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1.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 19(1): 178, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide levels have been associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). However, less is known about other cardiac stress biomarkers in this context. Here we evaluated the association of mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), C-terminal pro-arginine vasopressin (copeptin), C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) with incident T2D and changes in glucose metabolism. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study using data from the population-based KORA F4/FF4 study. 1773 participants (52.3% women) with MR-proANP measurements and 960 (52.7% women) with copeptin, CT-proET-1 and MR-proADM measurements were included. We examined associations of circulating plasma levels of MR-proANP, copeptin, CT-proET-1 and MR-proADM with incident T2D, the combined endpoint of incident prediabetes/T2D and with fasting and 2 h-glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, HOMA-B and HbA1c at follow-up. Logistic and linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, height, hypertension, total/HDL cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, smoking, physical activity and parental history of diabetes were used to compute effect estimates. RESULTS: During a median follow-up time of 6.4 years (25th and 75th percentiles: 6.0 and 6.6, respectively), 119 out of the 1773 participants and 72 out of the 960 participants developed T2D. MR-proANP was inversely associated with incident T2D (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.75 [0.58; 0.96] per 1-SD increase of log MR-proANP). Copeptin was positively associated with incident prediabetes/T2D (1.29 [1.02; 1.63] per 1-SD increase of log copeptin). Elevated levels of CT-proET-1 were associated with increased HOMA-B at follow-up, while elevated MR-proADM levels were associated with increased fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-B at follow-up. These associations were independent of previously described diabetes risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: High plasma concentrations of MR-proANP contributed to a lower risk of incident T2D, whereas high plasma concentrations of copeptin were associated with an increased risk of incident prediabetes/T2D. Furthermore, high plasma concentrations of CT-proET-1 and MR-proADM were associated with increased insulin resistance. Our study provides evidence that biomarkers implicated in cardiac stress are associated with incident T2D and changes in glucose metabolism.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956446

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor monotherapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) stratified according to the baseline white blood cell (WBC) count. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a post-hoc analysis of the GLOBAL LEADERS trial, a multicentre, open-label, randomized all-comer trial in patients undergoing PCI, comparing the experimental strategy (23-month ticagrelor monotherapy following 1-month dual anti-platelet therapy [DAPT]) with the reference strategy (12-month aspirin monotherapy following 12-month DAPT). Patients were stratified into two WBC groups, either < or ≥median WBC count of 7.8 x 109 cells/L (lower or higher WBC group, respectively). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or new Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI) at 2 years.Out of 14,576 patients included in the present study, 7,212 patients (49.5%) were classified as the lower WBC group, who had a significantly lower risk of both ischemic and bleeding outcomes at 2 years. At 2 years, the experimental strategy was associated with a significant lower incidence of the primary endpoint compared with the reference strategy in the lower WBC group (2.8% vs. 4.2%; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.52-0.86) but not in the higher WBC group (4.8% vs. 4.7%; HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.82-1.25; pinteraction=0.013). There were no significant differences in the risks of BARC type 3 or 5 bleeding between two antiplatelet strategies regardless of the WBC groups. CONCLUSIONS: Increased WBC counts, which may reflect degree of inflammation, at the time of index procedure may attenuate the anti-ischemic benefits of ticagrelor monotherapy observed in patients with lower WBC counts.

3.
Diabetes ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928870

RESUMO

With an estimated prevalence of 463 million affected, type 2 diabetes represents a major challenge to health care systems worldwide. Analyzing the plasma proteomes of individuals with type 2 diabetes may illuminate hitherto unknown functional mechanisms underlying disease pathology. We assessed the associations between type 2 diabetes and >1000 plasma proteins in the KORA (Cooperative health research in the Region of Augsburg) F4 cohort (n=993, 110 cases), with subsequent replication in the HUNT3 (Third wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) cohort (n=940, 149 cases). We computed logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking status and hypertension. Additionally, we investigated associations with incident type 2 diabetes and performed two-sample bi-directional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to prioritize our results. Association analysis of prevalent type 2 diabetes revealed 24 replicated proteins, of which eight are novel. Proteins showing association with incident type 2 diabetes were aminoacylase-1, growth hormone receptor, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2. Aminoacylase-1 was associated with both prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes. MR analysis yielded nominally significant causal effects of type 2 diabetes on cathepsin Z and rennin, both known to have roles in the pathophysiological pathways of cardiovascular disease, and of sex hormone-binding globulin on type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, our high-throughput proteomics study replicated previously reported type 2 diabetes-protein associations, and identified new candidate proteins possibly involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32860034

RESUMO

AIMS: The COLchicine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (COLCOT) demonstrated the benefits of targeting inflammation after myocardial infarction (MI). We aimed to determine whether time-to-treatment initiation (TTI) influences the beneficial impact of colchicine. METHODS AND RESULTS: In COLCOT, patients were randomly assigned to receive colchicine or placebo within 30 days post-MI. Time-to-treatment initiation was defined as the length of time between the index MI and the initiation of study medication. The primary efficacy endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, MI, stroke, or urgent hospitalization for angina requiring coronary revascularization. The relationship between endpoints and various TTI (<3, 4-7 and >8 days) was examined using multivariable Cox regression models. Amongst the 4661 patients included in this analysis, there were 1193, 720, and 2748 patients, respectively, in the three TTI strata. After a median follow-up of 22.7 months, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of the primary endpoint for patients in whom colchicine was initiated < Day 3 compared with placebo [hazard ratios (HR) = 0.52, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.32-0.84], in contrast to patients in whom colchicine was initiated between Days 4 and 7 (HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.53-1.75) or > Day 8 (HR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.61-1.11). The beneficial effects of early initiation of colchicine were also demonstrated for urgent hospitalization for angina requiring revascularization (HR = 0.35), all coronary revascularization (HR = 0.63), and the composite of cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, MI, or stroke (HR = 0.55, all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients benefit from early, in-hospital initiation of colchicine after MI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COLCOT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02551094.

5.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2770-2777, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is a common cause of death and a leading cause of disability and morbidity. Stroke risk assessment remains a challenge, but circulating biomarkers may improve risk prediction. Controversial evidence is available on the predictive ability of troponin concentrations and the risk of stroke in the community. Furthermore, reports on the predictive value of troponin concentrations for different stroke subtypes are scarce. METHODS: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hsTnI) concentrations were assessed in 82 881 individuals (median age, 50.7 years; 49.7% men) free of stroke or myocardial infarction at baseline from 9 prospective European community cohorts. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to determine relative risks, followed by measures of discrimination and reclassification using 10-fold cross-validation to control for overoptimism. Follow-up was based upon linkage with national hospitalization registries and causes of death registries. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, 3033 individuals were diagnosed with incident nonfatal or fatal stroke (n=1654 ischemic strokes, n=612 hemorrhagic strokes, and n=767 indeterminate strokes). In multivariable regression models, hsTnI concentrations were associated with overall stroke (hazard ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.10-1.21]), ischemic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]), and hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 1.01-1.20]). Adding hsTnI concentrations to classical cardiovascular risk factors (C indices, 0.809, 0.840, and 0.736 for overall, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke, respectively) increased the C index significantly but modestly. In individuals with an intermediate 10-year risk (5%-20%), the net reclassification improvement for overall stroke was 0.038 (P=0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated hsTnI concentrations are associated with an increased risk of incident stroke in the community, irrespective of stroke subtype. Adding hsTnI concentrations to classical risk factors only modestly improved estimation of 10-year risk of stroke in the overall cohort but might be of some value in individuals at an intermediate risk.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808014

RESUMO

AIMS: In the era of personalized medicine, it is of utmost importance to be able to identify subjects at the highest cardiovascular (CV) risk. To date, single biomarkers have failed to markedly improve the estimation of CV risk. Using novel technology, simultaneous assessment of large numbers of biomarkers may hold promise to improve prediction. In the present study, we compared a protein-based risk model with a model using traditional risk factors in predicting CV events in the primary prevention setting of the European Prospective Investigation (EPIC)-Norfolk study, followed by validation in the Progressione della Lesione Intimale Carotidea (PLIC) cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the proximity extension assay, 368 proteins were measured in a nested case-control sample of 822 individuals from the EPIC-Norfolk prospective cohort study and 702 individuals from the PLIC cohort. Using tree-based ensemble and boosting methods, we constructed a protein-based prediction model, an optimized clinical risk model, and a model combining both. In the derivation cohort (EPIC-Norfolk), we defined a panel of 50 proteins, which outperformed the clinical risk model in the prediction of myocardial infarction [area under the curve (AUC) 0.754 vs. 0.730; P < 0.001] during a median follow-up of 20 years. The clinically more relevant prediction of events occurring within 3 years showed an AUC of 0.732 using the clinical risk model and an AUC of 0.803 for the protein model (P < 0.001). The predictive value of the protein panel was confirmed to be superior to the clinical risk model in the validation cohort (AUC 0.705 vs. 0.609; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In a primary prevention setting, a proteome-based model outperforms a model comprising clinical risk factors in predicting the risk of CV events. Validation in a large prospective primary prevention cohort is required to address the value for future clinical implementation in CV prevention.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Uromodulin has been associated with arterial hypertension in genome-wide association studies, but data from clinical and preclinical studies are inconsistent. We here analyzed the association of serum uromodulin (sUmod) with arterial hypertension and vasoactive hormones in a population-based study. METHODS: In 1108 participants of the KORA F4 study aged 62-81 years, sUmod was measured and the association of sUmod with arterial hypertension was assessed using logistic regression models. The associations of sUmod with renin and aldosterone and with the vasoconstrictive prohormone C-terminal pro-endothelin-1 (CT-proET-1) were analyzed in 1079 participants and in 618 participants, respectively, using linear regression models. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment including sex, age, eGFR, BMI, fasting glucose, current smoking, previous stroke and myocardial infarction, sUmod was inversely associated with arterial hypertension (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68-0.91; p = 0.001). SUmod was not significantly associated with renin and aldosterone after adjustment for sex, age and eGFR. However, sUmod was inversely associated with CT-proET-1 (ß -0.19 ± 0.04; p < 0.001) after adjustment for sex, age, eGFR, BMI, arterial hypertension, fasting glucose, current smoking, previous stroke and myocardial infarction. The association with CT-proET-1 was stronger in participants with hypertension (ß -0.22 ± 0.04) than in normotensive participants (ß -0.13 ± 0.06; p for interaction hypertension = 0.003 in the model adjusted for hypertension). CONCLUSIONS: SUmod was inversely associated with arterial hypertension and the vasoconstrictive prohormone CT-proET-1, suggesting direct or indirect effects of sUmod on blood pressure regulation.


Assuntos
Endotelina-1/sangue , Hipertensão/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Uromodulina/sangue , Idoso , Aldosterona/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Renina/sangue
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11862, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681112

RESUMO

Reduced lung function is associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality. Chronic low grade systemic inflammation is linked to impaired lung function and cardiovascular outcomes. We assessed the association of lung function with overall 8-year mortality in 867 individuals of the Activity and Function in the Elderly study using confounder-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models (including gait speed and daily walking time as measures of physical function) without and with adjustment for inflammatory and cardiac markers. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) but not FVC was related to mortality after adjustment for physical function and other confounders. Additional adjustment for inflammatory and cardiac markers did not change the hazard ratios (HR) markedly, e.g. for a FEV1/FVC below 0.7 from 1.55 [95% confidence-interval (CI) 1.14-2.11] to 1.49 (95% CI 1.09-2.03). These independent associations were also observed in the apparently lung healthy subpopulation with even higher HRs up to 2.76 (95% CI 1.52-4.93). A measure of airflow limitation but not vital capacity was associated with overall mortality in this community-dwelling older population and in the subgroup classified as lung healthy. These associations were independent of adjustment for inflammatory and cardiac markers and support the role of airflow limitation as independent predictor of mortality in older adults.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690629

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) is an operator-independent and non-invasive measurement method to assess microvascular endothelial function in the fingertips. PAT-derived measures of endothelial function were associated with type 2 diabetes in cross-sectional studies. However, longitudinal studies are lacking. The study aims to investigate the association of two PAT-derived endothelial function parameters reactive hyperemia index (RHI) and mean baseline amplitude (MBA) with follow-up glucose and insulin parameters and the development of (pre)diabetes and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study included 673 participants initially without diabetes (328 men and 345 women) aged 52-71 years from the prospective population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg F4/FF4 cohort study conducted in Southern Germany (baseline examination F4: 2006-2008; follow-up FF4: 2013-2014). An oral glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline and follow-up to define type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function and hemoglobin A1c. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted logistic/linear regression models, a 1 SD increase in baseline RHI was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (OR 0.69 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.97)) as well as with fasting insulin (ß -0.069 (95% CI -0.131 to -0.007)) and HOMA-IR (ß -0.072 (95% CI -0.133 to -0.010)) at follow-up in participants with initial normoglycemia. A 1 SD increase in baseline MBA was positively associated with incident (pre)diabetes (OR 1.62 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.11)) and fasting glucose (ß 0.096 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.146)) at follow-up in participants with initial normoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Microvascular endothelial dysfunction seems to be involved in the development of early derangements in glucose metabolism and insulin resistance and could thereby trigger the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

10.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516903

RESUMO

There is evidence that a change in lifestyle, especially physical activity and diet, can reduce the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the response to dietary changes varies among individuals due to differences in metabolic characteristics. Therefore, we investigated the association between dietary patterns and T2DM while taking into account these differences. For 1287 participants of the population-based KORA FF4 study (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg), we identified three metabolically-homogenous subgroups (metabotypes) using 16 clinical markers. Based on usual dietary intake data, two diet quality scores, the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), were calculated. We explored the associations between T2DM and diet quality scores. Multi-variable adjusted models, including metabotype subgroup, were fitted. In addition, analyses stratified by metabotype were carried out. We found significant interaction effects between metabotype and both diet quality scores (p < 0.05). In the analysis stratified by metabotype, significant negative associations between T2DM and both diet quality scores were detected only in the metabolically-unfavorable homogenous subgroup (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.39-0.90 for AHEI and OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.40-0.96 for MDS). Prospective studies taking metabotype into account are needed to confirm our results, which allow for the tailoring of dietary recommendations in the prevention of T2DM.

11.
Am Heart J ; 225: 97-107, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with stable coronary heart disease, it is not known whether achievement of standard of care (SOC) targets in addition to evidence-based medicine (EBM) is associated with lower major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. METHODS: EBM use was recommended in the STabilisation of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY trial. SOC targets were blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mm Hg and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) <100 mg/dL and <70 mg/dL. In patients with diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) < 7% and BP of <130/80 mm Hg were recommended. Feedback to investigators about rates of EBM and SOC was provided regularly. RESULTS: In 13,623 patients, 1-year landmark analysis assessed the association between EBM, SOC targets, and MACE during follow-up of 2.7 years (median) after adjustment in a Cox proportional hazards model. At 1 year, aspirin was prescribed in 92.5% of patients, statins in 97.2%, ß-blockers in 79.0%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor blockers in 76.9%. MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) compared with LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL (hazard ratio [HR] 0.694, 95% CI 0.594-0.811) and lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL compared with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) (HR 0.834, 95% CI 0.708-0.983). MACE was lower with HbA1c < 7% compared with HbA1c ≥ 7% (HR 0.705, 95% CI 0.573-0.866). There was no effect of BP targets on MACE. CONCLUSIONS: MACE was lower with LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (70-99 mg/dL) and even lower with LDL-C < 70 mg/dL. MACE in patients with diabetes was lower with HbA1c < 7%. Achievement of targets is associated with improved patient outcomes.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
12.
Eur Heart J ; 41(34): 3255-3268, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484517

RESUMO

AIMS: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute heart failure syndrome, which shares many features with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although TTS was initially described with angiographically normal coronary arteries, smaller studies recently indicated a potential coexistence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in TTS patients. This study aimed to determine the coexistence, features, and prognostic role of CAD in a large cohort of patients with TTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary anatomy and CAD were studied in patients diagnosed with TTS. Inclusion criteria were compliance with the International Takotsubo Diagnostic Criteria for TTS, and availability of original coronary angiographies with ventriculography performed during the acute phase. Exclusion criteria were missing views, poor quality of angiography loops, and angiography without ventriculography. A total of 1016 TTS patients were studied. Of those, 23.0% had obstructive CAD, 41.2% had non-obstructive CAD, and 35.7% had angiographically normal coronary arteries. A total of 47 patients (4.6%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 3 patients had acute and 8 had chronic coronary artery occlusion concomitant with TTS, respectively. The presence of CAD was associated with increased incidence of shock, ventilation, and death from any cause. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of obstructive CAD was associated with mortality at 30 days. Takotsubo syndrome patients with obstructive CAD were at comparable risk for shock and death and nearly at twice the risk for ventilation compared to an age- and sex-matched ACS cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Coronary artery disease frequently coexists in TTS patients, presents with the whole spectrum of coronary pathology including acute coronary occlusion, and is associated with adverse outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01947621.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423965

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the association of the proinsulin to insulin ratio (PIR) with prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), components of the metabolic syndrome, and renal and cardiovascular outcomes in the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 study (2006-2008)/FF4 study (2013-2014). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The analyses included 1514 participants of the KORA F4 study at baseline and 1132 participants of the KORA FF4 study after a median follow-up time of 6.6 years. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as cardiovascular events were analyzed after a median time of 9.1 and 8.6 years, respectively. The association of PIR with T2D, renal and cardiovascular characteristics and mortality were assessed using logistic regression models. Linear regression analyses were used to assess the association of PIR with components of the metabolic syndrome. RESULTS: After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity, PIR was associated with prevalent (OR: 2.24; 95% CI 1.81 to 2.77; p<0.001) and incident T2D (OR: 1.66; 95% CI 1.26 to 2.17; p<0.001). PIR was associated with fasting glucose (ß per SD: 0.11±0.02; p<0.001) and HbA1c (ß: 0.21±0.02; p<0.001). However, PIR was not positively associated with other components of the metabolic syndrome and was even inversely associated with waist circumference (ß: -0.22±0.03; p<0.001), BMI (ß: -0.11±0.03; p<0.001) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (ß: -0.22±0.02; p<0.001). PIR was not significantly associated with the intima-media thickness (IMT), decline of kidney function, incident albuminuria, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In the KORA F4/FF4 cohort, PIR was positively associated with prevalent and incident T2D, but inversely associated with waist circumference, BMI and insulin resistance, suggesting that PIR might serve as a biomarker for T2D risk independently of the metabolic syndrome, but not for microvascular or macrovascular complications.

14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(10): e015258, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375553

RESUMO

Background Identification of patients with stable coronary heart disease who are at significant residual risk could be helpful for targeted prevention. Our aim was to determine the prognostic value of the recently introduced ceramide- and phospholipid-based risk score, the Cardiovascular Event Risk Test (CERT2), in patients with stable coronary heart disease on optimal medical therapy and to identify biological processes that contribute to the CERT2 score. Methods and Results Plasma samples (n=11 222) obtained from the STABILITY (Stabilization of Atherosclerotic Plaque by Initiation of Darapladib Therapy) trial were analyzed using a tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. STABILITY was a trial in patients with stable coronary heart disease randomized to the lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 inhibitor darapladib or placebo on optimized medical therapy at baseline, with a median follow-up of 3.7 years. Hazard ratios per SD for the CERT2 risk score were 1.32 (95% CI, 1.25-1.39) for major adverse cardiovascular event, 1.47 (95% CI, 1.35-1.59) for cardiovascular death, 1.32 (95% CI, 1.16-1.49) for stroke, 1.23 (95% CI, 1.14-1.33) for myocardial infarction, and 1.56 (95% CI, 1.39-1.76) for hospitalization due to heart failure, when adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. CERT2 showed correlation (P<0.001, r>0.2) with inflammatory markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, the heart failure marker N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After also adjusting for levels of other prognostic biomarkers, the CERT2 score was still independently related to the risk of cardiovascular death but not to nonfatal events. Conclusions The CERT2 risk score can detect residual risk in patients with stable coronary heart disease and is associated with biomarkers indicating inflammation, myocardial necrosis, myocardial dysfunction, renal dysfunction, and dyslipidemia. REGISTRATION URL: https://www.clini​caltr​ials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00799903.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407460

RESUMO

AIMS: In the randomized, placebo-controlled Colchicine Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial (COLCOT) of 4745 patients enrolled within 30 days after myocardial infarction, low-dose colchicine (0.5 mg once daily) reduced the incidence of the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or urgent hospitalization for angina leading to coronary revascularization. To assess the in-trial period and lifetime cost-effectiveness of low-dose colchicine therapy compared to placebo in post-MI patients on standard-of-care therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: A multistate Markov model was developed incorporating the primary efficacy and safety results from COLCOT, as well as healthcare costs and utilities from the Canadian healthcare system perspective. All components of the primary outcome, non-cardiovascular deaths, and pneumonia were included as health states in the model as both primary and recurrent events. In the main analysis, a deterministic approach was used to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for the trial period (24 months) and lifetime (20 years). Over the in-trial period, the addition of colchicine to post-MI standard-of-care treatment decreased the mean overall per patient costs by 47%, from $502 to $265 CAD, and increased the quality adjusted life years (QALYs) from 1.30 to 1.34. The lifetime per patient costs were further reduced (69%) and QALYs increased with colchicine therapy (from 8.82 to 11.68). As a result, both in-trial and lifetime ICERs indicated colchicine therapy was a dominant strategy. CONCLUSION: Cost-effectiveness analyses indicate that the addition of colchicine to standard-of-care therapy after myocardial infarction is economically dominant and therefore generates cost savings.

16.
Eur Heart J ; 41(31): 2997-3004, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402086

RESUMO

Despite advanced understanding of the biology of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Progress has been challenging as half of the individuals who suffer sudden cardiac death do not experience premonitory symptoms. Furthermore, it is well-recognized that also a plaque that does not cause a haemodynamically significant stenosis can trigger a sudden cardiac event, yet the majority of ruptured or eroded plaques remain clinically silent. In the past 30 years since the term 'vulnerable plaque' was introduced, there have been major advances in the understanding of plaque pathogenesis and pathophysiology, shifting from pursuing features of 'vulnerability' of a specific lesion to the more comprehensive goal of identifying patient 'cardiovascular vulnerability'. It has been also recognized that aside a thin-capped, lipid-rich plaque associated with plaque rupture, acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are also caused by plaque erosion underlying between 25% and 60% of ACS nowadays, by calcified nodule or by functional coronary alterations. While there have been advances in preventive strategies and in pharmacotherapy, with improved agents to reduce cholesterol, thrombosis, and inflammation, events continue to occur in patients receiving optimal medical treatment. Although at present the positive predictive value of imaging precursors of the culprit plaques remains too low for clinical relevance, improving coronary plaque imaging may be instrumental in guiding pharmacotherapy intensity and could facilitate optimal allocation of novel, more aggressive, and costly treatment strategies. Recent technical and diagnostic advances justify continuation of interdisciplinary research efforts to improve cardiovascular prognosis by both systemic and 'local' diagnostics and therapies. The present state-of-the-art document aims to present and critically appraise the latest evidence, developments, and future perspectives in detection, prevention, and treatment of 'high-risk' plaques occurring in 'vulnerable' patients.

17.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(9): e015218, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32351154

RESUMO

Background Differences in risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are incompletely understood. Aim of this study was to understand whether risk factors and biomarkers show different associations with incident AF and HF and to investigate predictors of subsequent onset and mortality. Methods and Results In N=58 693 individuals free of AF/HF from 5 population-based European cohorts, Cox regressions were used to find predictors for AF, HF, subsequent onset, and mortality. Differences between associations were estimated using bootstrapping. Median follow-up time was 13.8 years, with a mortality of 15.7%. AF and HF occurred in 5.0% and 5.4% of the participants, respectively, with 1.8% showing subsequent onset. Age, male sex, myocardial infarction, body mass index, and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) showed similar associations with both diseases. Antihypertensive medication and smoking were stronger predictors of HF than AF. Cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, and hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were associated with HF, but not with AF. No variable was exclusively associated with AF. Population-attributable risks were higher for HF (75.6%) than for AF (30.9%). Age, male sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and NT-proBNP were associated with subsequent onset, which was associated with the highest all-cause mortality risk. Conclusions Common risk factors and biomarkers showed different associations with AF and HF, and explained a higher proportion of HF than AF risk. As the subsequent onset of both diseases was strongly associated with mortality, prevention needs to be rigorously addressed and remains challenging, as conventional risk factors explained only 31% of AF risk.

18.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(16): 1869-1877, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in post-menopausal women but is also found in younger patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in TTS. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with TTS and enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry between January 2011 and February 2017 were included in this analysis and were stratified by age (younger: ≤50 years, middle-age: 51 to 74 years, elderly: ≥75 years). Baseline characteristics, hospital course, as well as short- and long-term mortality were compared among groups. RESULTS: Of 2,098 TTS patients, 242 (11.5%) patients were ≤50 years of age, 1,194 (56.9%) were 51 to 74 years of age, and 662 (31.6%) were ≥75 years of age. Younger patients were more often men (12.4% vs. 10.9% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.002) and had an increased prevalence of acute neurological (16.3% vs. 8.4% vs. 8.8%; p = 0.001) or psychiatric disorders (14.1% vs. 10.3% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001) compared with middle-aged and elderly TTS patients. Furthermore, younger patients had more often cardiogenic shock (15.3% vs. 9.1% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.004) and had a numerically higher in-hospital mortality (6.6% vs. 3.6% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.07). At multivariable analysis, younger (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 3.01; p = 0.14) and older age (odds ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.80; p = 0.75) were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality using the middle-aged group as a reference. There were no differences in 60-day mortality rates among groups. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of TTS patients are younger than 50 years of age. TTS is associated with severe complications requiring intensive care, particularly in younger patients.

20.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(8): 784-792, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression seem to be under-recognized in their importance and are often not incorporated in subsequent prevention strategies in routine clinical care of coronary heart disease. METHODS: The KAROLA cohort included coronary heart disease patients participating in an in-patient rehabilitation program (years 1999/2000) and followed after 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 15 years. We identified anxiety and depression trajectories based on the hospital anxiety and depression scale subdomains using joint latent class mixture time-to-event models. We included cardiovascular (CV) events and non-CV mortality as competing endpoints. RESULTS: We included 1,109 patients (15.4% female; mean age, 59.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 8.0) years) with baseline covariate data. Over a median follow-up of 14.8 years, participants experienced 324 subsequent CV events. We identified four anxiety and depression trajectory classes, a low-stable class (52.2% and 69.6% of patients for anxiety and depression, respectively), moderate-stable class (37.6% and 23.8%), increasing class (2.3% and 3.3%), and high-stable/high-decreasing class (7.9% and 3.3%). The hazard ratio (HR) for subsequent CV events for the increasing anxiety class was 2.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61; 7.45) compared with the low-stable class after covariate adjustment. Patients following the high-decreasing anxiety trajectory showed an HR of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.11; 2.68) and patients following the high-stable depression trajectory an HR of 2.47 (95% CI, 1.35; 4.54). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic high anxiety and depression trajectory classes were associated with increased risk of subsequent CV events. Assessments of both symptoms of anxiety and depression during long-term routine medical care are recommended to identify patients who would benefit from appropriate interventions.

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