control groups separately. Analyses assessed effects of body mass index (BMI), physical activity levels, and HF peak as a surrogate of respiration on CVA. Results: Lower CVA was associated with ER difficulties, and specifically with limited access to effective ER strategies. When investigating the relation between CVA and ER in the ADHD and control groups separately, there was a tendency of lower CVA predicting limited access to effective ER strategies in the ADHD group, and not in the control group. Conclusion: The results suggest that lower CVA, i.e., reduced ANS flexibility, in adolescents with ADHD and controls is associated with self-reported ER difficulties, and specifically with limited access to effective ER strategies. There was a tendency for lower CVA to predict limited ER strategies only in the adolescents with ADHD and not controls.

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