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1.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabm4908, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35579540

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.621 (Mu) variant emerged in January 2021 and was categorized as a variant of interest by the World Health Organization in August 2021. This designation prompted us to study the sensitivity of this variant to antibody neutralization. In a live virus neutralization assay with serum samples from individuals vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccines, we measured neutralization antibody titers against B.1.621, an early isolate (spike 614D), and a variant of concern (B.1.351, beta variant). We observed reduced neutralizing antibody titers against the B.1.621 variant (3.4 to 7-fold reduction, depending on the serum sample and time after the second vaccination) compared to the early isolate and a similar reduction when compared to B.1.351. Likewise, convalescent serum from hamsters previously infected with an early isolate neutralized B.1.621 to a lower degree. Despite this antibody titer reduction, hamsters could not be efficiently re-challenged with the B.1.621 variant, suggesting the immune response to the first infection is adequate to provide protection against a subsequent infection with the B.1.621 variant.

2.
Nature ; 2022 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576972

RESUMO

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants possessing numerous mutations has raised concerns of decreased effectiveness of current vaccines, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and antiviral drugs for COVID-19 against these variants1,2. The original Omicron lineage, BA.1, prevailed in many countries, but more recently, BA.2 has become dominant in at least 68 countries3. Here, we evaluated the replicative ability and pathogenicity of authentic infectious BA.2 isolates in immunocompetent and human ACE2 (hACE2)-expressing mice and hamsters. In contrast to recent data with chimeric, recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strains expressing the spike proteins of BA.1 and BA.2 on an ancestral WK-521 backbone4, we observed similar infectivity and pathogenicity in mice and hamsters between BA.2 and BA.1, and less pathogenicity compared to early SARS-CoV-2 strains. We also observed a marked and significant reduction in the neutralizing activity of plasma from COVID-19 convalescent individuals and vaccine recipients against BA.2 compared to ancestral and Delta variant strains. In addition, we found that some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (REGN10987/REGN10933, COV2-2196/COV2-2130, and S309) and antiviral drugs (molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir, and S-217622) can restrict viral infection in the respiratory organs of BA.2-infected hamsters. These findings suggest that the replication and pathogenicity of BA.2 is comparable to that of BA.1 in rodents and that several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral compounds are effective against Omicron/BA.2 variants.

3.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35478039

RESUMO

Upon influenza virus infection or vaccination, immune responses occur including the production of antibodies with various functions that contributes to protection from seasonal influenza virus infection. Here, we attempted to identify the antibody functions that play a central role in preventing the onset of seasonal influenza by comparing the levels of several antibody titers for different antibody functions between 5 subclinical individuals and 16 patients who were infected with seasonal H3N2 virus. For antibody titers prior to the influenza virus exposure, we found that the neutralizing titers and ELISA titers against HA and NA proteins for the subclinical individuals were significantly higher than those for the patients, whereas the neuraminidase-inhibition (NI) titers and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activities did not significantly differ between subclinical individuals and patients. These results suggest that neutralizing titers and ELISA titers against HA and NA serve as correlates of symptomatic influenza infection.

4.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 1015-1017, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397976

RESUMO

By December 2021, about 80% of people over the age of 12 had been vaccinated in Japan, and almost all people were vaccinated with the mRNA vaccine. We investigated here the anti-spike protein antibody titer at the time of breakthrough infection of SARS-CoV-2 omicron. A total of 32 SARS-CoV2 omicron breakthrough infection was included in the study. The median antibody titer at breakthrough infection was 776 AU/mL overall, of which the median antibody titer of BNT162b2 vaccinated was 633 AU/mL and that of mRNA-1273 vaccinated was 9416 AU/mL. This result suggests that low levels of antibody titers 6 months after vaccination do not provide sufficient antibodies to prevent the omicron variant breakthrough infection, which may occur with a higher anti-spike antibody titer after vaccination with mRNA-1273. However, antibody titers in some patients were comparable to those immediately after the second vaccination with either mRNA vaccine.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , RNA Viral , Vacinas Sintéticas
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0168921, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254122

RESUMO

The role of the intestinal microbiota in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is being elucidated. Here, we analyzed the temporal changes in microbiota composition and the correlation between inflammation biomarkers/cytokines and microbiota in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. We obtained stool specimens, blood samples, and patient records from 22 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and performed 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis of stool samples over the course of disease onset compared to 40 healthy individual stool samples. We analyzed the correlation between the changes in the gut microbiota and plasma proinflammatory cytokine levels. Immediately after admission, differences in the gut microbiota were observed between COVID-19 patients and healthy subjects, mainly including enrichment of the classes Bacilli and Coriobacteriia and decrease in abundance of the class Clostridia. The bacterial profile continued to change throughout the hospitalization, with a decrease in short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria including Faecalibacterium and an increase in the facultatively anaerobic bacteria Escherichia-Shigella. A consistent increase in Eggerthella belonging to the class Coriobacteriia was observed. The abundance of the class Clostridia was inversely correlated with interferon-γ level and that of the phylum Actinobacteria, which was enriched in COVID-19, and was positively correlated with gp130/sIL-6Rb levels. Dysbiosis was continued even after 21 days from onset. The intestines tended to be an aerobic environment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Because the composition of the gut microbiota correlates with the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, this finding emphasizes the need to understand how pathology is related to the temporal changes in the specific gut microbiota observed in COVID-19 patients. IMPORTANCE There is growing evidence that the commensal microbiota of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts regulates local and systemic inflammation (gut-lung axis). COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory disease, but the involvement of microbiota changes in the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. The composition of the gut microbiota of patients with COVID-19 changed over time during hospitalization, and the intestines tended to be an aerobic environment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. These changes in gut microbiota may induce increased intestinal permeability, called leaky gut, allowing bacteria and toxins to enter the circulatory system and further aggravate the systemic inflammatory response. Since gut microbiota composition correlates with levels of proinflammatory cytokines, this finding highlights the need to understand how pathology relates to the gut environment, including the temporal changes in specific gut microbiota observed in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bactérias/genética , Citocinas , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Inflamação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
6.
Res Sq ; 2022 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35233565

RESUMO

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants possessing large numbers of mutations has raised concerns of decreased effectiveness of current vaccines, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, and antiviral drugs for COVID-19 against these variants1,2. While the original Omicron lineage, BA.1, has become dominant in many countries, BA.2 has been detected in at least 67 countries and has become dominant in the Philippines, India, and Denmark. Here, we evaluated the replicative ability and pathogenicity of an authentic infectious BA.2 isolate in immunocompetent and human ACE2 (hACE2)-expressing mice and hamsters. In contrast to recent data with chimeric, recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strains expressing the spike proteins of BA.1 and BA.2 on an ancestral WK-521 backbone3, we observed similar infectivity and pathogenicity in mice and hamsters between BA.2 and BA.1, and less pathogenicity compared to early SARS-CoV-2 strains. We also observed a marked and significant reduction in the neutralizing activity of plasma from COVID-19 convalescent individuals and vaccine recipients against BA.2 compared to ancestral and Delta variant strains. In addition, we found that some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (REGN10987/REGN10933, COV2-2196/COV2-2130, and S309) and antiviral drugs (molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir, and S-217622) can restrict viral infection in the respiratory organs of hamsters infected with BA.2. These findings suggest that the replication and pathogenicity of BA.2 is comparable to that of BA.1 in rodents and that several therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antiviral compounds are effective against Omicron/BA.2 variants.

7.
J Virol ; 96(6): e0221721, 2022 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107374

RESUMO

Persistence of HIV latently infected cells is a barrier to HIV cure. The "kick and kill" strategy for a cure includes clearance of the viral reservoir by HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, exhaustion and senescence of T cells accelerates during HIV infection, and does not fully recover, despite complete viral suppression under antiretroviral therapy. We previously established an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) from a parental HIV-specific CTL clone and generated an iPSC-derived rejuvenated HIV-specific CTL clone (iPSC-CTL), which exhibited an early memory phenotype, high proliferation capacity and effector functions in vitro. Here, we assessed the antiviral efficacy of the HIV-specific iPSC-CTL by single- and multiple-round viral suppression assays (VSAs). The HIV-specific iPSC-CTL suppressed viral replication in an HLA-dependent manner with equivalent efficacy to the parental CTL clone in single-round VSA. In multiple-round VSA, however, the ability of the iPSC-CTL to suppress viral replication was longer than that of the parental CTL clone. These results indicate that HIV-specific iPSC-CTL can sustainably exert suppressive pressure on viral replication, suggesting a novel approach to facilitate clearance of the HIV reservoir via adoptive transfer of rejuvenated CTLs. IMPORTANCE Elimination of latently HIV-infected cells is required for HIV cure. In the "kick and kill" strategy proposed for a cure to HIV, the host immune system, including HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), play a central role in eliminating HIV antigen-expressing cells following reactivation by latency-reversing agents (LRAs). However, CTL dysfunction due to exhaustion and senescence in chronic HIV infection can be an obstacle to this strategy. Adoptive transfer with effective HIV-specific CTLs may be a solution of this problem. We previously generated an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived rejuvenated HIV-specific CTL clone (iPSC-CTL) with high functional and proliferative capacity. The present study demonstrates that iPSC-CTL can survive and suppress HIV replication in vitro longer than the parental CTL clone, indicating the potential of iPSC-CTL to sustainably exert suppressive pressure on viral replication. Adoptive transfer with rejuvenated HIV-specific CTLs in combination with LRAs may be a new intervention strategy for HIV cure/remission.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Células Cultivadas , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/citologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia
9.
Hepatol Res ; 52(3): 227-234, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34825436

RESUMO

AIM: After the hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak among men who have sex with men (MSM) around 2018, the importance of HAV vaccination was emphasized, especially for MSM-living with human immunodeficiency virus (MSM-LWHIV). Aimmugen® is licensed and distributed exclusively in Japan. While administration of three doses is recommended, 85% of recipients in the general population were reported to acquire seroprotection after the second dose. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two or three vaccine doses along with predictors associated with the response to Aimmugen® in MSM-LWHIV. METHODS: We retrospectively examined anti-HA-IgG titers of MSM-LWHIV vaccinated with Aimmugen® in our hospital. Patients' data were collected from medical records. RESULTS: Between January 2018 and October 2019, 141 subjects whose median age was 46 years old, were examined. All the subjects were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and the median CD4 count was 615/µL. The acquisition rate of protectable anti-HA-IgG titers after the second and third dose was 71.1% and 98.6%, respectively. In 114 subjects whose anti-HA-IgG titers were tested after the second-dose, factors significantly associated with better response were prolonged ART duration and higher CD4 count. The titers of anti-HA-IgG after the third dose were higher in those who became seropositive after the second-dose than those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dose of Aimmugen® for MSM-LWHIV was effective while two-dose was less effective compared to non-HIV-infected people. People-LWHIV with shorter duration of ART and lesser CD4 cell count achieved lower titers of anti-HA-IgG and might require an additional vaccination.

10.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696531

RESUMO

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes transient acute infection, and little is known of viral shedding via the duodenum and into the intestinal environment, including the gut microbiome, from the period of infection until after the recovery of symptoms. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to comprehensively observe the amount of virus excreted into the intestinal tract, the changes in the intestinal microbiome, and the level of inflammation during the healing process. We used blood and stool specimens from patients with human immunodeficiency virus who were infected with HAV during the HAV outbreak in Japan in 2018. Moreover, we observed changes in fecal HAV RNA and quantified the plasma cytokine level and gut microbiome by 16S rRNA analysis from clinical onset to at least 6 months after healing. HAV was detected from clinical onset up to a period of more than 150 days. Immediately after infection, many pro-inflammatory cytokines were elicited, and some cytokines showed different behaviors. The intestinal microbiome changed significantly after infection (dysbiosis), and the dysbiosis continued for a long time after healing. These observations suggest that the immunocompromised state is associated with prolonged viral shedding into the intestinal tract and delayed recovery of the intestinal environment.


Assuntos
Disbiose/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Hepatite A/complicações , Adulto , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Hepatite A/fisiopatologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/patogenicidade , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Carga Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0070821, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378948

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and a risk factor for the development and progression of age-related comorbidities. Although HIV-associated gut dysbiosis has been suggested to be involved in sustained chronic inflammation, there remains a limited understanding of the association between gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation during HIV infection. Here, we investigated compositional changes in the gut microbiome and its role in chronic inflammation in patients infected with HIV. We observed that the gut microbiomes of patients with low CD4 counts had reduced alpha diversity compared to those in uninfected controls. Following CD4 recovery, alpha diversity was restored, but intergroup dissimilarity of bacterial composition remained unchanged between patients and uninfected controls. Patients with HIV had higher abundance of the classes Negativicutes, Bacilli, and Coriobacteriia, as well as depletion of the class Clostridia. These relative abundances positively correlated with inflammatory cytokines and negatively correlated with anti-inflammatory cytokines. We found that gut dysbiosis accompanying HIV infection was characterized by a depletion of obligate anaerobic Clostridia and enrichment of facultative anaerobic bacteria, reflecting increased intestinal oxygen levels and intestinal permeability. Furthermore, it is likely that HIV-associated dysbiosis shifts the immunological balance toward inflammatory Th1 responses and encourages proinflammatory cytokine production. Our results suggest that gut dysbiosis contributes to sustaining chronic inflammation in patients with HIV infection despite effective antiretroviral therapy and that correcting gut dysbiosis will be effective in improving long-term outcomes in patients. IMPORTANCE Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of HIV infection and is associated with the development and progression of age-related comorbidities. Although the gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication and CD4+ T-cell depletion, the role of HIV-associated imbalance of gut microbiome in chronic inflammation is unclear. Here, we aimed to understand the causal relationship between abnormalities in the gut microbiome and chronic inflammation in patients with HIV. Our results suggest HIV-associated gut dysbiosis presents a more aerobic environment than that of healthy individuals, despite prolonged viral suppression. This dysbiosis likely results from a sustained increase in intestinal permeability, which supports sustained bacterial translocation in HIV patients, despite effective therapy. Additionally, we observed that several bacterial taxa enriched in HIV patients were associated with increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these results suggest that gut dysbiosis plays an important role in chronic inflammation in HIV patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Doença Crônica/terapia , Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(27)2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140350

RESUMO

The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) plays a key role in viral infectivity. It is also the major antigen stimulating the host's protective immune response, specifically, the production of neutralizing antibodies. Recently, a new variant of SARS-CoV-2 possessing multiple mutations in the S protein, designated P.1, emerged in Brazil. Here, we characterized a P.1 variant isolated in Japan by using Syrian hamsters, a well-established small animal model for the study of SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). In hamsters, the variant showed replicative abilities and pathogenicity similar to those of early and contemporary strains (i.e., SARS-CoV-2 bearing aspartic acid [D] or glycine [G] at position 614 of the S protein). Sera and/or plasma from convalescent patients and BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccinees showed comparable neutralization titers across the P.1 variant, S-614D, and S-614G strains. In contrast, the S-614D and S-614G strains were less well recognized than the P.1 variant by serum from a P.1-infected patient. Prior infection with S-614D or S-614G strains efficiently prevented the replication of the P.1 variant in the lower respiratory tract of hamsters upon reinfection. In addition, passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies to hamsters infected with the P.1 variant or the S-614G strain led to reduced virus replication in the lower respiratory tract. However, the effect was less pronounced against the P.1 variant than the S-614G strain. These findings suggest that the P.1 variant may be somewhat antigenically different from the early and contemporary strains of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/patologia , Cricetinae , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Pulmão/patologia , Mesocricetus , Camundongos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Microtomografia por Raio-X
13.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 949-956, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663931

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Survival among people living with HIV (PLWH) has dramatically improved in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. This is the first study in Asia to describe three decades of surveys on survival and causes of death among PLWH. METHODS: We included 1121 HIV-infected patients, categorized into three period groups according to date of first visit: 1986-1996 (Pre-ART); 1997-2007 (Early-ART); and 2008-2018 (Late-ART). RESULTS: Ten-year all-cause mortality has reduced from Pre-ART (49.6/1000 person-years) to Late-ART (6.3/1000 person-years). Mortality for AIDS-defining illnesses (ADIs) has also reduced from Pre-ART (34.4/1000 person-years) to Late-ART (2.9/1000 person-years), and mortality for non-ADIs has reduced from Pre-ART (11.7/1000 person-years) to Late-ART (2.9/1000 person-years). In the ART-era, deaths from non-AIDS-defining malignancies and unnatural events including suicide represented the majority of non-ADI-related deaths and mortality rates of non-AIDS defining malignancies and unnatural cause event were not different between each group (3.4, 1.9 and 2.5/1000 person-years). Crude cumulative survival improved over the study period, and 10-year survival ratios of HIV-infected patients to the general Japanese population approached 1.00, from Pre-ART (0.66) to Late-ART (0.99). Even in the Late-ART period, survival remained lower in patients with a history of ADIs than in those without, but the difference in 5-year mortality between these groups has shrunk in the Late-ART compared to the Pre-ART. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality for ADIs and non-ADIs in PLWH has reduced in the Early-ART and Late-ART. To improve survival for PLWH further, early HIV detection and treatment and good management of non-AIDS-defining malignancies and mental disorders are needed. (248/250).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Ásia , Causas de Morte , Cidades , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tóquio
14.
Sci Adv ; 7(10)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674317

RESUMO

Limited knowledge exists on immune markers associated with disease severity or recovery in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we elucidated longitudinal evolution of SARS-CoV-2 antibody repertoire in patients with acute COVID-19. Differential kinetics was observed for immunoglobulin M (IgM)/IgG/IgA epitope diversity, antibody binding, and affinity maturation in "severe" versus "mild" COVID-19 patients. IgG profile demonstrated immunodominant antigenic sequences encompassing fusion peptide and receptor binding domain (RBD) in patients with mild COVID-19 who recovered early compared with "fatal" COVID-19 patients. In patients with severe COVID-19, high-titer IgA were observed, primarily against RBD, especially in patients who succumbed to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The patients with mild COVID-19 showed marked increase in antibody affinity maturation to prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike that associated with faster recovery from COVID-19. This study revealed antibody markers associated with disease severity and resolution of clinical disease that could inform development and evaluation of effective immune-based countermeasures against COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Células HEK293 , Hospitalização , Humanos , Switching de Imunoglobulina , Cinética , Testes de Neutralização , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Carga Viral
15.
HLA ; 98(1): 37-42, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734601

RESUMO

HLA-A, -C, -B, and -DRB1 genotypes were analyzed in 178 Japanese COVID-19 patients to investigate the association of HLA with severe COVID-19. Analysis of 32 common HLA alleles at four loci revealed a significant association between HLA-DRB1*09:01 and severe COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 3.62; 95% CI, 1.57-8.35; p = 0.00251 [permutation p value = 0.0418]) when age, sex, and other common HLA alleles at the DRB1 locus were adjusted. The DRB1*09:01 allele was more significantly associated with risk for severe COVID-19 compared to preexisting medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results indicate a potential role for HLA in predisposition to severe COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cadeias HLA-DRB1 , Alelos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/genética , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Humanos
16.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(6): 924-928, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722465

RESUMO

Treatment of intractable Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) patients with primaquine (PQ) in combination with clindamycin (CLDM) was conducted by the Research Group on Chemotherapy of Tropical Diseases (RG-CTD), as a kind of compassionate use. Primaquine was not nationally licensed at the time but imported by RG-CTD for the use in a clinical research to investigate safety and efficacy in malaria treatment. Eighteen Japanese adult patients thus treated were analyzed. Prior to the treatment with PQ-CLDM, most of the patients had been treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole first, all of which being followed by pentamidine and/or atovaquone treatment. This combination regimen of PQ-CLDM was effective in 16 (89%) patients and developed adverse events (AEs) in five (28%) patients. AEs included skin lesions, methemoglobinemia, and hepatic dysfunction, though none of them were serious. As a second-line or salvage treatment for PCP, PQ-CLDM appears to be a better option than pentamidine or atovaquone. Currently in Japan, both PQ and CLDM are licensed drugs but neither of them is approved for treatment of PCP. Considering the potentially fatal nature of PCP, approval of PQ-CLDM for treating this illness should be urged.


Assuntos
Pneumocystis carinii , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis , Adulto , Clindamicina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Japão , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Primaquina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação
17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100734, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To develop an effective vaccine against a novel viral pathogen, it is important to understand the longitudinal antibody responses against its first infection. Here we performed a longitudinal study of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic patients. METHODS: Sequential blood samples were collected from 39 individuals at various timepoints between 0 and 154 days after onset. IgG or IgM titers to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein were determined by using an ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured by using a plaque reduction assay. FINDINGS: The IgG titers to the RBD of the S protein, the ectodomain of the S protein, and the N protein peaked at about 20 days after onset, gradually decreased thereafter, and were maintained for several months after onset. Extrapolation modeling analysis suggested that the IgG antibodies were maintained for this amount of time because the rate of reduction slowed after 30 days post-onset. IgM titers to the RBD decreased rapidly and disappeared in some individuals after 90 days post-onset. All patients, except one, possessed neutralizing antibodies against authentic SARS-CoV-2, which they retained at 90 days after onset. The highest antibody titers in patients with severe infections were higher than those in patients with mild or moderate infections, but the decrease in antibody titer in the severe infection cohort was more remarkable than that in the mild or moderate infection cohort. INTERPRETATION: Although the number of patients is limited, our results show that the antibody response against the first SARS-CoV-2 infection in symptomatic patients is typical of that observed in an acute viral infection. FUNDING: The Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

18.
Hepatol Res ; 51(2): 227-232, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047431

RESUMO

AIM: Liver dysfunction is sometimes observed in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but most studies are from China, and the frequency in other countries is unclear. In addition, previous studies suggested several mechanisms of liver damage, but precise or additional mechanisms are not clearly elucidated. Therefore, we examined COVID-19 patients to explore the proportion of patients with liver dysfunction and also the factors associated with liver dysfunction. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 60 COVID-19 patients hospitalized at the Hospital affiliated with The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo (Tokyo, Japan). Patients who presented ≥40 U/L alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at least once during their hospitalization were defined as high-ALT patients, and the others as normal-ALT patients. The worst values of physical and laboratory findings during hospitalization for each patient were extracted for the analyses. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models with bootstrap (for 1000 times) were carried out. RESULTS: Among 60 patients, there were 31 (52%) high-ALT patients. The high-ALT patients were obese, and had significantly higher levels of D-dimer and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, as well as white blood cell count, and levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, and fibrinogen. Multivariable analysis showed D-dimer and white blood cells as independent factors. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that higher D-dimer level and white blood cell count were independently associated with ALT elevation, liver dysfunction in COVID-19 patients might be induced by microvascular thrombosis in addition to systemic inflammation.

19.
J Infect Dis ; 223(4): 610-620, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: USA300 produces Panton-Valentin leucocidin (PVL) and is known as a predominant community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain in the United States, but it was extremely rare in Japan. We report here an outbreak of USA300 in people with HIV (PWH) in Tokyo, Japan. METHODS: We analyzed the cases of PVL-MRSA infection between 2010 and 2020 and screened for nasal colonization of PVL-MRSA in PWH who visited an HIV/AIDS referral hospital from December 2019 to March 2020. Whole-genome sequencing-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was performed on these isolates. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 21 PVL-MRSA infections in 14 patients were identified after 2014. The carriage prevalence was 4.3% (12/277) and PVL-MRSA carriers were more likely to have sexually transmitted infections (STIs) within a year compared with patients who had neither a history of PVL-MRSA infection nor colonization (33.3% [4/12] vs 10.1% [26/258]; P = .03). SNP analysis showed that all 26 isolates were ST8-SCCmecIVa-USA300. Twenty-four isolates were closely related (≤100 SNP differences) and had the nonsynonymous SNPs associated with carbohydrate metabolism and antimicrobial tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: An outbreak of USA300 has been occurring among PWH in Tokyo and a history of STI was a risk of colonization.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Homossexualidade Masculina , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Portador Sadio , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem Molecular , Nariz/microbiologia , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/complicações , Infecções Estafilocócicas/complicações , Tóquio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Virulência/análise , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
20.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322035

RESUMO

Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR)-based tests are widely used to diagnose coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As a result that these tests cannot be done in local clinics where RT-qPCR testing capability is lacking, rapid antigen tests (RATs) for COVID-19 based on lateral flow immunoassays are used for rapid diagnosis. However, their sensitivity compared with each other and with RT-qPCR and infectious virus isolation has not been examined. Here, we compared the sensitivity among four RATs by using severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolates and several types of COVID-19 patient specimens and compared their sensitivity with that of RT-qPCR and infectious virus isolation. Although the RATs read the samples containing large amounts of virus as positive, even the most sensitive RAT read the samples containing small amounts of virus as negative. Moreover, all RATs tested failed to detect viral antigens in several specimens from which the virus was isolated. The current RATs will likely miss some COVID-19 patients who are shedding infectious SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/análise , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Reações Falso-Negativas , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes
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