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1.
Nat Med ; 26(2): 200-206, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988463

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare inherited disorder of phagocytic cells1,2. We report the initial results of nine severely affected X-linked CGD (X-CGD) patients who received ex vivo autologous CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell-based lentiviral gene therapy following myeloablative conditioning in first-in-human studies (trial registry nos. NCT02234934 and NCT01855685). The primary objectives were to assess the safety and evaluate the efficacy and stability of biochemical and functional reconstitution in the progeny of engrafted cells at 12 months. The secondary objectives included the evaluation of augmented immunity against bacterial and fungal infection, as well as assessment of hematopoietic stem cell transduction and engraftment. Two enrolled patients died within 3 months of treatment from pre-existing comorbidities. At 12 months, six of the seven surviving patients demonstrated stable vector copy numbers (0.4-1.8 copies per neutrophil) and the persistence of 16-46% oxidase-positive neutrophils. There was no molecular evidence of either clonal dysregulation or transgene silencing. Surviving patients have had no new CGD-related infections, and six have been able to discontinue CGD-related antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary objective was met in six of the nine patients at 12 months follow-up, suggesting that autologous gene therapy is a promising approach for CGD patients.

2.
Mol Ther ; 28(1): 328-340, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628051

RESUMO

ß-globin lentiviral vectors (ß-LV) have faced challenges in clinical translation for gene therapy of sickle cell disease (SCD) due to low titer and sub-optimal gene transfer to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). To overcome the challenge of preserving efficacious expression while increasing vector performance, we used published genomic and epigenomic data available through ENCODE to redefine enhancer element boundaries of the ß-globin locus control region (LCR) to construct novel ENCODE core sequences. These novel LCR elements were used to design a ß-LV of reduced proviral length, termed CoreGA-AS3-FB, produced at higher titers and possessing superior gene transfer to HSPCs when compared to the full-length parental ß-LV at equal MOI. At low vector copy number, vectors containing the ENCODE core sequences were capable of reversing the sickle phenotype in a mouse model of SCD. These studies provide a ß-LV that will be beneficial for gene therapy of SCD by significantly reducing the cost of vector production and extending the vector supply.

3.
Blood Adv ; 3(23): 4002-4020, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809537

RESUMO

To address the global burden of sickle cell disease and the need for novel therapies, the American Society of Hematology partnered with the US Food and Drug Administration to engage the work of 7 panels of clinicians, investigators, and patients to develop consensus recommendations for clinical trial end points. The panels conducted their work through literature reviews, assessment of available evidence, and expert judgment focusing on end points related to patient-reported outcome, pain (non-patient-reported outcomes), the brain, end-organ considerations, biomarkers, measurement of cure, and low-resource settings. This article presents the findings and recommendations of the end-organ considerations, measurement of cure, and low-resource settings panels as well as relevant findings and recommendations from the biomarkers panel.

4.
Cell Stem Cell ; 25(4): 542-557.e9, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495780

RESUMO

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are potent immune cells for targeting cancer; however, their clinical application has been hindered by their low numbers in cancer patients. Here, we developed a proof-of-concept for hematopoietic stem cell-engineered iNKT (HSC-iNKT) cell therapy with the potential to provide therapeutic levels of iNKT cells for a patient's lifetime. Using a human HSC engrafted mouse model and a human iNKT TCR gene engineering approach, we demonstrated the efficient and long-term generation of HSC-iNKT cells in vivo. These HSC-iNKT cells closely resembled endogenous human iNKT cells, could deploy multiple mechanisms to attack tumor cells, and effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo in multiple human tumor xenograft mouse models. Preclinical safety studies showed no toxicity or tumorigenicity of the HSC-iNKT cell therapy. Collectively, these results demonstrated the feasibility, safety, and cancer therapy potential of the proposed HSC-iNKT cell therapy and laid a foundation for future clinical development.

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(7): 653-667, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376032

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1/3 of patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Comprehensive investigation of the effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) on CGD IBD and the impact of IBD on transplant outcomes is lacking. METHODS: We collected data retrospectively from 145 patients with CGD who had received allogeneic HCT at 26 Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) centers between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2016. RESULTS: Forty-nine CGD patients with IBD and 96 patients without IBD underwent allogeneic HCT. Eighty-nine percent of patients with IBD and 93% of patients without IBD engrafted (p = 0.476). Upper gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 8.5% of patients with IBD and 3.5% of patients without IBD (p = 0.246). Lower gastrointestinal acute GVHD occurred in 10.6% of patients with IBD and 11.8% of patients without IBD (p = 0.845). The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD grades II-IV was 30% (CI 17-43%) in patients with IBD and 20% (CI 12-29%) in patients without IBD (p = 0.09). Five-year overall survival was equivalent for patients with and without IBD: 80% [CI 66-89%] and 83% [CI 72-90%], respectively (p = 0.689). All 33 surviving evaluable patients with a history of IBD experienced resolution of IBD by 2 years following allogeneic HCT. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, allogeneic HCT was curative for CGD-associated IBD. IBD should not contraindicate HCT, as it does not lead to an increased risk of mortality. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02082353.

6.
Mol Ther ; 27(8): 1389-1406, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178391

RESUMO

Site-specific correction of a point mutation causing a monogenic disease in autologous hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can be used as a treatment of inherited disorders of the blood cells. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an ideal model to investigate the potential use of gene editing to transvert a single point mutation at the ß-globin locus (HBB). We compared the activity of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and CRISPR/Cas9 for editing, and homologous donor templates delivered as single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs), adeno-associated virus serotype 6 (AAV6), integrase-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs), and adenovirus 5/35 serotype (Ad5/35) to transvert the base pair responsible for SCD in HBB in primary human CD34+ HSPCs. We found that the ZFNs and Cas9 directed similar frequencies of nuclease activity. In vitro, AAV6 led to the highest frequencies of homology-directed repair (HDR), but levels of base pair transversions were significantly reduced when analyzing cells in vivo in immunodeficient mouse xenografts, with similar frequencies achieved with either AAV6 or ssODNs. AAV6 also caused significant impairment of colony-forming progenitors and human cell engraftment. Gene correction in engrafting hematopoietic stem cells may be limited by the capacity of the cells to mediate HDR, suggesting additional manipulations may be needed for high-efficiency gene correction in HSPCs.

7.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 13: 390-398, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024981

RESUMO

Lentiviral vector (LV)-based hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) gene therapy is becoming a promising alternative to allogeneic stem cell transplantation for curing genetic diseases. Clinical trials are currently underway to treat sickle cell disease using LVs expressing designed anti-sickling globin genes. However, because of the large size and complexity of the human ß-globin gene, LV products often have low titers and transduction efficiency, requiring large amounts to treat a single patient. Furthermore, transduction of patient HSPCs often fails to achieve a sufficiently high vector copy number (VCN) and transgene expression for clinical benefit. We therefore investigated the combination of two compounds (PGE2 and poloxamer synperonic F108) to enhance transduction of HSPCs with a clinical-scale preparation of Lenti/G-AS3-FB. Here, we found that transduction enhancers increased the in vitro VCN of bulk myeloid cultures ∼10-fold while using a 10-fold lower LV dose. This was accompanied by an increased percentage of transduced colony-forming units. Importantly, analysis of immune-deficient NSG xenografts revealed that the combination of PGE2/synperonic F108 increased LV gene transfer in a primitive HSC population, with no effects on lineage distribution or engraftment. The use of transduction enhancers may greatly improve efficacy for LV-based HSPC gene therapy.

8.
Cytotherapy ; 21(3): 358-366, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745225

RESUMO

Gene modification of hematopoietic stem cells is increasingly becoming popular as a therapeutic approach, given the recent approvals and the number of new applications for clinical trials targeting monogenetic and immunodeficiency disorders. Technological advances in stem cell selection, culture, transduction and gene editing now allow for efficient ex vivo genetic manipulation of stem cells. Gene-addition techniques using viral vectors (mainly retrovirus- and lentivirus-based) and gene editing using various targeted nuclease platforms (e.g., Zinc finger, TALEN and Crispr/Cas9) are being applied to the treatment of multiple genetic and immunodeficiency disorders. Herein, the current state of the art in manufacturing and critical assays that are required for ex vivo manipulation of stem cells are addressed. Important quality control and safety assays that need to be planned early in the process development phase of these products for regulatory approval are also highlighted.

9.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 10(1): 52, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755264

RESUMO

The original article [1] contains an error in the legend of Fig 5 whereby the descriptions for panels 5d and 5e are incorrect; as such, the corrected legend can be viewed below with its respective figure images.

10.
Pediatrics ; 143(2)2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was instituted in California in 2010. In the ensuing 6.5 years, 3 252 156 infants in the state had DNA from dried blood spots assayed for T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs). Abnormal TREC results were followed-up with liquid blood testing for T-cell abnormalities. We report the performance of the SCID screening program and the outcomes of infants who were identified. METHODS: Data that were reviewed and analyzed included demographics, nursery summaries, TREC and lymphocyte flow-cytometry values, and available follow-up, including clinical and genetic diagnoses, treatments, and outcomes. RESULTS: Infants with clinically significant T-cell lymphopenia (TCL) were successfully identified at a rate of 1 in 15 300 births. Of these, 50 cases of SCID, or 1 in 65 000 births (95% confidence interval 1 in 51 000-1 in 90 000) were found. Prompt treatment led to 94% survival. Infants with non-SCID TCL were also identified, diagnosed and managed, including 4 with complete DiGeorge syndrome who received thymus transplants. Although no cases of typical SCID are known to have been missed, 2 infants with delayed-onset leaky SCID had normal neonatal TREC screens but came to clinical attention at 7 and 23 months of age. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based TREC testing, although unable to detect immune defects in which T cells are present at birth, is effective for identifying SCID and clinically important TCL with high sensitivity and specificity. The experience in California supports the rapid, widespread adoption of SCID newborn screening.


Assuntos
Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Linfopenia/sangue , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/sangue , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/diagnóstico , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/epidemiologia
11.
Cell Stem Cell ; 24(2): 309-317.e7, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639036

RESUMO

Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a devastating autoimmune disease caused by mutations in FoxP3, a transcription factor required for the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) can be curative, but suitable donors are often unavailable. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for autologous HSCT and gene therapy utilizing a lentiviral vector (LV) to restore FoxP3 expression under the control of endogenous human FOXP3 regulatory elements. Both murine transplant models and humanized mice engrafted with LV-modified HSCs show high levels of LV expression selective for CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Treg cells. LV transduction of scurfy (FoxP3mut) HSCs restores development of functional FoxP3+ Treg cells that suppress T cell proliferation in vitro and rescue the scurfy autoimmune phenotype in vivo. These findings demonstrate preclinical efficacy for the treatment of IPEX patients by autologous HSC transplant and may provide valuable insights into new cell therapies for autoimmunity.

13.
Curr Opin Biotechnol ; 60: 39-45, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599357

RESUMO

Genetic diseases affecting proteins and cells composing the blood may be treated by gene therapy using gene addition or gene editing methods. Protein deficiencies (e.g. hemophilia) are being approached using in vivo gene delivery by adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors for therapeutic gene addition or gene editing. Blood cell diseases (e.g. sickle cell disease) are being approached using ex vivo gene addition or gene editing to treat isolated blood-forming hematopoietic stem cells or T cells that are then re-transplanted. In recent years, there has been much progress, and gene therapy is now routinely providing clinical benefit to patients with a variety of conditions. Several of these gene therapies have been licensed in the U.S. and EU and more for other disorders are being advanced toward licensure. The scope of therapeutic activity for gene therapy is expected to continue to expand as the technical capabilities advance.

14.
Stem Cells ; 37(2): 284-294, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30372555

RESUMO

Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas9)-mediated gene editing of human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) is a promising strategy for the treatment of genetic blood diseases through site-specific correction of identified causal mutations. However, clinical translation is hindered by low ratio of precise gene modification using the corrective donor template (homology-directed repair, HDR) to gene disruption (nonhomologous end joining, NHEJ) in hHSCs. By using a modified version of Cas9 with reduced nuclease activity in G1 phase of cell cycle when HDR cannot occur, and transiently increasing the proportion of cells in HDR-preferred phases (S/G2), we achieved a four-fold improvement in HDR/NHEJ ratio over the control condition in vitro, and a significant improvement after xenotransplantation of edited hHSCs into immunodeficient mice. This strategy for improving gene editing outcomes in hHSCs has important implications for the field of gene therapy, and can be applied to diseases where increased HDR/NHEJ ratio is critical for therapeutic success. Stem Cells 2019;37:284-294.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(3): 1000-1011, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409823

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To improve persistence of adoptively transferred T-cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells and durable clinical responses, we designed a clinical trial to transplant genetically-modified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) together with adoptive cell transfer of T cells both engineered to express an NY-ESO-1 TCR. Here, we report the preclinical studies performed to enable an investigational new drug (IND) application. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: HSCs transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing NY-ESO-1 TCR and the PET reporter/suicide gene HSV1-sr39TK and T cells transduced with a retroviral vector expressing NY-ESO-1 TCR were coadministered to myelodepleted HLA-A2/Kb mice within a formal Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant study to demonstrate safety, persistence, and HSC differentiation into all blood lineages. Non-GLP experiments included assessment of transgene immunogenicity and in vitro viral insertion safety studies. Furthermore, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant cell production qualification runs were performed to establish the manufacturing protocols for clinical use. RESULTS: TCR genetically modified and ex vivo-cultured HSCs differentiated into all blood subsets in vivo after HSC transplantation, and coadministration of TCR-transduced T cells did not result in increased toxicity. The expression of NY-ESO-1 TCR and sr39TK transgenes did not have a detrimental effect on gene-modified HSC's differentiation to all blood cell lineages. There was no evidence of genotoxicity induced by the lentiviral vector. GMP batches of clinical-grade transgenic cells produced during qualification runs had adequate stability and functionality. CONCLUSIONS: Coadministration of HSCs and T cells expressing an NY-ESO-1 TCR is safe in preclinical models. The results presented in this article led to the FDA approval of IND 17471.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(3): 852-863, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194989

RESUMO

Inherited defects in adenosine deaminase (ADA) cause a subtype of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) known as severe combined immune deficiency caused by adenosine deaminase defects (ADA-SCID). Most affected infants can receive a diagnosis while still asymptomatic by using an SCID newborn screening test, allowing early initiation of therapy. We review the evidence currently available and propose a consensus management strategy. In addition to treatment of the immune deficiency seen in patients with ADA-SCID, patients should be followed for specific noninfectious respiratory, neurological, and biochemical complications associated with ADA deficiency. All patients should initially receive enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), followed by definitive treatment with either of 2 equal first-line options. If an HLA-matched sibling donor or HLA-matched family donor is available, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should be pursued. The excellent safety and efficacy observed in more than 100 patients with ADA-SCID who received gammaretrovirus- or lentivirus-mediated autologous hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT) since 2000 now positions HSC-GT as an equal alternative. If HLA-matched sibling donor/HLA-matched family donor HSCT or HSC-GT are not available or have failed, ERT can be continued or reinstituted, and HSCT with alternative donors should be considered. The outcomes of novel HSCT, ERT, and HSC-GT strategies should be evaluated prospectively in "real-life" conditions to further inform these management guidelines.

18.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 11: 167-179, 2018 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30533448

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by a mutation (E6V) in the hemoglobin (Hb) ß-chain that induces polymerization of Hb tetramers, red blood cell deformation, ischemia, anemia, and multiple organ damage. Gene therapy is a potential alternative to human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, available to a minority of patients. We developed a lentiviral vector expressing a ß-globin carrying three anti-sickling mutations (T87Q, G16D, and E22A) inhibiting axial and lateral contacts in the HbS polymer, under the control of the ß-globin promoter and a reduced version of the ß-globin locus-control region. The vector (GLOBE-AS3) transduced 60%-80% of mobilized CD34+ hematopoietic stem-progenitor cells (HSPCs) and drove ßAS3-globin expression at potentially therapeutic levels in erythrocytes differentiated from transduced HSPCs from SCD patients. Transduced HSPCs were transplanted in NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG)-immunodeficient mice to analyze biodistribution, chimerism, and transduction efficiency in bone marrow (BM), spleen, thymus, and peripheral blood 12-14 weeks after transplantation. Vector integration site analysis, performed in pre-transplant HSPCs and post-transplant BM cells from individual mice, showed a normal lentiviral integration pattern and no evidence of clonal dominance. An in vitro immortalization (IVIM) assay showed the low genotoxic potential of GLOBE-AS3. This study enables a phase I/II clinical trial aimed at correcting the SCD phenotype in juvenile patients by transplantation of autologous hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) transduced by GLOBE-AS3.

19.
Gene Ther ; 25(7): 454-472, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190607

RESUMO

Lentiviral vector mobilization following HIV-1 infection of vector-transduced cells poses biosafety risks to vector-treated patients and their communities. The self-inactivating (SIN) vector design has reduced, however, not abolished mobilization of integrated vector genomes. Furthermore, an earlier study demonstrated the ability of the major product of reverse transcription, a circular SIN HIV-1 vector comprising a single- long terminal repeat (LTR) to support production of high vector titers. Here, we demonstrate that configuring the internal vector expression cassette in opposite orientation to the LTRs abolishes mobilization of SIN vectors. This additional SIN mechanism is in part premised on induction of host PKR response to double-stranded RNAs comprised of mRNAs transcribed from cryptic transcription initiation sites around 3'SIN-LTR's and the vector internal promoter. As anticipated, PKR response following transfection of opposite orientation vectors, negatively affects their titers. Importantly, shRNA-mediated knockdown of PKR rendered titers of SIN HIV-1 vectors comprising opposite orientation expression cassettes comparable to titers of conventional SIN vectors. High-titer vectors carrying an expression cassette in opposite orientation to the LTRs efficiently delivered and maintained high levels of transgene expression in mouse livers. This study establishes opposite orientation expression cassettes as an additional PKR-dependent SIN mechanism that abolishes vector mobilization from integrated and episomal SIN lentiviral vectors.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos/genética , Infecções por HIV/genética , Repetição Terminal Longa de HIV/genética , Lentivirus/genética , Animais , Vetores Genéticos/uso terapêutico , Genoma Viral/genética , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/uso terapêutico
20.
Hum Gene Ther ; 29(10): 1153-1166, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198339

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder caused by a single amino acid substitution in the ß-globin chain of hemoglobin. Gene therapy is a promising therapeutic alternative, particularly in patients lacking an allogeneic bone marrow (BM) donor. One of the major challenges for an effective gene therapy approach is the design of an efficient vector that combines high-level and long-term ß-globin expression with high infectivity in primary CD34+ cells. Two lentiviral vectors carrying an anti-sickling ß-globin transgene (AS3) were directly compared: the Lenti/ßAS3-FB, and Globe-AS3 with and without the FB insulator. The comparison was performed initially in human BM CD34+ cells derived from SCD patients in an in vitro model of erythroid differentiation. Additionally, the comparison was carried out in two in vivo models: First, an NOD SCID gamma mouse model was used to compare transduction efficiency and ß-globin expression in human BM CD34+ cells after transplant. Second, a sickle mouse model was used to analyze ß-globin expression produced from the vectors tested, as well as hematologic correction of the sickle phenotype. While minor differences were found in the vectors in the in vitro study (2.4-fold higher vector copy number in CD34+ cells when using Globe-AS3), no differences were noted in the overall correction of the SCD phenotype in the in vivo mouse model. This study provides a comprehensive in vitro and in vivo analysis of two globin lentiviral vectors, which is useful for determining the optimal candidate for SCD gene therapy.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/genética , Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Terapia Genética , Globinas beta/genética , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Ensaio de Unidades Formadoras de Colônias , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Ordem dos Genes , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Camundongos , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transdução Genética , Resultado do Tratamento
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