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1.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e2100434, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506670

RESUMO

SCOPE: A causal relationship between circadian misalignment and microbiota dysbiosis has been discussed recently, due to their association to pathogenesis. Herein, the possible impact of pterostilbene (PSB) and resveratrol (RES) on the gut microbiota brought by chronic jet-lag in mice is investigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Dietary supplement of RES and PSB (0.25%) are given to 16 week-jetlagged mice to examine the effects on microbiota and physiological functions. Jetlag significantly induces weight gained that could be effectively prevented by PSB. Both supplements also retain oscillation patterns that found to be lost in jetlag induced (JLG) group, including serum biochemical parameters and gut microbiota. The results of beta diversity suggest the supplementations efficiently lead to distinct gut microbial composition as compared to JLG group. Besides, the supplementation forestalls some microbial elevation, such as Eubacterium ventriosum and Acetitomaculum. Growth of health beneficial bacteria like Blautia and Lachnospiraceae UCG-001 is facilitated and abundance of these bacteria could be correlated to oscillation of biochemical parameters. Result of KEGG indicates distinct effect brought by microbial re-shaping. CONCLUSION: The result suggests that supplementation of RES and PSB could potentially dampen some adverse effects of gut microbiota dysbiosis, and at the same time, re-composite and facilitate the growth of health beneficial microbiota.

2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443472

RESUMO

Feruloylacetone (FER) is a natural degradant of curcumin after heating, which structurally reserves some functional groups of curcumin. It is not as widely discussed as its original counterpart has been previously; and in this study, its anticancer efficacy is investigated. This study focuses on the suppressive effect of FER on colon cancer, as the efficacious effect of curcumin on this typical cancer type has been well evidenced. In addition, demethoxy-feruloylacetone (DFER) was applied to compare the effect that might be brought on by the structural differences of the methoxy group. It was revealed that both FER and DFER inhibited the proliferation of HCT116 cells, possibly via suppression of the phosphorylated mTOR/STAT3 pathway. Notably, FER could significantly repress both the STAT3 phosphorylation and protein levels. Furthermore, both samples showed capability of arresting HCT116 cells at the G2/M phase via the activation of p53/p21 and the upregulation of cyclin-B. In addition, ROS elevation and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were revealed, as indicated by p-atm elevation. The apoptotic rate rose to 36.9 and 32.2% after being treated by FER and DFER, respectively. In summary, both compounds exhibited an anticancer effect, and FER showed a greater proapoptotic effect, possibly due to the presence of the methoxy group on the aromatic ring.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estirenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Ciclina B1/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/agonistas , Fase G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fenol/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Estirenos/química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/agonistas
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10036-10057, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460268

RESUMO

Biological targeting or molecular targeting is the main strategy in drug development and disease prevention. However, the problem of "off-targets" cannot be neglected. Naturally derived drugs are preferred over synthetic compounds in pharmaceutical markets, and the main goals are high effectiveness, lower cost, and fewer side effects. Single-target drug binding may be the major cause of failure, as the pathogenesis of diseases is predominantly multifactorial. Naturally derived drugs are advantageous because they are expected to have multitarget effects, but not off-targets, in disease prevention or therapeutic actions. The capability of phytochemicals to modulate molecular signals in numerous diseases has been widely discussed. Among them, stilbenoids, especially resveratrol, have been well-studied, along with their potential molecular targets, including AMPK, Sirt1, NF-κB, PKC, Nrf2, and PPARs. The analogues of resveratrol, pterostilbene, and hydroxylated-pterostilbene may have similar, if not more, potential biological targeting effects compared with their original counterpart. Furthermore, new targets that have been discussed in recent studies are reviewed in this paper.


Assuntos
Estilbenos , Resveratrol
4.
Food Funct ; 11(9): 7545-7560, 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815965

RESUMO

NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is a multifactorial liver disease related to multiple causes or unhealthy conditions, including obesity and chronic inflammation. The accumulation of excess triglycerides, called steatosis, is known as a hallmark of an imbalance between the rates of hepatic fatty acid uptake/synthesis and oxidation/export. Furthermore, occurrence of NAFLD may lead to a cocktail of disease consequences caused by the altered metabolism of glucose, lipids, and lipoproteins, for instance, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and even hepatocarcinogenesis. Due to the complexity of the occurrence of NAFLD, a multi-targeting strategy is highly recommended to effectively address the issue and combat the causal loop. Ethanol extracts of legumes are popular supplements due to their richness and diversity in phytochemicals, especially isoflavones and anthocyanins. Although many of them have been reported to have efficacy in the treatment of different metabolic syndromes and obesity, there have not been many studies on them as a supplemental mixture. In this study, the alleviative effects of selected legume ethanol extracts (CrE) on high-fat-diet- and fructose-induced obesity, liver steatosis, and hyperglycemia are discussed. As revealed by the findings, CrE not only ameliorated obesity in terms of weight gained and enlargement of adipose tissue, but also significantly reduced the incidence of steatosis via phosphorylation of AMPK, resulting in inhibition of the downstream SREBP-1c/FAS pathway and an increase in an indicator of ß-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a, CPT1A). Furthermore, CrE dramatically alleviated inflammatory responses, including both plasma and hepatic TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels. CrE also had attenuating effects on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance and significantly reduced the fasting glucose level, fasting insulin level, and plasma leptin, and it exhibited positive effects in the Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). At the molecular level, CrE could activate the PI3K/Akt/Glut2 pathway, which indicated an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol extracts of legumes could be potential supplements for metabolic syndromes, and their efficacy and effectiveness might facilitate the multi-targeting strategy required to mitigate NAFLD.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Frutose/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
J Food Drug Anal ; 28(1): 14-37, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883602

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, phytochemicals widely present in edible plants have exhibited compelling positive biological impact on human health, including treating some cancers. In some cases, metabolites and artificially modified products of these natural compounds have shown better chemopreventive effects than their natural counterparts. Along with direct chemopreventive strategies using phytochemicals to treat cancer by leading to cell cycle arrest, autophagy and apoptosis, natural compounds have been shown to reverse adverse epigenetic regulation, including altering DNA methylation and histone modification, modulating miRNA expression, promoting expression of phase II enzyme for detoxification, balancing inflammation responses, recovering circadian rhythm from misalignment, and modifying gut microbiota. These have all become part of indirect but effective and novel strategies in cancer prevention using phytochemicals. Therefore, in this review, we are going to summarize some findings of phytochemicals in cancer chemoprevention via several distinct strategies, both to highlight promising treatments and to encourage new ideas for future studies.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos , Quimioprevenção , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Anticarcinógenos/uso terapêutico , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13605-13616, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735033

RESUMO

Obesity is a global public health issue. Thermogenesis is a novel way to promote anti-obesity by consuming energy as heat rather than storing it as triacylglycerols. The browning program allows mitochondrial biosynthesis and thermogenesis-related gene expression to occur in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, which results in the formation of beige adipose tissue. Some phytochemicals have exerted the capability to activate the fat browning process. Resveratrol and oxyresveratrol are both natural stilbenoids that have been reported for their anti-obesity efficacy. However, the comparison between the two as they relate to thermogenesis as well as the differences in their underlying mechanisms are still not widely discussed. Our result reveals that both resveratrol and oxyresveratrol could elevate the expression of thermogenesis-related protein expression including UCP1 (uncoupling protein-1) and PRDM (PR domain containing 16) via Sirt1/PGC-1α (sirtuin 1/peroxisome proliferation gamma coactivator-1 α) activation. However, it is suggested that the transcriptional factor PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor α) was activated by resveratrol (1.38 ± 0.07 fold) but not oxyresveratrol. Conversely, C/EBPß (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ß) was upregulated by oxyresveratrol (1.58 ± 0.05 fold) but not by resveratrol. On the other hand, CPT1 (carnitine palmitoyltransferase) was found to be significantly activated at lower concentrations of oxyresveratrol up to 1.89 ± 0.04 fold as compared to high-fat diet, and it could be a leading reason for UCP1 activation. Lastly, adiponectin expression was promoted in all experimental groups (1.53 ± 0.08 and 1.49 ± 0.11-fold in resveratrol (RES) and high oxyresveratrol (HOXY), respectively), which could be an activator for mitochondrial biosynthesis and UCP1 expression.


Assuntos
Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/genética , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Termogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteína Desacopladora 1/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
7.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(20): e1900514, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368236

RESUMO

SCOPE: A gut-microbiota-dependent metabolite of L-carnitine, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), has been recently discovered as an independent and dose-dependent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to investigate the effects of pterostilbene on reducing TMAO formation and on decreasing vascular inflammation in carnitine-feeding mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice are treated with 1.3% carnitine in drinking water with or without pterostilbene supplementation. Using LC-MS/MS, the result shows that mice treated with 1.3% carnitine only significantly increased the plasma TMAO and pterostilbene supplementation group can reverse it. Additionally, pterostilbene decreases hepatic flavin monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) mRNA levels compared to carnitine only group. It appears that pterostilbene can alter host physiology and create an intestinal microenvironment favorable for certain gut microbiota. Gut microbiota analysis reveals that pterostilbene increases the abundance of Bacteroides. Further, pterostilbene decreases mRNA levels of vascular inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that amelioration of carnitine-induced vascular inflammation after consumption of pterostilbene is partially mediated via modulation of gut microbiota composition and hepatic enzyme FMO3 gene expression.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Vasculite/prevenção & controle , Animais , Carnitina/toxicidade , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Oxirredução , Oxigenases/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10321-10329, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419115

RESUMO

Pterostilbene (PTS) is a phenolic compound with diverse pharmacologic activities. However, its potential for inhibiting obesity-related colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. Our study evaluated the mechanism of inhibitory effects of PTS on adipocyte conditioned-medium (aCM)-induced malignant transformation in HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The results demonstrated that PTS could downregulate the expression of aCM-induced fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) and prometastatic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2), MMP9, and extracellular tumor necrosis factor α via inhibiting aCM-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), ß-catenin, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ). Moreover, PTS can suppress aCM-stimulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (Akt), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2 (JNK 1/2) signaling pathways activation that are upstream of NF-κB, ß-catenin, and PPAR-γ. Therefore, we suggest that PTS could alleviate adiposity-induced metastasis in CRC via inhibiting cell migration through downregulating FABP5 gene expression.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/fisiopatologia , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/química , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7869-7879, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287296

RESUMO

Carnitine, a dietary quaternary amine mainly from red meat, is metabolized to trimethylamine (TMA) by gut microbiota and subsequently oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by host hepatic enzymes, flavin monooxygenases (FMOs). The objective of this study aims to investigate the effects of flavonoids from oolong tea and citrus peels on reducing TMAO formation and protecting vascular inflammation in carnitine-feeding mice. The results showed that mice treated with 1.3% carnitine in drinking water significantly (p < 0.05) increased the plasma levels of TMAO compared to control group, whereas the plasma TMAO was remarkedly reduced by flavonoids used. Meanwhile, these dietary phenolic compounds significantly (p < 0.05) decreased hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels compared to carnitine only group. Additionally, oolong tea extract decreased mRNA levels of vascular inflammatory markers such as tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Polymethoxyflavones significantly lowered the expression of VCAM-1 and showed a decreasing trend in TNF-α and E-selectin mRNA expression compared to the carnitine group. Genus-level analysis of the gut microbiota in the cecum showed that these dietary phenolic compounds induced an increase in the relative abundances of Bacteroides. Oolong tea extract-treated group up-regulated Lactobacillus genus, compared to the carnitine only group. Administration of polymethoxyflavones increased Akkermansia in mice.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Carnitina/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonas/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(8)2018 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060570

RESUMO

Macrophages can polarize into two different states (M1 and M2), which play contrasting roles during pathogenesis or tissue damage. M1 polarized macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators resulting in inflammation, while M2 macrophages have an anti-inflammatory effect. Secretion of appropriate cytokines and chemokines from macrophages can lead to the modification of the microenvironment for bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Increasing evidence suggests that polarized macrophages are pivotal for disease progression, and the regulation of macrophage polarization may provide a new approach in therapeutic treatment of inflammation-related diseases, including cancer, obesity and metabolic diseases, fibrosis in organs, brain damage and neuron injuries, and colorectal disease. Polarized macrophages affect the microenvironment by secreting cytokines and chemokines while cytokines or mediators that are produced by resident cells or tissues may also influence macrophages behavior. The interplay of macrophages and other cells can affect disease progression, and therefore, understanding the activation of macrophages and the interaction between polarized macrophages and disease progression is imperative prior to taking therapeutic or preventive actions. Manipulation of macrophages can be an entry point for disease improvement, but the mechanism and potential must be understood. In this review, some advanced studies regarding the role of macrophages in different diseases, potential mechanisms involved, and intervention of drugs or phytochemicals, which are effective on macrophage polarization, will be discussed.


Assuntos
Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Polaridade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico
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