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1.
Mol Ther ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628051

RESUMO

ß-globin lentiviral vectors (ß-LV) have faced challenges in clinical translation for gene therapy of sickle cell disease (SCD) due to low titer and sub-optimal gene transfer to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). To overcome the challenge of preserving efficacious expression while increasing vector performance, we used published genomic and epigenomic data available through ENCODE to redefine enhancer element boundaries of the ß-globin locus control region (LCR) to construct novel ENCODE core sequences. These novel LCR elements were used to design a ß-LV of reduced proviral length, termed CoreGA-AS3-FB, produced at higher titers and possessing superior gene transfer to HSPCs when compared to the full-length parental ß-LV at equal MOI. At low vector copy number, vectors containing the ENCODE core sequences were capable of reversing the sickle phenotype in a mouse model of SCD. These studies provide a ß-LV that will be beneficial for gene therapy of SCD by significantly reducing the cost of vector production and extending the vector supply.

2.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(4): 542-557.e9, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495780

RESUMO

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are potent immune cells for targeting cancer; however, their clinical application has been hindered by their low numbers in cancer patients. Here, we developed a proof-of-concept for hematopoietic stem cell-engineered iNKT (HSC-iNKT) cell therapy with the potential to provide therapeutic levels of iNKT cells for a patient's lifetime. Using a human HSC engrafted mouse model and a human iNKT TCR gene engineering approach, we demonstrated the efficient and long-term generation of HSC-iNKT cells in vivo. These HSC-iNKT cells closely resembled endogenous human iNKT cells, could deploy multiple mechanisms to attack tumor cells, and effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo in multiple human tumor xenograft mouse models. Preclinical safety studies showed no toxicity or tumorigenicity of the HSC-iNKT cell therapy. Collectively, these results demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and cancer therapy potential of the proposed HSC-iNKT cell therapy and laid a foundation for future clinical development.

3.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

4.
Mol Ther ; 27(8): 1389-1406, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178391

RESUMO

Site-specific correction of a point mutation causing a monogenic disease in autologous hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can be used as a treatment of inherited disorders of the blood cells. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an ideal model to investigate the potential use of gene editing to transvert a single point mutation at the ß-globin locus (HBB). We compared the activity of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and CRISPR/Cas9 for editing, and homologous donor templates delivered as single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs), adeno-associated virus serotype 6 (AAV6), integrase-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs), and adenovirus 5/35 serotype (Ad5/35) to transvert the base pair responsible for SCD in HBB in primary human CD34+ HSPCs. We found that the ZFNs and Cas9 directed similar frequencies of nuclease activity. In vitro, AAV6 led to the highest frequencies of homology-directed repair (HDR), but levels of base pair transversions were significantly reduced when analyzing cells in vivo in immunodeficient mouse xenografts, with similar frequencies achieved with either AAV6 or ssODNs. AAV6 also caused significant impairment of colony-forming progenitors and human cell engraftment. Gene correction in engrafting hematopoietic stem cells may be limited by the capacity of the cells to mediate HDR, suggesting additional manipulations may be needed for high-efficiency gene correction in HSPCs.

5.
Cytotherapy ; 21(3): 358-366, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745225

RESUMO

Gene modification of hematopoietic stem cells is increasingly becoming popular as a therapeutic approach, given the recent approvals and the number of new applications for clinical trials targeting monogenetic and immunodeficiency disorders. Technological advances in stem cell selection, culture, transduction and gene editing now allow for efficient ex vivo genetic manipulation of stem cells. Gene-addition techniques using viral vectors (mainly retrovirus- and lentivirus-based) and gene editing using various targeted nuclease platforms (e.g., Zinc finger, TALEN and Crispr/Cas9) are being applied to the treatment of multiple genetic and immunodeficiency disorders. Herein, the current state of the art in manufacturing and critical assays that are required for ex vivo manipulation of stem cells are addressed. Important quality control and safety assays that need to be planned early in the process development phase of these products for regulatory approval are also highlighted.

6.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 52, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755264

RESUMO

The original article [1] contains an error in the legend of Fig 5 whereby the descriptions for panels 5d and 5e are incorrect; as such, the corrected legend can be viewed below with its respective figure images.

7.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was instituted in California in 2010. In the ensuing 6.5 years, 3 252 156 infants in the state had DNA from dried blood spots assayed for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Abnormal TREC results were followed-up with liquid blood testing for T-cell abnormalities. We report the performance of the SCID screening program and the outcomes of infants who were identified. METHODS: Data that were reviewed and analyzed included demographics, nursery summaries, TREC and lymphocyte flow-cytometry values, and available follow-up, including clinical and genetic diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Infants with clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) were successfully identified at a rate of 1 in 15 300 births. Of these, 50 cases of SCID, or 1 in 65 000 births (95% confidence interval 1 in 51 000-1 in 90 000) were found. Prompt treatment led to 94% survival. Infants with non-SCID TCL were also identified, diagnosed and managed, including 4 with complete DiGeorge syndrome who received thymus transplants. Although no cases of typical SCID are known to have been missed, 2 infants with delayed-onset leaky SCID had normal neonatal TREC screens but came to clinical attention at 7 and 23 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based TREC testing, although unable to detect immune defects in which T cells are present at birth, is effective for identifying SCID and clinically important TCL with high sensitivity and specificity. The experience in California supports the rapid, widespread adoption of SCID newborn screening.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia
8.
Cell Stem Cell ; 24(2): 309-317.e7, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639036

RESUMO

Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a devastating autoimmune disease caused by mutations in FoxP3, a transcription factor required for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) can be curative, but suitable donors are often unavailable. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for autologous HSCT and gene therapy utilizing a lentiviral vector (LV) to restore FoxP3 expression under the control of endogenous human FOXP3 regulatory elements. Both murine transplant models and humanized mice engrafted with LV-modified HSCs show high levels of LV expression selective for CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells. LV transduction of scurfy (FoxP3mut) HSCs restores development of functional FoxP3+ Treg cells that suppress T cell proliferation in vitro and rescue the scurfy autoimmune phenotype in vivo. These findings demonstrate preclinical efficacy for the treatment of IPEX patients by autologous HSC transplant and may provide valuable insights into new cell therapies for autoimmunity.

10.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409823

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To improve persistence of adoptively transferred T cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells and durable clinical responses, we designed a clinical trial to transplant genetically-modified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) together with adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of T cells both engineered to express an NY-ESO-1 TCR. Here, we report the preclinical studies performed to enable an investigational new drug (IND) application. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: HSCs transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing NY-ESO-1 TCR and the PET reporter/suicide gene HSV1-sr39TK and T cells transduced with a retroviral vector expressing NY-ESO-1 TCR were co-administered to myelodepleted HLA-A2/Kb mice within a formal GLP-compliant study to demonstrate safety, persistence and HSC differentiation into all blood lineages. Non-GLP experiments included assessment of transgene immunogenicity and in vitro viral insertion safety studies. Furthermore, GMP-compliant cell production qualification runs were performed to establish the manufacturing protocols for clinical use. RESULTS: TCR genetically-modified and ex vivo cultured HSCs differentiated into all blood subsets in vivo after HSC transplantation, and co-administration of TCR-transduced T cells did not result in increased toxicity. The expression of NY-ESO-1 TCR and sr39TK transgenes did not have a detrimental effect on gene-modified HSCs differentiation to all blood cell lineages. There was no evidence of genotoxicity induced by the lentiviral vector. GMP batches of clinical-grade transgenic cells produced during qualification runs had adequate stability and functionality. CONCLUSION: Co-administration of HSCs and T cells expressing an NY-ESO-1 TCR is safe in preclinical models. The results presented in this manuscript led to the U.S. FDA approval of IND 17471.

11.
Stem Cells ; 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372555

RESUMO

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas9)-mediated gene editing of human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) is a promising strategy for the treatment of genetic blood diseases through site-specific correction of identified causal mutations. However, clinical translation is hindered by low ratio of precise gene modification using the corrective donor template (homology-directed repair, HDR) to gene disruption (nonhomologous end joining, NHEJ) in hHSCs. By using a modified version of Cas9 with reduced nuclease activity in G1 phase of cell cycle when HDR cannot occur, and transiently increasing the proportion of cells in HDR-preferred phases (S/G2), we achieved a four-fold improvement in HDR/NHEJ ratio over the control condition in vitro, and a significant improvement after xenotransplantation of edited hHSCs into immunodeficient mice. This strategy for improving gene editing outcomes in hHSCs has important implications for the field of gene therapy, and can be applied to diseases where increased HDR/NHEJ ratio is critical for therapeutic success. Stem Cells 2018.

12.
Genome Med ; 10(1): 70, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutation of the IL2RG gene results in a form of severe combined immune deficiency (SCID-X1), which has been treated successfully with hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. SCID-X1 gene therapy results in reconstitution of the previously lacking T cell compartment, allowing analysis of the roles of T cell immunity in humans by comparing before and after gene correction. METHODS: Here we interrogate T cell reconstitution using four forms of high throughput analysis. (1) Estimation of the numbers of transduced progenitor cells by monitoring unique positions of integration of the therapeutic gene transfer vector. (2) Estimation of T cell population structure by sequencing of the recombined T cell receptor (TCR) beta locus. (3) Metagenomic analysis of microbial populations in oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, and gut samples. (4) Metagenomic analysis of viral populations in gut samples. RESULTS: Comparison of progenitor and mature T cell populations allowed estimation of a minimum number of cell divisions needed to generate the observed populations. Analysis of microbial populations showed the effects of immune reconstitution, including normalization of gut microbiota and clearance of viral infections. Metagenomic analysis revealed enrichment of genes for antibiotic resistance in gene-corrected subjects relative to healthy controls, likely a result of higher healthcare exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-omic approach enables the characterization of multiple effects of SCID-X1 gene therapy, including T cell repertoire reconstitution, estimation of numbers of cell divisions between progenitors and daughter T cells, normalization of the microbiome, clearance of microbial pathogens, and modulations in antibiotic resistance gene levels. Together, these results quantify several aspects of the long-term efficacy of gene therapy for SCID-X1. This study includes data from ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT01410019, NCT01175239, and NCT01129544.

13.
Gene Ther ; 25(7): 454-472, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190607

RESUMO

Lentiviral vector mobilization following HIV-1 infection of vector-transduced cells poses biosafety risks to vector-treated patients and their communities. The self-inactivating (SIN) vector design has reduced, however, not abolished mobilization of integrated vector genomes. Furthermore, an earlier study demonstrated the ability of the major product of reverse transcription, a circular SIN HIV-1 vector comprising a single- long terminal repeat (LTR) to support production of high vector titers. Here, we demonstrate that configuring the internal vector expression cassette in opposite orientation to the LTRs abolishes mobilization of SIN vectors. This additional SIN mechanism is in part premised on induction of host PKR response to double-stranded RNAs comprised of mRNAs transcribed from cryptic transcription initiation sites around 3'SIN-LTR's and the vector internal promoter. As anticipated, PKR response following transfection of opposite orientation vectors, negatively affects their titers. Importantly, shRNA-mediated knockdown of PKR rendered titers of SIN HIV-1 vectors comprising opposite orientation expression cassettes comparable to titers of conventional SIN vectors. High-titer vectors carrying an expression cassette in opposite orientation to the LTRs efficiently delivered and maintained high levels of transgene expression in mouse livers. This study establishes opposite orientation expression cassettes as an additional PKR-dependent SIN mechanism that abolishes vector mobilization from integrated and episomal SIN lentiviral vectors.

15.
Hum Gene Ther ; 29(10): 1153-1166, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198339

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder caused by a single amino acid substitution in the ß-globin chain of hemoglobin. Gene therapy is a promising therapeutic alternative, particularly in patients lacking an allogeneic bone marrow (BM) donor. One of the major challenges for an effective gene therapy approach is the design of an efficient vector that combines high-level and long-term ß-globin expression with high infectivity in primary CD34+ cells. Two lentiviral vectors carrying an anti-sickling ß-globin transgene (AS3) were directly compared: the Lenti/ßAS3-FB, and Globe-AS3 with and without the FB insulator. The comparison was performed initially in human BM CD34+ cells derived from SCD patients in an in vitro model of erythroid differentiation. Additionally, the comparison was carried out in two in vivo models: First, an NOD SCID gamma mouse model was used to compare transduction efficiency and ß-globin expression in human BM CD34+ cells after transplant. Second, a sickle mouse model was used to analyze ß-globin expression produced from the vectors tested, as well as hematologic correction of the sickle phenotype. While minor differences were found in the vectors in the in vitro study (2.4-fold higher vector copy number in CD34+ cells when using Globe-AS3), no differences were noted in the overall correction of the SCD phenotype in the in vivo mouse model. This study provides a comprehensive in vitro and in vivo analysis of two globin lentiviral vectors, which is useful for determining the optimal candidate for SCD gene therapy.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194989

RESUMO

Inherited defects in adenosine deaminase (ADA) cause a subtype of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) known as severe combined immune deficiency caused by adenosine deaminase defects (ADA-SCID). Most affected infants can receive a diagnosis while still asymptomatic by using an SCID newborn screening test, allowing early initiation of therapy. We review the evidence currently available and propose a consensus management strategy. In addition to treatment of the immune deficiency seen in patients with ADA-SCID, patients should be followed for specific noninfectious respiratory, neurological, and biochemical complications associated with ADA deficiency. All patients should initially receive enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), followed by definitive treatment with either of 2 equal first-line options. If an HLA-matched sibling donor or HLA-matched family donor is available, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should be pursued. The excellent safety and efficacy observed in more than 100 patients with ADA-SCID who received gammaretrovirus- or lentivirus-mediated autologous hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT) since 2000 now positions HSC-GT as an equal alternative. If HLA-matched sibling donor/HLA-matched family donor HSCT or HSC-GT are not available or have failed, ERT can be continued or reinstituted, and HSCT with alternative donors should be considered. The outcomes of novel HSCT, ERT, and HSC-GT strategies should be evaluated prospectively in "real-life" conditions to further inform these management guidelines.

17.
Blood ; 131(26): 2967-2977, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728406

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) typically results in donor T-cell engraftment and function in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), but humoral immunity, particularly when using donors other than matched siblings, is variable. B-cell function after HSCT for SCID depends on the genetic cause, the use of pre-HSCT conditioning, and whether donor B-cell chimerism is achieved. Patients with defects in IL2RG or JAK3 undergoing HSCT without conditioning often have poor B-cell function post-HSCT, perhaps as a result of impairment of IL-21 signaling in host-derived B cells. To investigate the effect of pre-HSCT conditioning on B-cell function, and the relationship of in vitro B-cell function to clinical humoral immune status, we analyzed 48 patients with IL2RG/JAK3 SCID who were older than 2 years after HSCT with donors other than matched siblings. T follicular helper cells (TFH) developed in these patients with kinetics similar to healthy young children; thus, poor B-cell function could not be attributed to a failure of TFH development. In vitro differentiation of B cells into plasmablasts and immunoglobulin secretion in response to IL-21 strongly correlated with the use of conditioning, donor B-cell engraftment, freedom from immunoglobulin replacement, and response to tetanus vaccine. Patients receiving immunoglobulin replacement who had normal serum immunoglobulin M showed poor response to IL-21 in vitro, similar to those with low serum IgM. In vitro response of B cells to IL-21 may predict clinically relevant humoral immune function in patients with IL2RG/JAK3 SCID after HSCT.

18.
Cell Rep ; 23(9): 2606-2616, 2018 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847792

RESUMO

X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M (hyper-IgM) syndrome (XHIM) is a primary immunodeficiency due to mutations in CD40 ligand that affect immunoglobulin class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. The disease is amenable to gene therapy using retroviral vectors, but dysregulated gene expression results in abnormal lymphoproliferation in mouse models, highlighting the need for alternative strategies. Here, we demonstrate the ability of both the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) platforms to efficiently drive integration of a normal copy of the CD40L cDNA delivered by Adeno-Associated Virus. Site-specific insertion of the donor sequence downstream of the endogenous CD40L promoter maintained physiologic expression of CD40L while overriding all reported downstream mutations. High levels of gene modification were achieved in primary human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), as well as in cell lines and XHIM-patient-derived T cells. Notably, gene-corrected HSCs engrafted in immunodeficient mice at clinically relevant frequencies. These studies provide the foundation for a permanent curative therapy in XHIM.

20.
Science ; 359(6372)2018 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326244

RESUMO

After almost 30 years of promise tempered by setbacks, gene therapies are rapidly becoming a critical component of the therapeutic armamentarium for a variety of inherited and acquired human diseases. Gene therapies for inherited immune disorders, hemophilia, eye and neurodegenerative disorders, and lymphoid cancers recently progressed to approved drug status in the United States and Europe, or are anticipated to receive approval in the near future. In this Review, we discuss milestones in the development of gene therapies, focusing on direct in vivo administration of viral vectors and adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells or hematopoietic stem cells. We also discuss emerging genome editing technologies that should further advance the scope and efficacy of gene therapy approaches.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Animais , Edição de Genes , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/terapia , Engenharia Genética , Terapia Genética/efeitos adversos , Vetores Genéticos , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Doenças Neuromusculares/terapia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
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