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Geochim Cosmochim Acta ; 277: 87-110, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606478


We conducted experiments at high pressure (P) and temperature (T) to measure hydrogen solubility in plagioclase (Pl) with a range of compositions (An15 to An94). Experiments were run at 700-850 °C, 0.5 GPa, and f O 2 close to either the Ni-NiO (NNO) or iron-wüstite (IW) oxygen buffers. Experiments at 700 °C on An15 (containing 0.03 wt% FeO) reveal no dependence of H solubility on f O 2 between IW and NNO, but experiments at 800-850 °C on other compositions (with 0.3-0.5 wt% FeO) demonstrate that H solubility is enhanced by a factor of ~2 to 3 at IW compared to NNO, consistent with previous experiments by Yang (2012a) on An58. By analogy with synthetic hydrogen feldspar (HAlSi3O8), we infer that the predominant mechanism for H incorporation in Pl is through bonding to O atoms adjacent to M-site vacancies, and we propose likely O sites for H incorporation based on M-O bond lengths in anhydrous Pl structures. Increased uptake of structurally bound H at low f O 2 is explained by the formation of defect associates resulting from the reduction of Fe3+ in tetrahedral sites to Fe2+, allowing additional H to be incorporated in adjacent M-site vacancies. This mechanism counteracts the expected effect of water fugacity on H solubility. We also speculate on possible substitutions of H on tetrahedral vacancies, as well as coupled H-F substitution. Enhanced incorporation of H in Pl at low f O 2 may have implications for estimating the water content of the lunar magma ocean. However, mechanisms unrelated to low f O 2 are needed to explain high H contents in terrestrial Pl xenocrysts, such as those found in basalts from the Basin and Range.

Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 376(2132)2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275164


To investigate the role of grain boundary pinning and the mechanisms by which phase mixing occurs during deformation of polymineralic rocks, we conducted high-strain torsion experiments on samples consisting of olivine plus 30 vol% ferropericlase. Experiments were performed in a gas-medium deformation apparatus at 1524 K and 300 MPa. Samples were deformed to outer radius shear strains of up to γ(R) = 14.1. The value of the stress exponent and the small grain sizes of our samples indicate that our two-phase material deformed by dislocation-accommodated grain boundary sliding. In samples deformed to 1 < γ < 7, elongated clusters of ferropericlase grains form thin layers in the olivine matrix, and small grains of ferropericlase appear at olivine grain boundaries and three- and four-grain junctions. By γ ≈ 14, a well-distributed mixture of small ferropericlase grains among the olivine grains developed. Microstructures exhibit similarities to both mechanical and chemical models proposed to describe the processes leading to phase mixing. Our results provide evidence for grain size reduction during phase mixing that results in a grain size significantly smaller than the value predicted by the single-phase recrystallization piezometer for olivine. Thus, phase mixing provides a mechanism for the persistent weakening of rocks that is important for developing and maintaining shear zones necessary for plate tectonics.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Earth dynamics and the development of plate tectonics'.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(41): 12616-20, 2015 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26417107


Chemical differentiation of rocky planets occurs by melt segregation away from the region of melting. The mechanics of this process, however, are complex and incompletely understood. In partially molten rocks undergoing shear deformation, melt pockets between grains align coherently in the stress field; it has been hypothesized that this anisotropy in microstructure creates an anisotropy in the viscosity of the aggregate. With the inclusion of anisotropic viscosity, continuum, two-phase-flow models reproduce the emergence and angle of melt-enriched bands that form in laboratory experiments. In the same theoretical context, these models also predict sample-scale melt migration due to a gradient in shear stress. Under torsional deformation, melt is expected to segregate radially inward. Here we present torsional deformation experiments on partially molten rocks that test this prediction. Microstructural analyses of the distribution of melt and solid reveal a radial gradient in melt fraction, with more melt toward the center of the cylinder. The extent of this radial melt segregation grows with progressive strain, consistent with theory. The agreement between theoretical prediction and experimental observation provides a validation of this theory.

Nature ; 522(7555): 202-6, 2015 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26062512


The relative motion of lithospheric plates and underlying mantle produces localized deformation near the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The transition from rheologically stronger lithosphere to weaker asthenosphere may result from a small amount of melt or water in the asthenosphere, reducing viscosity. Either possibility may explain the seismic and electrical anomalies that extend to a depth of about 200 kilometres. However, the effect of melt on the physical properties of deformed materials at upper-mantle conditions remains poorly constrained. Here we present electrical anisotropy measurements at high temperatures and quasi-hydrostatic pressures of about three gigapascals on previously deformed olivine aggregates and sheared partially molten rocks. For all samples, electrical conductivity is highest when parallel to the direction of prior deformation. The conductivity of highly sheared olivine samples is ten times greater in the shear direction than for undeformed samples. At temperatures above 900 degrees Celsius, a deformed solid matrix with nearly isotropic melt distribution has an electrical anisotropy factor less than five. To obtain higher electrical anisotropy (up to a factor of 100), we propose an experimentally based model in which layers of sheared olivine are alternated with layers of sheared olivine plus MORB or of pure melt. Conductivities are up to 100 times greater in the shear direction than when perpendicular to the shear direction and reproduce stress-driven alignment of the melt. Our experimental results and the model reproduce mantle conductivity-depth profiles for melt-bearing geological contexts. The field data are best fitted by an electrically anisotropic asthenosphere overlain by an isotropic, high-conductivity lowermost lithosphere. The high conductivity could arise from partial melting associated with localized deformation resulting from differential plate velocities relative to the mantle, with subsequent upward melt percolation from the asthenosphere.

Nature ; 427(6976): 699-703, 2004 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14973476


The concentrations and locations of elements that strongly partition into the fluid phase in rocks provide essential constraints on geochemical and geodynamical processes in Earth's interior. A fundamental question remains, however, as to where these incompatible elements reside before formation of the fluid phase. Here we show that partitioning of calcium between the grain interiors and grain boundaries of olivine in natural and synthetic olivine-rich aggregates follows a thermodynamic model for equilibrium grain-boundary segregation. The model predicts that grain boundaries can be the primary storage sites for elements with large ionic radius--that is, incompatible elements in the Earth's mantle. This observation provides a mechanism for the selective extraction of these elements and gives a framework for interpreting geochemical signatures in mantle rocks.