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1.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(10): 1693-1702, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Leptin is critical for central nervous system development and maturation. This study aimed to evaluate the potential regulatory role of cord leptin in the neuropsychomotor development of children ages 18 months to 6 years. METHODS: This study included 424 children from a prospective mother-child cohort (Rhea Study; Crete, Greece) with available cord leptin levels and data on neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition), 4 years (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities), and 6 years (Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices and Trail Making Test). Multivariable linear regression models were used to explore the associations. RESULTS: Each 10-ng/mL increase in the cord leptin level was associated with increased scores on the gross motor scale at 18 months (ß coefficient: 3.8; 95% CI: 0.0-7.5), with decreased scores in the general cognitive performance (ß coefficient: -3.0; 95% CI: -5.5 to -0.4), perceptual performance (ß coefficient: -3.4; 95% CI: -6.0 to -9.9), working memory (ß coefficient: -3.1; 95% CI: -5.7 to -0.4), executive function (ß coefficient -3.1; 95% CI: -5.7 to -0.5), and functions of the posterior cortex (ß coefficient: -2.7; 95% CI: -5.2 to -0.1) scales at 4 years, and with a 3.7-unit decrease in the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices score at 6 years (ß coefficient: -3.7; 95% CI: -6.9 to -0.5). CONCLUSIONS: Increased cord leptin levels are associated with enhanced gross motor development at 18 months but decreased cognitive performance in early and middle childhood.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13407, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527690

RESUMO

Dyslipidemia and statin use have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but prospective studies have shown mixed results. We aimed to determine whether dyslipidemia is causally linked to CRC risk using a Mendelian randomization approach and to explore the association of statins with CRC. A case-control study was performed including 1336 CRC cases and 2744 controls (MCC-Spain). Subjects were administered an epidemiological questionnaire and were genotyped with an array which included polymorphisms associated with blood lipids levels, selected to avoid pleiotropy. Four genetic lipid scores specific for triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), or total cholesterol (TC) were created as the count of risk alleles. The genetic lipid scores were not associated with CRC. The ORs per 10 risk alleles, were for TG 0.91 (95%CI: 0.72-1.16, p = 0.44), for HDL 1.14 (95%CI: 0.95-1.37, p = 0.16), for LDL 0.97 (95%CI: 0.81-1.16, p = 0.73), and for TC 0.98 (95%CI: 0.84-1.17, p = 0.88). The LDL and TC genetic risk scores were associated with statin use, but not the HDL or TG. Statin use, overall, was a non-significant protective factor for CRC (OR 0.84; 95%CI: 0.70-1.01, p = 0.060), but lipophilic statins were associated with a CRC risk reduction (OR 0.78; 95%CI 0.66-0.96, p = 0.018). Using the Mendelian randomization approach, our study does not support the hypothesis that lipid levels are associated with the risk of CRC. This study does not rule out, however, a possible protective effect of statins in CRC by a mechanism unrelated to lipid levels.

4.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2019 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma, a heterogeneous disease with variable age of onset, results from the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Early-life tobacco smoke (ELTS) exposure is a major asthma risk factor. Only a few genetic loci have been reported to interact with ELTS exposure in asthma. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify new loci interacting with ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset (TAO) in childhood. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide interaction analyses of ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood in five European-ancestry studies (totaling 8,273 subjects) using Cox proportional-hazard model. The results of all five genome-wide analyses were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: The 13q21 locus showed genome-wide significant interaction with ELTS exposure (P=4.3x10-8 for rs7334050 within KLHL1 with consistent results across the five studies). Suggestive interactions (P<5x10-6 ) were found at three other loci: 20p12 (rs13037508 within MACROD2; P=4.9x10-7 ), 14q22 (rs7493885 near NIN; P=2.9x10-6 ) and 2p22 (rs232542 near CYP1B1; P=4.1x10-6 ). Functional annotations and the literature showed that the lead SNPs at these four loci influence DNA methylation in the blood and are located nearby CpG sites reported to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke components, which strongly support our findings. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We identified novel candidate genes interacting with ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood. These genes have plausible biological relevance related to tobacco smoke exposure. Further epigenetic and functional studies are needed to confirm these findings and to shed light on the underlying mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 177(3): 749-760, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317349

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Literature on the separate effects of physical activities (PA) on risk of breast cancer (BC) sub-types is heterogeneous. We investigated domain-specific associations between PA and BC risk by menopausal status and molecular subtype. METHODS: 1389 histologically confirmed invasive BC cases and 1712 controls from the MCC-Spain study were included (age: 20-85 years). Questionnaire information on PA at work, at home, and during leisure time, including recreational PA and sedentary time, and data on reproductive history, anthropometry, family history of BC, diet, and lifestyles were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Information on the expression of oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and HER2 receptors was available for > 95% of the cases. Mixed-effects multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) of BC sub-types. RESULTS: Occupational PA (OPA) intensity was associated with higher BC risk. Associations were stronger for pre-menopausal (ORactive/very active vs. sedentary job 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22, 2.91) and ER+/PR+, HER2- tumours (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.28, 2.53). Sedentary time was associated with higher risk of post-menopausal BC (OR6-9 vs. <3 h/day 1.69; 95% CI 1.22, 2.32). Moderate-to-high-intensity household (HPA) and recreational PA (RPA) were inversely associated with BC occurrence in pre- and post-menopausal women, with estimated 14-33% lower risks (P for trend < 0.001) above 1000 MET·min/week. CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of HPA and RPA were associated with lower risk of BC, with heterogeneity by molecular type, whereas sitting time was a consistent independent risk factor of BC risk. The positive association found for OPA with ER+/PR+ BC deserves further investigation.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10847, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350458

RESUMO

Antibodies to Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (SGG) have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Because SGG may correlate with impaired gut epithelia, we assessed the association of antibodies to bacterial flagellin C (FliC), a measure potentially related to this impairment, with CRC and the CRC-specific interaction with antibodies to SGG proteins. Antibodies to FliC and SGG pilus proteins Gallo2178 and Gallo2179 were measured in two independent studies, a combined study from Nijmegen and Detroit (93 CRC cases, 74 controls) and a replication data set including 576 cases and 576 controls from the Spanish multicenter multicase-control study (MCC-Spain). Logistic regression was applied to assess whether antibodies to FliC were associated with CRC and modified the association of antibodies to SGG proteins with CRC. Antibodies to FliC were associated with those to SGG Gallo2178 among CRC cases, resulting in an interaction in the association of antibodies to Gallo2178 with CRC (p = 0.007). This association was only present among individuals with high antibody responses to FliC (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.45-4.06). In conclusion, our findings suggest that colorectal tumorigenesis could be accompanied by an impaired integrity of the epithelium that could result in associated increased antibody responses to bacterial proteins.

8.
Environ Int ; 131: 104988, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swimming in pools is a healthy activity that entails exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs), some of which are irritant and genotoxic. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated exposure to DBPs during swimming in a chlorinated pool and the association with short-term changes in genotoxicity and lung epithelium permeability biomarkers. METHODS: Non-smoker adults (N = 116) swimming 40 min in an indoor pool were included. We measured a range of biomarkers before and at different times after swimming: trihalomethanes (THMs) in exhaled breath (5 min), trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in urine (30 min), micronuclei in lymphocytes (1 h), serum club cell protein (CC16) (1 h), urine mutagenicity (2 h) and micronuclei in reticulocytes (4 days in a subset, N = 19). Several DBPs in water and trichloramine in air were measured, and physical activity was extensively assessed. We estimated interactions with polymorphisms in genes related to DBP metabolism. RESULTS: Median level of chloroform, brominated and total THMs in water was 37.3, 9.5 and 48.5, µg/L, respectively, and trichloramine in air was 472.6 µg/m3. Median exhaled chloroform, brominated and total THMs increased after swimming by 10.9, 2.6 and 13.4, µg/m3, respectively. Creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA increased by 3.1 µmol/mol. Micronuclei in lymphocytes and reticulocytes, urine mutagenicity and serum CC16 levels remained unchanged after swimming. Spearman correlation coefficients showed no association between DBP exposure and micronuclei in lymphocytes, urine mutagenicity and CC16. Moderate associations were observed for micronuclei in reticulocytes and DBP exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The unchanged levels of the short-term effect biomarkers after swimming and null associations with personal estimates of exposure to DBPs suggest no measurable effect on genotoxicity in lymphocytes, urine mutagenicity and lung epithelium permeability at the observed exposure levels. The moderate associations with micronuclei in reticulocytes require cautious interpretation given the reduced sample size.

9.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234427

RESUMO

Inflammation and antioxidant capacity have been associated with colorectal and breast cancer. We computed the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), and the total dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and associated them with colorectal and breast cancer risk in the population-based multi case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain). We included 1852 colorectal cancer and 1567 breast cancer cases, and 3447 and 1486 population controls, respectively. DII score and NEAC were derived using data from a semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for energy-adjusted DII (E-DII), and a score combining E-DII and NEAC. E-DII was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.93, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:1.60-2.32; p-trend: <0.001); this increase was observed for both colon and rectal cancer. Less pronounced increased risks were observed for breast cancer (OR = 1.22, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:0.99-1.52, p-trend: >0.10). The combined score of high E-DII scores and low antioxidant values were associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.48, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI: 1.26-1.74; p-trend: <0.001), but not breast cancer. This study provides evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk while findings for breast cancer were less consistent.

10.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 61: 79-88, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In contrast to the recognized role of Helicobacter pylori in the etiology of non-cardia gastric cancer (GC), there is still insufficient epidemiological evidence for the involvement of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in gastric carcinogenesis. We aimed to evaluate the relation of antibody profile and antibody reactivity intensity against four individual EBV proteins to GC risk. METHODS: We used information from 281 GC cases and 2071 age and sex frequency matched controls recruited in the frame of the MCC-Spain multicase-control study, between 2008 and 2013. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and environmental factors were assessed in face-to-face interviews. Antibody responses to four EBV proteins (EBNA-1, ZEBRA, EA-D, and VCA-p18) were analyzed by multiplex serology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by using logistic regression mixed models to evaluate the association of seropositivity and antibody reactivity against EBV proteins with GC, adjusting for GC risk factors. Stratified analyses by tumor location (cardia vs. non-cardia) and morphology (intestinal vs. diffuse) were done. RESULTS: Among controls, seropositivity for EA-D, ZEBRA, EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was 85%, 91%, 97% and 99%, respectively. Even though seropositivity for none of the studied proteins was associated with a higher GC risk, increasing antibody reactivity against EBNA-1 and VCA-p18 was associated with higher OR of GC. This association was present for cardia and non-cardia cancer cases, and for intestinal and diffuse types. CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that EBV may play a role in GC etiology, and highlight the importance of evaluating specific antibodies and the dose-response relations when studying widespread infections.

11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8818, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217483

RESUMO

We aim to investigate to what extent a set of immune markers mediate the association between air pollution and adult-onset asthma. We considered long-term exposure to multiple air pollution markers and a panel of 13 immune markers in peripheral blood samples collected from 140 adult cases and 199 controls using a nested-case control design. We tested associations between air pollutants and immune markers and adult-onset asthma using mixed-effects (logistic) regression models, adjusted for confounding variables. In order to evaluate a possible mediating effect of the full set of immune markers, we modelled the relationship between asthma and air pollution with a partial least square path model. We observed a strong positive association of IL-1RA [OR 1.37; 95% CI (1.09, 1.73)] with adult-onset asthma. Univariate models did not yield any association between air pollution and immune markers. However, mediation analyses indicated that 15% of the effect of air pollution on risk of adult-onset asthma was mediated through the immune system when considering all immune markers as a latent variable (path coefficient (ß) = 0.09; 95% CI: (-0.02, 0.20)). This effect appeared to be stronger for allergic asthma (22%; ß = 0.12; 95% CI: (-0.03, 0.27)) and overweight subjects (27%; ß = 0.19; 95% CI: (-0.004, 0.38)). Our results provides supportive evidence for a mediating effect of the immune system in the association between air pollution and adult-onset asthma.

12.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

13.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 33(3): 263-267, mayo-jun. 2019. tab, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-3112

RESUMO

Objective: Until 2016, around 3 million persons had limited access to health care in Greece due to the economic crisis. We describe a massive solidarity movement of community clinics and pharmacies in Greece. Method: We conducted a survey in 2014-15 and describe the characteristics of community clinics and pharmacies spontaneously established all over Greece after 2008. Results: A characteristic of the 92 active solidarity clinics is autonomous collective functioning, free services, and funding from non-governmental sources. The largest clinics examined more than 500 uninsured or partly insured patients per month. Clinics covered a wide range of clinical and preventive services. Funding, availability of drugs, vaccines, medical material and their legal status were the main problems identified. The solidarity movement involved thousands of health professionals covering essential population needs. Conclusions: The community outpatient clinics were an outstanding example of solidarity and temporarily alleviated the health needs of a large part of the population


Objetivo: Hasta 2016, alrededor de 3 millones de personas tenían acceso limitado a la atención médica en Grecia debido a la crisis económica. Describimos un movimiento masivo de solidaridad de clínicas comunitarias y farmacias en Grecia. Métodos: Realizamos una encuesta en 2014-15 y describimos las características de las clínicas comunitarias y de las farmacias espontáneamente establecidas en toda Grecia después de 2008. Resultados: Una característica de las 92 clínicas solidarias activas es el funcionamiento colectivo autónomo, con servicios gratuitos y financiación de fuentes no gubernamentales. Las clínicas más grandes examinaron más de 500 pacientes no asegurados o parcialmente asegurados por mes. Las clínicas cubrieron una amplia gama de servicios clínicos y preventivos. La financiación, la disponibilidad de medicamentos, vacunas y material médico, y su estado legal, son los principales problemas identificados. El movimiento de solidaridad involucró a miles de profesionales de la salud que cubrieron las necesidades esenciales de la población. Conclusiones: Las clínicas ambulatorias comunitarias fueron un ejemplo de solidaridad y aliviaron temporalmente las necesidades de salud de una gran parte de la población

16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between dietary fat and fat subtype and breast cancer development. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study with 1181 cases of incident breast cancer, diagnosed between 2007 and 2012, and 1682 population controls frequency matched (by age, sex, and region) from the Spanish multicenter case-control study MCC-Spain. RESULTS: We found a significant protective effect in premenopausal women of total fat intake [OR 0.51 95% CI (0.31-0.86) highest versus lowest tertile], but no effect was observed in menopausal women [OR 1.15 95% CI (0.83-1.60)]. Analyzing by type of fat, this protective effect persisted only for the monounsaturated fatty acids [OR 0.51 95% CI (0.32-0.82)]. In contrast, other fatty acids did not have a significant effect. In addition, a protection against risk of breast cancer was found when polyunsaturated fats were "substituted" by monounsaturated, maintaining the same total fat intake [OR 0.68 95% CI (0.47-0.99)]. Finally, analyzing by breast cancer subtype, we found no effect, except in premenopausal women where intake of moderate [OR 0.52 95% CI (0.33-0.82)] and high monounsaturated fatty acids [OR 0.47 95% CI (0.27-0.82)] maintains a protective effect against ER/PR + tumors. In contrast, in menopausal women, a high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids was associated with higher risk of HER2 + tumors [OR 2.00 95% CI (0.97-4.13)]. CONCLUSION: Our study shows a differential effect of monounsaturated fatty acids according to menopausal status and breast cancer subtype.

17.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035601

RESUMO

Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between the dietary flavonoid intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. Investigating the relationship between the different classes of flavonoids and the histological types and origin of GC can be of interest to the research community. We used data from a population-based multi-case control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from 12 different regions of Spain. 2700 controls and 329 GC cases were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of flavonoid intakes and log2. Flavonoid intake was associated with a lower GC risk (ORlog2 = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.65-0.89; ORq4vsq1 = 0.60; 95%CI = 0.40-0.89; ptrend = 0.007). Inverse and statistically significant associations were observed with anthocyanidins, chalcones, dihydroflavonols and flavan-3-ols. The isoflavanoid intake was positively associated with higher cancer risk, but without reaching a statistical significance. In general, no differences were observed in the GC risk according to the location and histological type. The flavonoid intake seems to be a protective factor against GC within the MCC-study. This effect may vary depending on the flavonoid class but not by the histological type and location of the tumor. Broader studies with larger sample size and greater geographical variability are necessary.

18.
BMJ ; 365: l1613, 2019 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962194
19.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30813581

RESUMO

There are many different methods used to measure the degree of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD), limiting comparison and interpretation of their results. The concordance between different methodologies has been questioned and their evaluation recommended. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement among five indexes that measure adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern. The study population included healthy adults selected in the Multi-Case Control Spain (MCC-Spain) study recruited in 12 provinces. A total of 3640 controls were matched to cases by age and sex. To reach the aim, the following scores of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern were calculated: Mediterranean diet score (MDS), alternative Mediterranean diet (aMED), relative Mediterranean diet (rMED), dietary score (DS) and literature-based adherence score (LBAS). The relative frequency of subjects with a high level of adherence to a MD varied from 22% (aMED index) to 37.2% (DS index). Similarly, a high variability was observed for the prevalence of a low level of MD: from 24% (rMED) to 38.4% (aMED). The correlation among MDS, aMED and rMED indexes was moderate, except for MDS and aMED with a high coefficient of correlation 0.75 (95% CI 0.74⁻0.77). The Cohen's Kappa coefficient among indexes showed a moderate⁻fair concordance, except for MDS and aMED with a 0.56 (95% CI 0.55⁻0.59) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.66⁻0.68) using linear and quadratic weighting, respectively. The existing MD adherence indexes measured the same, although they were based on different constructing algorithms and varied in the food groups included, leading to a different classification of subjects. Therefore, concordance between these indexes was moderate or low.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919464

RESUMO

Low socioeconomic position (SEP) is a strong risk factor for incidence and premature mortality from several cancers. Our study aimed at quantifying the association between SEP and gastric cancer (GC) risk through an individual participant data meta-analysis within the "Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project". Educational level and household income were used as proxies for the SEP. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) across levels of education and household income by pooling study-specific ORs through random-effects meta-analytic models. The relative index of inequality (RII) was also computed. A total of 9,773 GC cases and 24,373 controls from 25 studies from Europe, Asia and America were included. The pooled OR for the highest compared to the lowest level of education was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.44-0.84), while the pooled RII was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.29-0.69). A strong inverse association was observed both for noncardia (OR 0.39, 95% CI, 0.22-0.70) and cardia GC (OR 0.47, 95% CI, 0.22-0.99). The relation was stronger among H. pylori negative subjects (RII 0.14, 95% CI, 0.04-0.48) as compared to H. pylori positive ones (RII 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.84), in the absence of a significant interaction (p = 0.28). The highest household income category showed a pooled OR of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.48-0.89), while the corresponding RII was 0.40 (95% CI, 0.22-0.72). Our collaborative pooled-analysis showed a strong inverse relationship between SEP indicators and GC risk. Our data call for public health interventions to reduce GC risk among the more vulnerable groups of the population.

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