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1.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 88, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque and subsequent exposure of the subendothelial prothrombotic matrix to blood cause arterial thrombosis. Circulating platelets play an indispensable role in the growth of arterial thrombi partially owing to their unique ability to adhere to the subendothelial matrix and to aggregate to each other under flow conditions. Recently, the Total Thrombus-formation Analysis System (T-TAS) was developed for ex vivo analysis of the thrombogenic potential of whole blood samples under flow conditions. Despite the potential clinical utility of the T-TAS in assessing the risk for thrombosis and bleeding, reference intervals for T-TAS analysis in healthy individuals have not been determined. METHODS: In total, 122 whole blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers ranging in age from 25 to 45 years. T-TAS analysis and hematological, physiological, and lifestyle assessments were conducted in these subjects. Whole blood samples anticoagulated with hirudin were perfused into a collagen-coated microchip (PL chip). The time to 10 kPa and the area under the flow pressure curve up to 10 min (AUC10) were analyzed as representative variables for thrombogenic potential. Reference intervals, which were defined as 2.5-97.5 percentiles, were determined. Additionally, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the AUC10 in the T-TAS. RESULTS: The time to 10 kPa and the AUC10 widely varied, even in healthy volunteers. The reference intervals were 1.50-4.02 min and 223.4-456.8, respectively, at a shear rate of 1500 s- 1. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that platelet counts were most significantly associated with the AUC10 of the T-TAS. The presence of one or more cardiovascular risk factors of a high body mass index, a high pulse pressure, high fasting serum glucose levels, high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, a history of smoking, and no habitual exercise, had the second largest effect on the AUC10 of the T-TAS. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy volunteers who had any cardiovascular risk factors showed augmented thrombogenicity, even in artificial uniform capillaries, compared with those without any risk factors in the T-TAS.

2.
In Vivo ; 35(4): 2025-2033, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The reproducibility of athero - sclerotic lesions was evaluated after the production of cloned-microminipigs and their offspring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cloned-microminipig-parents were produced by microminipigsomatic cell nuclei. These parents were crossbred and delivered males (F1-offspring) were divided into two groups: normal chow diet (NcD)-fed and high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HcD)-fed groups. One of the F1-offsprings was subjected to cloning, and delivered males (F1-clones) were fed with HcD. After 8 weeks, all animals were necropsied for patho - physiological studies compared to non-cloned-microminipigs. RESULTS: HcD-fed F1-offspring and F1-clones, but not NcD-fed F1-offspring, exhibited increased serum lipid levels and systemic atherosclerosis, which were comparable to those of HcD-fed non-cloned-microminipigs. Homogeneity of variance analysis demonstrated that standard deviation values of serum lipoprotein and aortic atherosclerosis area from HcD-fed animals decreased in F1-offspring and F1-clones. CONCLUSION: HcD-induced atherogenesis was highly reproducible in F1-offsprings and F1-clones, indicating that the atherosclerosis-prone genomic background was preserved in the cloned-microminipigs, which can be used for studies on human atherosclerosis and related diseases.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Animais , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/genética , Colesterol , Clonagem Molecular , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tecnologia
3.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 81: 105840, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887859

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare condition in which the median arcuate ligament (MAL) causes compression of the celiac artery (CA) and plexus. Although 13-50 % of healthy population exhibit radiologic evidence of the CA compression, the majority remains asymptomatic. With or without symptoms, MALS have a risk of developing collateral circulation that leads to pancreaticoduodenal artery (PDA) aneurysms that have high risk of rupture. The treatment of MALS is the surgical release of the MAL. However, the necessity of ganglionectomy of the celiac plexus is still unclear. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 60-year-old man with a ruptured PDA aneurysm caused by MALS was admitted to our hospital for an emergency. After treatment for the ruptured PDA aneurysm by transcatheter arterial coil embolization, he underwent elective laparoscopic MAL release in the hybrid operation room to check blood flow of the CA intraoperatively. The angiography of the CA immediately after MAL release without ganglionectomy of the celiac plexus showed the antegrade blood flow to the proper hepatic artery instead of the retrograde flow via the pancreaticoduodenal arcade. The postoperative course was uneventful and the follow-up computed tomography revealed no residual CA stenosis. DISCUSSION: Unlike symptomatic MALS, it might be enough to just release the MAL without ganglionectomy of the celiac plexus for asymptomatic MALS, especially that with the treated PDA aneurysm. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic treatment of MALS in hybrid operating room could allow for adequate MAL release without ganglionectomy of the celiac plexus using the intraoperative angiography of the CA.

4.
Circ J ; 85(10): 1885-1891, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effects of rapid electrical defibrillation and ß-blockade on coronary ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain unknown.Methods and Results:After induction of VF by 30 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion, animals were treated with defibrillation alone (Group A, n=13), 2 min of open-chest cardiac massage followed by defibrillation (Group B, n=11), or the same therapy to Group B with propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) treatment before ischemia/reperfusion (Group C, n=11). If return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was not attained, each therapy was repeated ≤3 times (Set-1). When ROSC was not obtained within Set-1, cardiac massage was applied to all animals followed by defibrillation, which was repeated ≤3 times (Set-2). ROSC after Set-1 was 8% in Group A, 82% in Group B and 82% in Group C, whereas that after Set-2 was 62% in Group A, 100% in Group B and 82% in Group C. Each animal with ROSC in Groups A (n=8) and B (n=11) showed sinus rhythm, whereas those in Group C (n=9) had sinus rhythm (n=5), atrial fibrillation (n=1), accelerated idioventricular rhythm (n=2) and atrioventricular block (n=1). Post ROSC heart rate and mean arterial pressure were significantly lower in Group C. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac massage increased the likelihood of ROSC vs. rapid defibrillation, but ß-blocker pretreatment may worsen hemodynamics and electrical stability after ROSC.

5.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 72: 564-568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698289

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Enterocutaneous fistulas (ECFs) that occur following gastrointestinal surgery require long-term hospitalization, and treatment may be difficult in rare cases. Although the morbidity and mortality associated with ECF have decreased with modern medical, the overall mortality is still surprisingly high, up to 30.4 %. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The patient was a 79-year-old male who had undergone laparoscopic sigmoidoscopy for sigmoid colon cancer 5 years previously. He was newly diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer 5 years following surgery. A laparoscopic high anterior resection was performed. On the 4th postoperative day, he was diagnosed with a suture failure which was treated conservatively; however, the fistula could not be closed, and ileostomy construction was performed. Intestinal fluid leaked from the median surgical incision, leading to the formation of a small intestinal fistula on the proximal side from the ileostomy. Conservative treatment did not improve the condition and skin erosion worsened. Two months after the stoma was constructed, a urethral balloon catheter was percutaneously inserted into the intestinal tract from the small intestinal fistula to drain the intestinal fluid. Following the maneuver, the problem of skin erosion was improved, with the resulting closure of the fistula. DISCUSSION: The basic principles underlying treatment for ECFs are essentially fasting, drainage, and adequate nutritional management. Some studies reported that the average period of negative pressure therapy was four weeks. It seems that four weeks is the breakpoint. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous intestinal drainage for refractory ECFs following gastrointestinal surgery is minimally invasive and is likely to be extremely useful.

6.
World J Surg ; 44(11): 3893-3900, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidences of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) such as atelectasis, pneumonia and pleural effusion after major surgery range from <1 to 23%. Atelectasis after abdominal surgery increases the duration of hospitalization and short-term mortality rate, but there are few reports about atelectasis after hepatectomy. The effectiveness of prone position drainage as physiotherapy has been reported, but it remains unclarified whether prone positioning prevents atelectasis after hepatectomy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the prone position on the incidence of atelectasis after hepatectomy. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the incidence of PPCs after hepatectomy at a single center. Patients were divided into two cohorts. The earlier cohort (n = 165) underwent hepatectomy between January 2016 and March 2018 and was analyzed to identify the risk factors for atelectasis and short-term outcomes; the later cohort (n = 51) underwent hepatectomy between April 2018 and March 2019 and underwent prone position drainage in addition to regular mobilization postoperatively. The incidences of PPCs were compared between the two cohorts. RESULTS: Independent risk factors for atelectasis were anesthetic duration (P = 0.016), operation time (P = 0.046) and open surgery (P = 0.011). The incidence of atelectasis was significantly lower in the later cohort (9.8%) than the earlier cohort (34.5%, P < 0.001). Moreover, the later cohort had a significantly shorter duration of oxygen support (P < 0.001) and postoperative hospitalization (P < 0.001). After propensity score-matching, the incidence of atelectasis remained significantly lower in the later cohort (P = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Prone position drainage may decrease the incidence of atelectasis after hepatectomy and improve the short-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia , Atelectasia Pulmonar , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Decúbito Ventral , Atelectasia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Anesth ; 34(5): 712-718, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577911

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined the association between smoking and perioperative complications of laparoscopic abdominal surgery and whether these complications were reduced with ≥ 4 weeks of preoperative smoking cessation. METHODS: A total of 555 patients who underwent gastric and colorectal cancer surgeries under general anesthesia were divided into the following groups retrospectively: 290 individuals without smoking history (NS group), 144 previous smokers (stopped smoking more than 8 weeks before surgery, PS group), and 121 current smokers (CS group) divided to two groups according to preoperative smoking cessation for < 4 (CS1, n = 76) and 4-8 weeks (CS2, n = 45). RESULTS: When compared with the NS group, postoperative hospitalization duration was significantly longer in the CS1 group (p < 0.01), whereas differences between the CS2 or PS groups and NS group were not significant. The total number of postoperative complications was higher in all groups of smoking than in NS group, independent on preoperative smoking cessation; however, suture failure was significantly more frequent only in CS1 group. Although pack-years did not significantly affect complication rates in smokers, duration of smoking cessation time in PS group was a negative predictor of postoperative complications. CONCLUSION: Providing more than 4 weeks of smoking cessation before gastrointestinal surgery can reduce the duration of hospitalization and rate of suture failure.


Assuntos
Fumantes , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
8.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 99: 106606, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255745

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The preclinical in vivo assay for QT prolongation is critical for predicting torsadogenic risk, but still difficult to extrapolate to humans. This study ran preclinical tests in cynomolgus monkeys on seven QT reference drugs containing the drugs used in the IQ-CSRC clinical trial and applied exposure-response (ER) analysis to the data to investigate the potential for translational information on the QT effect. METHODS: In each of six participating facilities in the J-ICET project, telemetered monkeys were monitored for 24 h following administration of vehicle or 3 doses of test drugs, and pharmacokinetic profiles at the same doses were evaluated separately. An individual rate-corrected QT interval (QTca) was derived and the vehicle-adjusted change in QTca from baseline (∆∆QTca) was calculated. Then the relationship of concentration to QT effect was evaluated by ER analysis. RESULTS: For QT-positive drugs in the IQ-CSRC study (dofetilide, dolasetron, moxifloxacin, ondansetron, and quinine) and levofloxacin, the slope of the total concentration-QTca effect was significantly positive, and the QT-prolonging effect, taken as the upper bound of the confidence interval for predicted ∆∆QTca, was confirmed to exceed 10 ms. The ER slope of the negative drug levocetirizine was not significantly positive and the QTca effect was below 10 ms at observed peak exposure. DISCUSSION: Preclinical QT assessment in cynomolgus monkeys combined with ER analysis could identify the small QT effect induced by several QT drugs consistently with the outcomes in humans. Thus, the ER method should be regarded as useful for translational prediction of QT effects in humans.

9.
Acta Med Okayama ; 73(2): 101-107, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015744

RESUMO

Sedatives are administered during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy to ensure patient safety, reduce the metabolic rate and correct the oxygen supply-demand balance. However, the concentrations of sedatives can be decreased due to absorption into the circuit. This study examined factors affecting the absorption of a commonly used sedative, midazolam (MDZ). Using multiple ex vivo simulation models, three factors that may influence MDZ levels in the ECMO circuit were examined: polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing in the circuit, use of a membrane oxygenator in the circuit, and heparin coating of the circuit. We also assessed changes in drug concentration when MDZ was re-injected in a circuit. The MDZ level decreased to approximately 60% of the initial concentration in simulated circuits within the first 30 minutes. The strongest factor in this phenomenon was contact with the PVC tubing. Membrane oxygenator use tended to increase MDZ loss, whereas heparin circuit coating had no influence on MDZ absorption. Similar results were obtained when a second dose of MDZ was injected to the second-use circuits.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/instrumentação , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacocinética , Midazolam/farmacocinética , Humanos , Cloreto de Polivinila
10.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 6(1): 27-35, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To understand the extent to which a large-scale healthcare claims database (DB) captures the safety profile of eribulin mesylate (Halaven®, Eisai Co., Ltd., Japan), we compared patient characteristics, drug use, and adverse events (AEs) between data for patients treated with eribulin retrieved from a DB and data for metastatic breast cancer patients from a conventional prospective post-marketing surveillance (PMS). METHODS: We descriptively summarized patient characteristics and AEs of 551 and 951 patients retrieved from DB and PMS, respectively, during 2011‒2013. Using 2814 patient data from the DB during 2011‒2016, the drug use and AE incidence over time were assessed. RESULTS: In both datasets, 99.8% were females, and the mean age was 57.8 ± 10.7 years. The mean number of eribulin administration was 11.1 ± 10.9 and 10.1 ± 7.8 in DB and PMS, respectively. Although, overall, the difference in AE incidence between the two datasets was moderate, gaps were larger for nausea (DB: 73.32% vs. PMS: 15.77%), neutropenia (20.87% vs. 66.67%), stomatitis (37.39% vs. 10.94%), and alopecia (0.36% vs. 12.09%). During 2011‒2016, the observed incidence of anemia or pyrexia significantly decreased (trend test, p = 0.0009 for both). CONCLUSION: Generally, patient characteristics, drug use, and AE incidence between the DB and PMS were comparable; however, AEs such as neutropenia may require defining based on the laboratory data to achieve more comparable results in DBs. Besides the usefulness of healthcare claims DBs for long-term assessments, they may also serve as a good complementary to PMS in the pharmacovigilance of eribulin.

11.
World J Surg ; 43(1): 127-133, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with persistent symptoms of acute cholecystitis for >72 h who cannot undergo urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) often undergo percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) and delayed LC. However, intraoperative near-infrared fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) has recently become available in various surgical settings. Therefore, we evaluated the usability of intraoperative fluorescence imaging with ICG for LC after PTGBD in patients with acute cholecystitis. METHODS: The preoperative and postoperative clinical characteristics of patients who underwent LC after PTGBD were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 130 patients were reviewed. Intraoperative ICG fluorescence imaging was used in 39 (30.0%) patients, and none developed adverse reactions. Patients with ICG fluorescence imaging had a significantly shorter operative time (129 ± 46 vs. 150 ± 56 min, p = 0.0455), markedly lower conversion rate (2.6% vs. 22.0%, p = 0.0017), and lower proportion of subtotal cholecystectomy (0.0% vs. 6.6%, p = 0.0359) than patients without ICG fluorescence imaging. Independent risk factors for conversion to laparotomy during LC after PTGBD were the performance of PTGBD after 48 h from onset (OR 3.52; 95% CI 1.11-12.21; p = 0.0322), an unremoved PTGBD tube on LC (4.48, 1.46-15.00, p = 0.0084), and surgery without ICG (8.00, 1.28-159.47, p = 0.0231). CONCLUSION: Intraoperative ICG fluorescence imaging produced better surgical outcomes without any adverse reactions. Early performance of PTGBD and intraoperative ICG fluorescence imaging can reduce the surgical difficulties in LC after PTGBD for acute cholecystitis.


Assuntos
Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Colecistite Aguda/cirurgia , Corantes , Verde de Indocianina , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Idoso , Colecistostomia , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta , Drenagem , Feminino , Fluorescência , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
Ind Health ; 57(4): 503-510, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344231

RESUMO

The majority of patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP) suffer from chronic pain. Psychosocial factors play an important role in the chronicity of LBP. To explore the risk factors for chronic disabling LBP in detail, we assessed its various risk factors in Japanese workers, using data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study. Data were drawn from a 1 yr follow-up of 20‒59 yr-old workers who participated in the CUPID study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed various factors, including individual characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related or other psychosocial factors. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between these factors and chronic disabling LBP. Of 198 participants, 35 (17.7%) had chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the interaction effect of the two factors, expectation of LBP problems and excessive working hours (≥ 60 h per week), was associated with chronic disabling LBP. Chronic disabling LBP was present in 42.5% of participants with both of these two risk factors, whereas it was present in 11.8% of participants without these risk factors. In conclusion, among various factors, the combination of two psychosocial factors was particularly associated with chronic disabling LBP.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Dor Crônica/epidemiologia , Dor Crônica/etiologia , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 24(26): 2806-2817, 2018 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018476

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common malignant subepithelial lesions (SELs) of the gastrointestinal tract. They originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal located within the muscle layer and are characterized by over-expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor KIT. Pathologically, diagnosis of a GIST relies on morphology and immunohistochemistry [KIT and/or discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumor 1 (DOG1) is generally positive]. The prognosis of this disease is associated with the tumor size and mitotic index. The standard treatment of a GIST without metastasis is surgical resection. A GIST with metastasis is usually only treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors without radical cure; thus, early diagnosis is the only way to improve its prognosis. However, a GIST is usually detected as a SEL during endoscopy, and many benign and malignant conditions may manifest as SELs. Conventional endoscopic biopsy is difficult for tumors without ulceration. Most SELs have therefore been managed without a histological diagnosis. However, a favorable prognosis of a GIST is associated with early histological diagnosis and R0 resection. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) are critical for an accurate diagnosis of SELs. EUS-FNA is safe and effective in enabling an early histological diagnosis and adequate treatment. This review outlines the current evidence for the diagnosis and management of GISTs, with an emphasis on early management of small SELs.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/terapia , Gastroscopia/métodos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Endossonografia , Gastrectomia/métodos , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Células Intersticiais de Cajal/patologia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Prognóstico , Estômago/citologia , Estômago/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 136(4): 234-241, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627227

RESUMO

Effects of moxifloxacin on QTc as well as proarrhythmic surrogate markers including J-Tpeakc, Tpeak-Tend and short-term variability (STV) of repolarization were examined by using both standard E14 time-based evaluation and exposure-response modeling. The study was conducted with a single-blind, randomized, single-dose, placebo-controlled and two-period cross-over design in healthy Filipino subjects. QT interval was corrected by Fridericia's formula (QTcF). In the E14 time-based evaluation of ECG data, the largest ΔΔQTcF with 90% confidence interval was 14.1 ms (11.2-16.9) with Cmax of 3.39 µg/mL at 3 h post-dose (n = 69; male: 35, female: 34), indicating a positive effect on the QTcF. Moxifloxacin significantly increased the ΔΔJ-Tpeakc and ΔΔTpeak-Tend, whereas the ΔΔSTV was not altered. Meanwhile in the exposure-response modeling of the same ECG data, the slope of moxifloxacin plasma concentration-ΔΔQTcF relationship was 4.84 ms per µg/mL and the predicted ΔΔQTcF with 90% confidence interval was 13.8 ms (13.1-15.1) at Cmax, also indicating a positive effect on the QTcF. Importantly, results in each proarrhythmic surrogate marker obtained by the exposure-response modeling also showed high similarity to those obtained by the E14 statistical evaluation. Thus, these results of moxifloxacin may become a guide to estimate proarrhythmic potential of new chemical entities.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Fluoroquinolonas/efeitos adversos , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Estudos Cross-Over , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacocinética , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moxifloxacina , Filipinas , Caracteres Sexuais , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Pharm Pharm Sci ; 21(1): 54-59, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29455711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although the 2016 Japanese guidelines for the management of sepsis recommend de-escalation of treatment after identification of the causative pathogen, adherence to this practice remain unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of de-escalating treatment for sepsis patients at an advanced critical care and emergency medical centre. METHODS: Based on electronic patient information, 85 patients who were transported to the centre by ambulance, and diagnosed with sepsis between January 2008 and September 2013 were enrolled and evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups with and without de-escalation, and comparisons were conducted for several variables, including length of hospital stay, and length of antibiotic administration. Two types of subgroup analysis were conducted between patients with septic shock or positive blood cultures. Statistical analysis was conducted using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: The length of hospital stay after diagnosis was significantly shorter for the de-escalation group than for the non-de-escalation group. In the subgroup analysis, de-escalation for blood culture-positive patients was beneficial in terms of the length of hospital stay and length of antibiotic administration. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that sepsis treatment de-escalation is beneficial for treatment efficacy and appropriate use of antibiotics. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(8): 1461-1468, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29377265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Few reports have demonstrated the effectiveness of treatments for intestinal follicular lymphoma (FL) because of the limited number of patients who undergo comprehensive small intestinal examinations. This study compared the efficacy of rituximab-combined chemotherapy in patients with asymptomatic and low tumor burden (LTB) intestinal FL, according to the criteria of the Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes Folliculaires, with that of a "watch and wait" (W&W) approach. METHODS: The endoscopic examination for entire gastrointestinal tracts was performed in 29 Japanese patients with intestinal FL. These patients had CD21-positive follicular dendritic cells arranged in a duodenal pattern. In a prospective, two-center, open-label trial, this study evaluated the efficacy of rituximab-combined chemotherapy ([cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone] or [cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone]) and prolonged treatment with rituximab (R-Chemo+prolongedR) in 14 patients and compared their outcomes with those of 15 patients managed with a W&W approach. RESULTS: Four patients managed with the W&W plan showed worsening macroscopic findings, lesion area enlargement, or clinical stage progression but stayed on this plan because they had LTB and experienced no changes in bowel function. In the R-Chemo+prolongedR group, all patients achieved complete remission; recurrence occurred in one patient, who was subsequently managed with the W&W plan because of LTB. There were no significant differences in progression-free survival between the two groups (P = 0.1045). Overall survival was 100% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The prognoses of patients with asymptomatic intestinal FL and LTB who were managed with a W&W strategy were comparable with those of patients receiving R-Chemo+prolongedR.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Intestinais/terapia , Linfoma Folicular/terapia , Rituximab/administração & dosagem , Conduta Expectante , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Linfoma Folicular/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral , Vincristina/administração & dosagem
17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17919, 2017 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263333

RESUMO

There are few reports on hydrocortisone administration after cardiac arrest, and those that have been published included few subjects. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hydrocortisone administration on the outcomes of patients who experienced cardiac arrest. We investigated the survival discharge rates and the length of hospital stay from cardiac arrest to discharge, stratified by use of hydrocortisone, using a Japanese health-insurance claims dataset that covers approximately 2% of the Japanese population. The study included the data of 2233 subjects who experienced either in-hospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between January 2005 and May 2014. These patients were divided into two groups, based on the administration of hydrocortisone. We adjusted the baseline characteristics, medical treatment, and drug administration data of the two groups using propensity scores obtained via the inverse probability of treatment weighted method. The hydrocortisone group had a significantly higher survival discharge rate (13/61 [21.1%] vs. 240/2172 [11.0%], adjusted odds ratio: 4.2, 95% CI: 1.60-10.98, p = 0.004). In addition, the administration of hydrocortisone was independent predictor of survival to discharge (hazard ratio: 4.6, p < 0.001). The results demonstrate a correlation between hydrocortisone administration and the high rates of survival to discharge.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 12683, 2017 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28978927

RESUMO

Amiodarone (AMD) and nifekalant (NIF) are used in the treatment of ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia; however, only few studies have been conducted on their efficacies. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted. Relevant sources were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Igaku Chuo Zasshi. The outcomes were short-term and long-term survival in patients with shock-resistant ventricular fibrillation /pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Thirty-three studies were analysed. The results showed that, compared to the control treatment, AMD did not improve short-term survival (odds ratio (OR): 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.91-1.71) or long-term survival (OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.63-1.57). However, compared to the control treatment, NIF significantly improved short-term survival (OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 2.21-4.72) and long-term survival (OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.36-2.59). No significant difference was observed in short-term survival (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.63-1.15) or long-term survival (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 0.67-2.31) between AMD- and NIF-treated patients. The results suggest that NIF is beneficial for short-term and long-term survival in shock-resistant ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia; however, the efficacy of AMD in either outcome is not clear.


Assuntos
Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Pulso Arterial , Pirimidinonas/uso terapêutico , Taquicardia Ventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Ventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 18(1): 334, 2017 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28768509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most studies of risk factors for new low back pain (LBP) have been conducted in Western populations, but because of cultural and environmental differences, the impact of causal factors may not be the same in other countries. We used longitudinal data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study to assess risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP among Japanese workers. METHODS: Data came from a 1-year prospective follow-up of nurses, office workers, sales/marketing personnel, and transportation workers, initially aged 20-59 years, who were employed in or near Tokyo. A baseline questionnaire included items on past history of LBP, personal characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related psychosocial factors. Further information about LBP was collected at follow-up. Analysis was restricted to participants who had been free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess baseline risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP (i.e. LBP that had interfered with work) during the 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Among 955 participants free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline, 58 (6.1%) reported a new episode of disabling LBP during the 12-month follow-up period. After mutual adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, which included the four factors that showed associations individually (p < 0.1) in analyses adjusted only for gender and age, the highest odds ratio (OR) was for past history of LBP (2.8, 95% [confidence interval {CI}]: 1.6-4.9), followed by working ≥60 h per week (1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.5) and lifting weights ≥25 kg by hand (1.6, 95% CI: 0.9-3.0). When past history of LBP was excluded from the model, ORs for the remaining risk factors were virtually unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that among Japanese workers, as elsewhere, past history of LBP is a major risk factor for the development of new episodes of disabling back pain. They give limited support to the association with occupational lifting that has been observed in earlier research, both in Japan and in Western countries. In addition, they suggest a possible role of long working hours, which merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Avaliação da Deficiência , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Dor Lombar/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Razão de Chances , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Ind Health ; 54(3): 230-6, 2016 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26829974

RESUMO

Katakori is a Japanese word, and there is no clear English translation. Katakori consists of two terms, Kata means neck and shoulder, kori means stiffness. Consequently, Katakori is defined as neck and shoulder discomfort or dull pain. Katakori is a major somatic complaint and has a large impact on workers. To examine the association between onset of severe Katakori and potential risk factors in Japanese workers, a prospective cohort study, entitled "Cultural and Psychosocial Influence on Disability (CUPID)", was conducted. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 year after baseline. Logistic regression was used to explore the risk factors of onset of severe Katakori. Of those 1,398, the incidence of severe Katakori onset after 1 year was 3.0% (42 workers). Being female (adjusted odds ratio: 2.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-4.86), short sleep duration (adjusted odds ratio: 2.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.20-6.82) and depressed mood with some issues at work (adjusted odds ratio: 3.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.38-7.03) were significantly associated with onset of severe Katakori. Psychosocial factors as well as gender difference were associated with onset of severe Katakori. We suggest that mental health support at the workplace is important to prevent severe Katakori.


Assuntos
Cervicalgia/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Dor de Ombro/etiologia , População Urbana , Adulto , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Cervicalgia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho
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