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1.
Mycoses ; 64(12): 1498-1507, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several severity indexes have been reported for critically ill patients. The Pitt bacteremia score (PBS) is commonly used to predict the risk of mortality in patients with bacteraemia. OBJECTIVES: To develop a scoring system for predicting mortality in candidaemia patients. METHODS: Medical records at five Japanese tertiary hospitals were reviewed. Factors associated with mortality were analysed using logistic regression modelling. The discriminatory power of scoring models was evaluated by assessing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). RESULTS: In total, 422 candidaemia patients were included. Higher PBS, dialysis and retainment of central venous catheter were independent risk factors for all-cause 30-day mortality. However, among the five PBS components, fever was not associated with mortality; therefore, we developed a modified version of the PBS (mPBS) by replacing fever with dialysis. AUC for PBS and mPBS were 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.80) and 0.76 (95% CI: 0.71-0.82), respectively. The increase in predictive ability of mPBS for 30-day mortality was statistically significant as assessed by NRI (0.24, 95% CI: 0.01-0.46, p = .04) and IRI (0.04, 95% CI: 0.02-0.06, p = .0008). When patients were stratified by mPBS into low (scores 0-3), moderate (4-7) and high risk (≥8), there were significant differences among the survival curves (p < .0001, log-rank test), and 30-day mortality rates were 13.8% (40/290), 36.8% (28/76) and 69.4% (34/49), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: mPBS can be a useful tool for predicting mortality in candidaemia patients.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257452, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A few studies on antibody testing have focused on asymptomatic or mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with low initial anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody responses. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody-testing performance was evaluated using blood samples from asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 143 COVID-19 patients during an outbreak on a cruise ship 3 weeks after diagnosis. Simultaneously, a follow-up SARS-CoV-2 genetic test was performed. Samples stored before the COVID-19 pandemic were also used to evaluate the lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFA) and electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Titers of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid and spike proteins were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to confirm which antibodies were influenced on LFA- and ECLIA- false-negative result in crew-member samples. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive, and negative-predictive values of LFA-detected IgM antibodies were 0.231, 1.000, 1.000, and 0.613, respectively; those of LFA-detected IgG antibodies were 0.483, 0.989, 0.972, and 0.601, respectively; and those of ECLIA-detected total antibodies were 0.783, 1.000, 1.000, and 0.848, respectively. All antibody titers measured using ELISA were significantly lower in blood samples with negative results than in those with positive results in both LFA and ECLIA. In the patients with negative results from the follow-up genetic testing, IgM-, IgG-, and total-antibody positivity rates were 22.9%, 47.6%, and 72.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing has lower performance in asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 patients than required in the guidelines.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/tendências , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Navios
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2251-2260, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423761

RESUMO

In April 2020, a coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak occurred on the cruise ship Costa Atlantica in Nagasaki, Japan. Our outbreak investigation included 623 multinational crewmembers onboard on April 20. Median age was 31 years; 84% were men. Each crewmember was isolated or quarantined in a single room inside the ship, and monitoring of health status was supported by a remote health monitoring system. Crewmembers with more severe illness were hospitalized. The investigation found that the outbreak started in late March and peaked in late April, resulting in 149 laboratory-confirmed and 107 probable cases of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Six case-patients were hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, including 1 in severe condition and 2 who required oxygen administration, but no deaths occurred. Although the virus can spread rapidly on a cruise ship, we describe how prompt isolation and quarantine combined with a sensitive syndromic surveillance system can control a COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Navios , Adulto , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(7): e1003660, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of an effective antiviral drug for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health priority. Although several candidate drugs have been identified through in vitro and in vivo models, consistent and compelling evidence from clinical studies is limited. The lack of evidence from clinical trials may stem in part from the imperfect design of the trials. We investigated how clinical trials for antivirals need to be designed, especially focusing on the sample size in randomized controlled trials. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A modeling study was conducted to help understand the reasons behind inconsistent clinical trial findings and to design better clinical trials. We first analyzed longitudinal viral load data for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) without antiviral treatment by use of a within-host virus dynamics model. The fitted viral load was categorized into 3 different groups by a clustering approach. Comparison of the estimated parameters showed that the 3 distinct groups were characterized by different virus decay rates (p-value < 0.001). The mean decay rates were 1.17 d-1 (95% CI: 1.06 to 1.27 d-1), 0.777 d-1 (0.716 to 0.838 d-1), and 0.450 d-1 (0.378 to 0.522 d-1) for the 3 groups, respectively. Such heterogeneity in virus dynamics could be a confounding variable if it is associated with treatment allocation in compassionate use programs (i.e., observational studies). Subsequently, we mimicked randomized controlled trials of antivirals by simulation. An antiviral effect causing a 95% to 99% reduction in viral replication was added to the model. To be realistic, we assumed that randomization and treatment are initiated with some time lag after symptom onset. Using the duration of virus shedding as an outcome, the sample size to detect a statistically significant mean difference between the treatment and placebo groups (1:1 allocation) was 13,603 and 11,670 (when the antiviral effect was 95% and 99%, respectively) per group if all patients are enrolled regardless of timing of randomization. The sample size was reduced to 584 and 458 (when the antiviral effect was 95% and 99%, respectively) if only patients who are treated within 1 day of symptom onset are enrolled. We confirmed the sample size was similarly reduced when using cumulative viral load in log scale as an outcome. We used a conventional virus dynamics model, which may not fully reflect the detailed mechanisms of viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2. The model needs to be calibrated in terms of both parameter settings and model structure, which would yield more reliable sample size calculation. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that estimated association in observational studies can be biased due to large heterogeneity in viral dynamics among infected individuals, and statistically significant effect in randomized controlled trials may be difficult to be detected due to small sample size. The sample size can be dramatically reduced by recruiting patients immediately after developing symptoms. We believe this is the first study investigated the study design of clinical trials for antiviral treatment using the viral dynamics model.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tamanho da Amostra , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252964, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared the quantitative RT-PCR results between nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva specimens. METHODS: A COVID-19 outbreak occurred on a cruise ship at Nagasaki port, Japan. We obtained 123 nasopharyngeal swabs and saliva each from asymptomatic or mild patients in the late phase of infection. RESULTS: The intervals from the diagnosis to the sampling were 25.5 days for nasopharyngeal swabs and 28.9 days for saliva. The positive rate was 19.5% (24/123) for nasopharyngeal swabs and 38.2% (47/123) for saliva (P = 0.48). The quantified viral copies (mean ± SEM copies/5 µl) were 9.3±2.6 in nasopharyngeal swabs and 920±850 in saliva (P = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: The advantages of saliva specimens include positive rate improvement and accurate viral load detection. Saliva may be used as a reliable sample for SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Nasofaringe/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Humanos , Manejo de Espécimes
6.
Trials ; 22(1): 309, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910617

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this trial is to evaluate the antiviral efficacy, clinical efficacy, and safety of nelfinavir in patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is designed as a multicenter, open-label, blinded outcome assessment, parallel group, investigator-initiated, exploratory, randomized (1:1 ratio) controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients will be enrolled in 10 university and teaching hospitals in Japan. The inclusion and exclusion criteria are as follows: Inclusion criteria: (1) Japanese male or female patients aged ≥ 20 years (2) SARS-CoV-2 detected from a respiratory tract specimen (e.g., nasopharyngeal swab or saliva) using PCR, LAMP, or an antigen test within 3 days before obtaining the informed consent (3) Provide informed consent Exclusion criteria: (1) Symptoms developed ≥ 8 days prior to enrolment (2) SpO2 < 96 % (room air) (3) Any of the following screening criteria: a) ALT or AST ≥ 5 × upper limit of the reference range b) Child-Pugh class B or C c) Serum creatinine ≥ 2 × upper limit of the reference range and creatinine clearance < 30 mL/min (4) Poorly controlled diabetes (random blood glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, despite treatment) (5) Unsuitable serious complications based on the assessment of either the principal investigator or the sub-investigator (6) Hemophiliac or patients with a marked hemorrhagic tendency (7) Severe diarrhea (8) Hypersensitivity to the investigational drug (9) Breastfeeding or pregnancy (10) With childbearing potential and rejecting contraceptive methods during the study period from the initial administration of the investigational drug (11) Receiving rifampicin within the previous 2 weeks (12) Participated in other clinical trials and received drugs within the previous 12 weeks (13) Undergoing treatment for HIV infection (14) History of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or wishes to be vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (15) Deemed inappropriate (for miscellaneous reasons) based on the assessment of either the principal investigator or the sub-investigator INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Patients who meet the inclusion criteria and do not meet any of the exclusion criteria will be randomized to either the nelfinavir group or the symptomatic treatment group. The nelfinavir group will be administered 750 mg of nelfinavir orally, three times daily for 14 days (treatment period). However, if a participant tests negative on two consecutive PCR tests of saliva samples, administration of the investigational drug for that participant can be discontinued at the discretion of the investigators. The symptomatic treatment group will not be administered the investigational drug, but all other study procedures and conditions will be the same for both groups for the duration of the treatment period. After the treatment period of 14 days, each group will be followed up for 14 days (observational period). MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint is the time to negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2. During the study period from Day 1 to Day 28, two consecutive negative PCR results of saliva samples will be considered as the negative conversion of the virus. The secondary efficacy endpoints are as follows: For patients with both asymptomatic and mild disease: area under the curve of viral load, half decay period of viral load, body temperature at each time point, all-cause mortality, incidence rate of pneumonia, percentage of patients with newly developed pneumonia, rate of oxygen administration, and the percentage of patients who require oxygen administration. For asymptomatic patients: incidence of symptomatic COVID-19, incidence of fever (≥ 37.0 °C for two consecutive days), incidence of cough For patients with mild disease: incidence of defervescence (< 37.0 °C), incidence of recovery from clinical symptoms, incidence of improvement of each symptom The secondary safety endpoints are adverse events and clinical examinations. RANDOMIZATION: Patients will be randomized to either the nelfinavir group or the symptomatic treatment group using the electric data capture system (1:1 ratio, dynamic allocation based on severity [asymptomatic], and age [< 60 years]). BLINDING (MASKING): Only the assessors of the primary outcome will be blinded (blinded outcome assessment). NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size was determined based on our power analysis to reject the null hypothesis, S (t | z =1) = S (t | z = 0) where S is a survival function, t is time to negative conversion, and z denotes randomization group, by the log-rank test with a two-sided p value of 0.05. We estimated viral dynamic parameters by fitting a nonlinear mixed-effects model to reported viral load data, and simulated our primary endpoint from viral-load time-courses that were realized from sets of viral dynamics parameters sampled from the estimated probability distribution of the parameters (sample size: 2000; 1000 each for randomization group). From this estimation of the hazard ratio between the randomization groups for the event of negative conversion using this simulation dataset, the required number of events for rejecting our null hypothesis with a power of 0.80 felled 97.345 by plugging the estimated hazard ratio, 1.79, in Freedman's equation. Therefore, we decided the required number of randomizations to be 120 after consideration of the frequency of censoring and the anticipated rate of withdrawal caused by factors such as withdrawal of consent. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 6.0 of February 12, 2021. Recruitment started on July 22, 2020 and is anticipated to be completed by March 31, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered in Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) ( jRCT2071200023 ) on 21 July 21, 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por HIV , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Nelfinavir/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(2): 283-290, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common, serious illness in the elderly, with a poorly characterized long-term impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The Japanese Goto Epidemiology Study is a prospective, active, population-based surveillance study of adults with X-ray/CT scan-confirmed community-onset pneumonia, assessing the HRQoL outcome quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). We report QALY scores and losses among a subset of participants in this study. METHODS: QALYs were derived from responses to the Japanese version of the EuroQol-5D-5L health-state classification instrument at days 0, 7, 15, 30, 90, 180, and 365 after pneumonia diagnosis from participants enrolled from June 2017 to May 2018. We used patients as their own controls, calculating comparison QALYs by extrapolating EuroQol-5D-5L scores for day -30, accounting for mortality and changes in scores with age. RESULTS: Of 405 participants, 85% were aged ≥65 years, 58% were male, and 69% were hospitalized for clinically and radiologically confirmed pneumonia. Compliance with interviews by patients or proxies was 100%. Adjusted EuroQol-5D-5L scores were 0.759, 0.561, 0.702, and 0.689 at days -30, 0 (diagnosis), 180, and 365, respectively. Average scores at all time points remained below the average day -30 scores (P ≤ .001). Pneumonia resulted in a 1-year adjusted loss of 0.13 QALYs (~47.5 quality-adjusted days) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial QALY losses were observed among Japanese adults following pneumonia diagnosis, and scores had not returned to prediagnosis levels at 1 year postdiagnosis. QALY scores and cumulative losses were comparable to those in US adults with chronic heart failure, stroke, or renal failure.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(2): 262-270, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191112

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Relebactam, a novel class A/C ß-lactamase inhibitor developed as a fixed-dose combination with imipenem/cilastatin, restores imipenem activity against imipenem-nonsusceptible gram-negative pathogens. METHODS: This phase 3, multicenter, open-label, noncomparative study (NCT03293485) evaluated relebactam/imipenem/cilastatin (250 mg/500 mg/500 mg) dosed every 6 h for 5-14 days in Japanese patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) or complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), including those with secondary sepsis. Sepsis was defined as an infection-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome, with a documented positive blood culture; patients meeting these protocol-defined criteria were evaluated for efficacy against sepsis. RESULTS: Of 83 patients enrolled, 81 patients (cIAI, n = 37; cUTI, n = 44) received ≥1 dose of study treatment. Escherichia coli was the most common baseline pathogen isolated in both patients with cIAI and cUTI. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 74.1% (n = 60/81) of patients, and drug-related AEs occurred in 18.5% (n = 15/81). The most common AEs were diarrhea and nausea (8.6%). Serious AEs occurred in nine patients, including one death, but none were considered treatment related. The primary efficacy endpoint for patients with cIAI was clinical response at end of treatment (EOT) in the microbiologically evaluable (ME) population, and for patients with cUTI was microbiological response at EOT in the ME population. The proportion of cIAI and cUTI patients achieving favorable responses were 85.7% (n = 24/28) and 100.0% (n = 39/39), respectively. All patients with sepsis (cIAI, n = 1; cUTI, n = 5) achieved a favorable composite clinical and microbiological response at EOT. CONCLUSIONS: A favorable safety and efficacy profile for relebactam/imipenem/cilastatin was observed in Japanese patients with cIAI and cUTI.


Assuntos
Infecções Intra-Abdominais , Infecções Urinárias , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Azabicíclicos , Cilastatina/efeitos adversos , Combinação Imipenem e Cilastatina , Humanos , Imipenem/efeitos adversos , Infecções Intra-Abdominais/tratamento farmacológico , Japão , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(3): 537-539, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the annual variation in the frequency of patient-acquired azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (ARAf), and correlate it to the amount of oral triazole prescribed, in Nagasaki, Japan. METHODS: A. fumigatus isolates from respiratory specimens collected in the Nagasaki University Hospital (NUH) between 1996 and 2017 were included in the study. The amount of oral triazole prescribed in NUH since 2001 was obtained from the medical ordering system. Mutations in cyp51A, hmg1, and erg6 genes of ARAf were also analysed. RESULTS: From a total of 240 ARAf strains, 12 (5%), 6 (2.5%), 15 (6.25%), and 3 (1.25%) strains were resistant to itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC), to either ITC or VRC, and both triazoles, respectively. The amount of prescribed VRC increased annually, and was three times as large as that of ITC in 2017. All eleven patients harbouring ITC-resistant strains had a history of prior ITC treatment, while only one of six patients harbouring VRC-resistant strains had a history of prior VRC treatment. cyp51A mutations were recorded in 10 strains; however, tandem repeat mutations of the promoter region of cyp51A were not observed. Several azole-resistant strains had non-cyp51A mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of patient-acquired ARAf is not increasing in Nagasaki, Japan. Furthermore, the prevalence of VRC-induced ARAf was rare despite the remarkable increase in the amount of prescribed VRC. Mutations in genes other than cyp51A should also be considered when ARAf strains are obtained from patients treated with azole antifungals.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus , Triazóis , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Azóis/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Triazóis/farmacologia
10.
SAGE Open Med ; 8: 2050312120973502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282300

RESUMO

Objectives: Although angiotensin II receptor blockers are effective for patients with chronic kidney disease, dose-dependent renoprotective effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease with non-nephrotic proteinuria are not known. Our aim was to elucidate the dose-dependent renoprotective effects of angiotensin II receptor blockers on such patients. Methods: A multicenter, prospective, randomized trial was conducted from 2009 to 2014. Patients with non-nephrotic stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease were randomized for treatment with either 40 or 80 mg telmisartan and were observed for up to 104 weeks. Overall, 32 and 29 patients were allocated to the 40 and 80 mg telmisartan groups, respectively. The composite primary outcome was renal death, doubling of serum creatinine level, transition to stage 5 chronic kidney disease, and death from any cause. Secondary outcomes included the level of urinary proteins and changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate. Results: There was no difference in the primary outcome (p = 0.78) and eGFR (p = 0.53) between the two groups; however, after 24 weeks, urinary protein level was significantly lower in the 80 mg group than in the 40 mg group (p < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in either group, and the occurrence of adverse events did not significantly differ between them (p = 0.56). Conclusion: Our findings do not demonstrate a direct dose-dependent renoprotective effect of telmisartan. The higher telmisartan dose resulted in a decrease in the amount of urinary protein. Even though high-dose angiotensin II receptor blockers may be preferable for patients with stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease, the clinical importance of the study results may be limited. The study was registered in the UMIN-CTR (https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr) with the registration number UMIN000040875.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17745, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082485

RESUMO

Echinocandins, including caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin, are first-line antifungal agents for the treatment of invasive candidiasis. They exhibit fungicidal activity by inhibiting the synthesis of ß-1,3-D-glucan, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. However, they are active only against proliferating fungal cells and unable to completely eradicate fungal cells even after a 24 h drug exposure in standard time-kill assays. Surprisingly, we found that caspofungin, when dissolved in low ionic solutions, had rapid and potent antimicrobial activities against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Candida and bacteria cells even in non-growth conditions. This effect was not observed in 0.9% NaCl or other ion-containing solutions and was not exerted by other echinocandins. Furthermore, caspofungin dissolved in low ionic solutions drastically reduced mature biofilm cells of MDR Candida auris in only 5 min, as well as Candida-bacterial polymicrobial biofilms in a catheter-lock therapy model. Caspofungin displayed ion concentration-dependent conformational changes and intracellular accumulation with increased reactive oxygen species production, indicating a novel mechanism of action in low ionic conditions. Importantly, caspofungin dissolved in 5% glucose water did not exhibit increased toxicity to human cells. This study facilitates the development of new therapeutic strategies in the management of catheter-related biofilm infections.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspofungina/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Preparações Farmacêuticas
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9789, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555245

RESUMO

Elm1 is a serine/threonine kinase involved in multiple cellular functions, including cytokinesis, morphogenesis, and drug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae; however, its roles in pathogenic fungi have not been reported. In this study, we created ELM1-deletion, ELM1-reconstituted, ELM1-overexpression, and ELM1-kinase-dead strains in the clinically important fungal pathogen Candida glabrata and investigated the roles of Elm1 in cell morphology, stress response, and virulence. The elm1Δ strain showed elongated morphology and a thicker cell wall, with analyses of cell-wall components revealing that this strain exhibited significantly increased chitin content relative to that in the wild-type and ELM1-overexpression strains. Although the elm1Δ strain exhibited slower growth than the other two strains, as well as increased sensitivity to high temperature and cell-wall-damaging agents, it showed increased virulence in a Galleria mellonella-infection model. Moreover, loss of Elm1 resulted in increased adhesion to agar plates and epithelial cells, which represent important virulence factors in C. glabrata. Furthermore, RNA sequencing revealed that expression levels of 30 adhesion-like genes were elevated in the elm1Δ strain. Importantly, all these functions were mediated by the kinase activity of Elm1. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the functional characterization of Elm1 in pathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Candida glabrata/enzimologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/fisiologia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida glabrata/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida glabrata/patogenicidade , Candida glabrata/ultraestrutura , Candidíase/microbiologia , Adesão Celular , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutagênese , Fenótipo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , RNA-Seq , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Estresse Fisiológico , Virulência
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3814, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123235

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal colonization has been considered as the primary source of candidaemia; however, few established mouse models are available that mimic this infection route. We therefore developed a reproducible mouse model of invasive candidiasis initiated by fungal translocation and compared the virulence of six major pathogenic Candida species. The mice were fed a low-protein diet and then inoculated intragastrically with Candida cells. Oral antibiotics and cyclophosphamide were then administered to facilitate colonization and subsequent dissemination of Candida cells. Mice infected with Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis exhibited higher mortality than mice infected with the other four species. Among the less virulent species, stool titres of Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were higher than those of Candida krusei and Candida guilliermondii. The fungal burdens of C. parapsilosis and C. krusei in the livers and kidneys were significantly greater than those of C. guilliermondii. Histopathologically, C. albicans demonstrated the highest pathogenicity to invade into gut mucosa and liver tissues causing marked necrosis. Overall, this model allowed analysis of the virulence traits of Candida strains in individual mice including colonization in the gut, penetration into intestinal mucosa, invasion into blood vessels, and the subsequent dissemination leading to lethal infections.


Assuntos
Candida/patogenicidade , Candidíase/microbiologia , Animais , Candidíase/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Intestinos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Virulência
14.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(2): 242-251, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575499

RESUMO

Pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. We surveyed clinical outcomes of MRSA pneumonia in daily practice to identify risk factors for the clinical failure and mortality in patients with MRSA pneumonia. This multicenter prospective observational study was performed across 48 Japanese medical institutions. Adult patients with culture-positive MRSA pneumonia were recruited and treated with anti-MRSA antibiotics. The relationships between clinical and microbiological characteristics and clinical outcomes at test of cure (TOC) or 30-day all-cause mortality were analyzed. In total, 199 eligible patients, including nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia (n = 95), hospital-acquired pneumonia (n = 76), and community-acquired pneumonia (n = 25), received initial treatment with anti-MRSA agents such as vancomycin (n = 135), linezolid (n = 36), or teicoplanin (n = 22). Overall clinical failure rate at TOC and the 30-day mortality rate were 51.1% (48/94 patients) and 33.7% (66/196 patients), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analyses for vancomycin-treated populations revealed that abnormal white blood cell count (odds ratio [OR] 4.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-14.39) was a risk factor for clinical failure and that no therapeutic drug monitoring (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.35-7.12) and abnormally high C-reactive protein level (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.26-9.92) were risk factors for mortality. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that majority of MRSA pneumonia patients are initially treated with vancomycin in Japan, and the absence of therapeutic drug monitoring for vancomycin is significantly associated with the mortality in patients with MRSA pneumonia.


Assuntos
Linezolida/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Teicoplanina/uso terapêutico , Vancomicina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 70(5): 835-842, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data for direct comparisons of the efficacy of oral itraconazole (ITCZ) and oral voriconazole (VRCZ) therapy in the treatment of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, follow-up, observational study of CPA patients enrolled in 2 previous multicenter trials. RESULTS: Of the 273 CPA patients, 59 and 101 patients started maintenance therapy with oral ITCZ and oral VRCZ, respectively, just after the end of acute intravenous therapy in each trial. At the end of the observation period in this follow-up study (median observation period, 731 days), the percentage of patients who showed improvement was lower in the ITCZ group than in the VRCZ group (18.2% vs 40.0%). However, after including stable patients, the percentages were 50.9% and 52.6%, respectively, in the ITCZ and VRCZ groups, which were not significantly different (P = .652). Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed no significant influence of the choice of initial maintenance treatment (ITCZ or VRCZ) on overall mortality as well as CPA-associated mortality. Multivariable logistic regression showed that oral ITCZ selection for initial maintenance therapy was an independent risk factor for hospital readmission and switching to other antifungal agents (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-7.5 and OR, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.0-15.7, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Oral VRCZ for initial maintenance therapy showed better effectiveness than oral ITCZ for clinical improvement in CPA patients. There was no difference in crude mortality between initial maintenance therapy with VRCZ and ITCZ, especially in elderly CPA patients. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: UMIN000007055.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Aspergilose Pulmonar , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Manutenção , Aspergilose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
16.
Pathogens ; 10(1)2020 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396406

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal colonization by Candida species is considered the main source of candidemia. The ERG3 gene in Candida albicans encodes a sterol C5,6-desaturase, which is essential for ergosterol biosynthesis. Although ERG3 inactivation shows reduced virulence in mouse models of disseminated candidiasis, the role of ERG3 in intestinal infections is unknown. Here, we infected mice with the C. albicans strains CAE3DU3 and CAF2-1, containing mutant and wild-type ERG3, respectively, and studied gut infection and colonization by these strains. We found that the CAE3DU3 strain showed reduced colonization, pathogenesis, damage to gut mucosa, and chemokine production in the mouse model of invasive candidiasis. Additionally, mice inoculated with CAE3DU3 showed lower mortality than mice inoculated with CAF2-1 (p < 0.0001). Chemokines were less induced in the gut inoculated with CAE3DU3 than in the gut inoculated with CAF2-1. Histopathologically, although the wild-type gene was associated with a higher pathogenicity and invasion of the gut mucosa and liver tissues causing remarkable tissue necrosis, the erg3/erg3 mutant was associated with a higher accumulation of cells and lower damage to surrounding tissues than wild-type ERG3. These results establish that the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway may be associated with C. albicans gut colonization and subsequent dissemination.

17.
Inflammation ; 42(6): 2065-2071, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396817

RESUMO

Fungus is an antigen for bronchial asthma causing allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM). As a therapy other than corticosteroids, itraconazole (ITCZ) is known to suppress the allergic inflammation induced by Aspergillus fumigatus (Af). However, the efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B (LAMB) with/without corticosteroid on ABPM is unknown. Mice sensitized to Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) allergen were intranasally infected with Af (DfAf group). After the infection, corticosteroid (dexamethasone (Dex)) was administered for 5 days (DfAf/Dex group). The effects of ITCZ or LAMB with/without Dex were also evaluated. Pathologically, Dex and LAMB combination treatment decreased the allergic inflammation evidently. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) concentrations of IL-5, IL-13, and MIP-2 were significantly elevated in DfAf mice compared with control mice (p < 0.05, each). In DfAf mice, ITCZ and LAMB significantly decreased the elevation of MIP-2 (p < 0.05 vs the DfAf group). The addition of both Dex and LAMB suppressed the MIP-2 elevation in DfAf mice (p < 0.05 vs the Df/Af/Dex/LAMB group), but the addition of Dex and ITCZ did not (DfAf/Dex/ITCZ group). None of Dex, ITCZ, or LAMB decreased pulmonary IL-13 concentration. It was suggested that combination of antifungal drugs and corticosteroid enhanced the suppressing effect of airway inflammations. This finding will give a hope for the treatment of severe fungus-related asthma.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Aspergilose Broncopulmonar Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose Broncopulmonar Alérgica/microbiologia , Aspergilose Broncopulmonar Alérgica/patologia , Aspergillus fumigatus , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Camundongos
18.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 599-606, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185348

RESUMO

Previous studies have linked ambient PM2.5 to decreased pulmonary function, but the influence of specific chemical elements and emission sources on the severe asthmatic is not well understood. We examined the mass, chemical constituents, and sources of PM2.5 for short-term associations with the pulmonary function of adults with severe asthma in a low air pollution environment in urban Nagasaki, Japan. We recruited 35 asthmatic adults and obtained the daily record of morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) in spring 2014-2016. PM2.5 filters were extracted from an air quality monitoring station (178 days) and measured for 27 chemical elements. Source apportionment was performed using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). We fitted generalized linear model with generalized estimating equation (GEE) method to estimate changes in PEF (from personal monthly maximum) and odds of severe respiratory deterioration (first ≥ 15% PEF reduction within a 1-week interval) associated with mass, constituents, and sources of PM2.5, with adjustment for temperature and relative humidity. Constituent sulfate (SO42-) and PM2.5 from oil combustion and traffic were associated with reduced PEF. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in SO42- (3.7 µg/m3, average lags 0-1) was associated with a decrease of 0.38% (95% confidence interval = -0.75% to -0.001%). An IQR increase in oil combustion and traffic-sourced PM2.5 (2.64 µg/m3, lag 1) was associated with a decrease of 0.33% (-0.62% to -0.002%). We found a larger PEF decrease associated with PM2.5 from dust/soil on Asian Dust days. There was no evidence linking total mass and metals to reduced pulmonary function. The ventilatory capacity of adults with severe asthma is susceptible to specific constituents/sources of PM2.5 such as sulfate and oil combustion and traffic despite active self-management of asthma and low air pollution levels in the study location.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Asma/epidemiologia , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pulmão/química , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estações do Ano , Solo , Temperatura
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182539

RESUMO

The novel arylamidine T-2307 exhibits broad-spectrum in vitro and in vivo antifungal activities against clinically significant pathogens. Previous studies have shown that T-2307 accumulates in yeast cells via a specific polyamine transporter and disrupts yeast mitochondrial membrane potential. Further, it has little effect on rat liver mitochondrial function. The mechanism by which T-2307 disrupts yeast mitochondrial function is poorly understood, and its elucidation may provide important information for developing novel antifungal agents. This study aimed to determine how T-2307 promotes yeast mitochondrial dysfunction and to investigate the selectivity of this mechanism between fungi and mammals. T-2307 inhibited the respiration of yeast whole cells and isolated yeast mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner. The similarity of the effects of T-2307 and respiratory chain inhibitors on mitochondrial respiration prompted us to investigate the effect of T-2307 on mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. T-2307 particularly inhibited respiratory chain complexes III and IV not only in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but also in Candida albicans, indicating that T-2307 acts against pathogenic fungi in a manner similar to that of yeast. Conversely, T-2307 showed little effect on bovine respiratory chain complexes. Additionally, we demonstrated that the inhibition of respiratory chain complexes by T-2307 resulted in a decrease in the intracellular ATP levels in yeast cells. These results indicate that inhibition of respiratory chain complexes III and IV is a key factor for selective disruption of yeast mitochondrial function and antifungal activity.


Assuntos
Amidinas/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Candida albicans/metabolismo , Bovinos , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/metabolismo , NADH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Ratos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9331, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249356

RESUMO

Candida peritonitis is a crucial disease, however the optimal antifungal therapy regimen has not been clearly defined. Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) can be caused by abdominal surgery, intra-abdominal infection, and malignant diseases, and is also widely recognized as a crucial complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis. However, the influence of PF on Candida peritonitis prognosis remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the severity of Candida peritonitis within the context of PF and the efficacy of micafungin using mice. A PF mouse model was generated by intraperitoneally administering chlorhexidine gluconate. Candida peritonitis, induced by intraperitoneal inoculation of Candida albicans, was treated with a 7-day consecutive subcutaneous administration of micafungin. Candida infection caused a higher mortality rate in the PF mice compared with the control mice on day 7. Proliferative Candida invasion into the peritoneum and intra-abdominal organs was confirmed pathologically only in the PF mice. However, all mice in both groups treated with micafungin survived until day 20. Micafungin treatment tends to suppress inflammatory cytokines in the plasma 12 h after infection in both groups. Our results suggest that PF enhances early mortality in Candida peritonitis. Prompt initiation and sufficient doses of micafungin had good efficacy for Candida peritonitis, irrespective of the underlying PF.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Micafungina/farmacologia , Fibrose Peritoneal/complicações , Peritonite/complicações , Peritonite/microbiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Citocinas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Camundongos , Fibrose Peritoneal/patologia , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Peritonite/patologia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
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