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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802174

RESUMO

Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the cervix (NECC) is a rare and highly aggressive tumor with no efficient treatment. We examined genetic features of NECC and identified potential therapeutic targets. A total of 272 patients with cervical cancer (25 NECC, 180 squamous cell carcinoma, 53 adenocarcinoma, and 14 adenosquamous carcinoma) were enrolled. Somatic hotspot mutations in 50 cancer-related genes were detected using the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel v2. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-positivity was examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based testing and in situ hybridization assays. Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression was examined using immunohistochemistry. Somatic mutation data for 320 cases of cervical cancer from the Project GENIE database were also analyzed. NECC showed similar (PIK3CA, 32%; TP53, 24%) and distinct (SMAD4, 20%; RET, 16%; EGFR, 12%; APC, 12%) alterations compared with other histological types. The GENIE cohort had similar profiles and RB1 mutations in 27.6% of NECC cases. Eleven (44%) cases had at least one actionable mutation linked to molecular targeted therapies and 14 (56%) cases showed more than one combined positive score for PD-L1 expression. HPV-positivity was observed in all NECC cases with a predominance of HPV-18. We report specific gene mutation profiles for NECC, which can provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

2.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of anti-programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) therapy in patients with large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) remains unclear. We investigated the outcome of anti-PD-1 therapy and its predictive markers by evaluating the immune-related tumor microenvironment. PATIENTS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with advanced LCNEC treated with systemic chemotherapy. We also evaluated PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression (clone: 22C3), CD8-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), and the mutational profiles. RESULTS: Seventy patients were enrolled, and 13 of 70 patients received anti-PD-1 therapy. The progression-free survival (PFS) and objective response rate (ORR) of the anti-PD-1 therapy were 4.2 months and 39%, respectively. The overall survival of patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy (n = 13) was significantly better than those treated without anti-PD-1 therapy (n = 57) (25.2 months vs 10.9 months; P = .02). Among the 13 patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy, 10 patients (90%) had PD-L1-negative tumors. Patients with a high density of tumoral CD8-positive TILs (≥38/mm2) had a significantly better ORR and PFS than those with a low density of tumoral CD8-positive TILs (ORR: P = .02; PFS: P = .003). Additionally, all 3 patients with TP53 mutation co-occurring with PIK3CA mutation (2 of 8 patients) or RB1 mutation (1 of 8 patients) responded to anti-PD-1 therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-PD-1 therapy was effective regardless of PD-L1 positivity in patients with advanced LCNEC. Our investigation might suggest that the density of tumoral CD8-positive TILs and the presence of co-occurring mutations are predictors of the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with advanced LCNEC.

3.
Lung Cancer ; 155: 40-45, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The LURET phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of the multikinase inhibitor vandetanib in patients with previously treatedRET-rearranged advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among the eligible patients included in the primary analysis, the objective response rate met the primary endpoint (53 %, 90 % confidence interval [CI]: 31-74). Here, we report final survival outcomes of the LURET study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with previously treated RET-rearranged advanced NSCLC continuously received 300 mg of oral vandetanib daily. This final analysis provides updated data on progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety. This study was registered with UMIN-CTR (number UMIN 000010095). RESULTS: Among the 19 patients in the intention-to-treat population, 42 % had been heavily treated with 3 or more prior chemotherapy regimens. The median PFS was 6.5 months (95 % CI, 3.9-9.3) as determined by an independent radiology review committee. The median OS was 13.5 months (95 % CI, 9.8-28.1) and the overall survival rate at 12 months was 52.6 % (95 % CI 28.7-71.9). The most common adverse events were hypertension (84.2 %), diarrhea (78.9 %), and rash acneiform (63.2 %). Overall, 11 patients (57.9 %) had adverse events leading to a dose reduction, although the safety profile was consistent with that reported in previous studies. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that vandetanib enabled a prolonged and clinically meaningful PFS and OS in patients with previously treatedRET-rearranged advanced NSCLC at the updated final analysis. The safety profile was consistent with that reported in previous studies, although most of the patients experienced off-target adverse events besides RET.

4.
Thorac Cancer ; 12(5): 631-642, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring activating EGFR mutations are sensitive to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) but inevitably develop resistance to the inhibitors mostly through acquisition of the secondary T790M mutation. Although third-generation EGFR-TKIs overcome this resistance by selectively inhibiting EGFR with EGFR-TKI-sensitizing and T790M mutations, acquired resistance to third-generation EGFR-TKIs invariably develops. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis were performed in an EGFR T790M-mutated NSCLC patient who had progressed after a third-generation EGFR-TKI, TAS-121. EGFR-mutated cell lines were subjected to a cell proliferation assay and western blotting analysis with EGFR-TKIs and a heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor. RESULTS: NGS and FISH analysis revealed EGFR amplification in the resistant cancer cells. While EGFR L858R/T90M-mutated cell line was sensitive to osimertinib or TAS-121 in vitro, EGFR-overexpressing cell lines displayed resistance to these EGFR-TKIs. Western blot analysis showed that EGFR phosphorylation and overexpression of EGFR in cell lines was not suppressed by third-generation EGFR-TKIs. In contrast, an HSP90 inhibitor reduced total and phosphorylated EGFR and inhibited the proliferation of resistant cell lines. CONCLUSIONS: EGFR amplification confers resistance to third-generation EGFR-TKIs which can be overcome by HSP90 inhibition. The results provide a preclinical rationale for the use of HSP90 inhibitors to overcome EGFR amplification-mediated resistance.

5.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 6, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient participation is a key foundation of advance care planning (ACP). However, a patient himself/herself may be left out from sensitive conversations such as end-of-life (EOL) care discussions. The objectives of this study were to investigate patients' participation rate in the discussion of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) / Do-Not-Attempt-Resuscitation (DNAR) order, and in the discussion that the patient is at his/her EOL stage (EOL disclosure), and to explore their associated factors. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review study. The participants were all the patients who were hospitalized and died in a university-affiliated teaching hospital (tertiary medical facility) in central Tokyo, Japan during the period from April 2018 to March 2019. The following patients were excluded: (1) cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival; (2) stillbirth; (3) under 18 years old at the time of death; and (4) refusal by their bereaved family. Presence or absence of CPR/DNAR discussion and EOL disclosure, patients' involvement in those discussions, and their associated factors were investigated. RESULTS: CPR/DNAR discussions were observed in 336 out of the 358 patients (93.9%). However, 224 of these discussions were carried out without a patient (patient participation rate 33.3%). Male gender (odds ratio (OR) = 2.37 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.25]), living alone (OR = 2.51 [1.34-4.71]), and 1 year or more from the date of diagnosis (OR = 1.78 [1.03-3.10]) were associated with higher patient's participation in CPR/DNAR discussions. The EOL disclosure was observed in 341 out of the 358 patients (95.3%). However, 170 of the discussions were carried out without the patient (patient participation rate 50.1%). Patients who died of cancer (OR = 2.41[1.45-4.03]) and patients without mental illness (OR=2.41 [1.11-5.25]) were more likely to participate in EOL disclosure. CONCLUSIONS: In this clinical sample, only up to half of the patients participated in CPR/DNAR discussions and EOL disclosure. Female, living with family, a shorter period from the diagnosis, non-cancer, and mental illness presence are risk factors for lack of patients' participation in CPR/DNAR or EOL discussions. Further attempts to facilitate patients' participation, based on their preference, are warranted.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/estatística & dados numéricos , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Assistência Terminal , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hepatopatias/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Características de Residência , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
6.
N Engl J Med ; 384(1): 42-50, 2021 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406329

RESUMO

Two cases of pediatric lung cancer (in 23-month-old and 6-year-old boys) resulting from mother-to-infant transmission of uterine cervical tumors were incidentally detected during routine next-generation sequencing of paired samples of tumor and normal tissue. Spontaneous regression of some lesions in the first child and slow growth of the tumor mass in the second child suggested the existence of alloimmune responses against the transmitted tumors. Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy with nivolumab led to a strong regression of all remaining tumors in the first child. (Funded by the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development and others; TOP-GEAR UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number, UMIN000011141.).


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/etiologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma Mucinoso/genética , Adulto , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Criança , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Vagina , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244484, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are common mental health problems that are strongly associated with sleep disturbances, according to community-based researches. However, this association has not been investigated among patients admitted for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We examined the prevalence of depression and anxiety in inpatients with various CVDs and their association with sleep disturbances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1294 patients hospitalized for CVDs in a Japanese university hospital were evaluated for their mental status using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) using pulse oximetry, and for sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). RESULTS: Patient characteristics were as below: mean age, 63.9±14.7 years; 25.7% female. Overall, 18.9% had depression (HADS-depression≥8) and 17.1% had anxiety (HADS-anxiety≥8). The presence of depression was associated with female sex, older age, higher plasma brain natriuretic peptide level, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, and the prevalence of heart failure. Overall, 46.5% patients were categorized as having a poor sleep quality (PSQI>5), and 28.5% patients had SDB (3% oxygen desaturation index>15). Although depression and anxiety were not associated with SDB, they were independently associated with poor sleep quality (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 2.19-4.36; OR = 3.93, 95% CI 2.71-5.69, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Depression and anxiety were not uncommon in patients with CVDs. Poor sleep quality could be an important risk factor linked to psychological disturbances.

8.
Lung Cancer ; 152: 58-65, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352384

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationship between Body-Mass-Index (BMI) and lung cancer prognosis is heterogeneous. We evaluated the impact of sex, smoking and race on the relationship between BMI and overall survival (OS) in non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Data from 16 individual ILCCO studies were pooled to assess interactions between BMI and the following factors on OS: self-reported race, smoking status and sex, using Cox models (adjusted hazard ratios; aHR) with interaction terms and adjusted penalized smoothing spline plots in stratified analyses. RESULTS: Among 20,937 NSCLC patients with BMI values, females = 47 %; never-smokers = 14 %; White-patients = 76 %. BMI showed differential survival according to race whereby compared to normal-BMI patients, being underweight was associated with poor survival among white patients (OS, aHR = 1.66) but not among black patients (aHR = 1.06; pinteraction = 0.02). Comparing overweight/obese to normal weight patients, Black NSCLC patients who were overweight/obese also had relatively better OS (pinteraction = 0.06) when compared to White-patients. BMI was least associated with survival in Asian-patients and never-smokers. The outcomes of female ever-smokers at the extremes of BMI were associated with worse outcomes in both the underweight (pinteraction<0.001) and obese categories (pinteraction = 0.004) relative to the normal-BMI category, when compared to male ever-smokers. CONCLUSION: Underweight and obese female ever-smokers were associated with worse outcomes in White-patients. These BMI associations were not observed in Asian-patients and never-smokers. Black-patients had more favorable outcomes in the extremes of BMI when compared to White-patients. Body composition in Black-patients, and NSCLC subtypes more commonly seen in Asian-patients and never-smokers, may account for differences in these BMI-OS relationships.

10.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To promote precision oncology in clinical practice, the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology, the Japanese Society of Clinical Oncology, and the Japanese Cancer Association, jointly published "Clinical practice guidance for next-generation sequencing in cancer diagnosis and treatment" in 2017. Since new information on cancer genomic medicine has emerged since the 1st edition of the guidance was released, including reimbursement for NGS-based multiplex gene panel tests in 2019, the guidance revision was made. METHODS: A working group was organized with 33 researchers from cancer genomic medicine designated core hospitals and other academic institutions. For an impartial evaluation of the draft version, eight committee members from each society conducted an external evaluation. Public comments were also made on the draft. The finalized Japanese version was published on the websites of the three societies in March 2020. RESULTS: The revised edition consists of two parts: an explanation of the cancer genomic profiling test (General Discussion) and clinical questions (CQs) that are of concern in clinical practice. Particularly, patient selection should be based on the expectation that the patient's post-test general condition and organ function will be able to tolerate drug therapy, and the optimal timing of test should be considered in consideration of subsequent treatment plans, not limited to treatment lines. CONCLUSION: We expect that the revised version will be used by healthcare professionals and will also need to be continually reviewed in line with future developments in cancer genome medicine.

11.
Cardiology ; : 1-7, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator that improves hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Accumulating evidence implicates the additional effect of riociguat on the increase in cardiac output. However, its mechanisms have not been fully understood. This study aimed to investigate whether riociguat could ameliorate right ventricular (RV) contraction as well as hemodynamics. METHODS: We studied 45 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (14) or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (31) and evaluated hemodynamics, using right-sided heart catheterization, before and after the administration of riociguat. RV function was assessed by echocardiography, including speckle-tracking echocardiography. RESULTS: Riociguat significantly improved the WHO functional class and reduced the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and vascular resistance. In addition, the cardiac index increased. RV remodeling was ameliorated after riociguat administration as assessed by the echocardiographic parameters, such as RV diameter and RV area index. RV function, including RV fractional area change and RV global longitudinal strain, also significantly improved, and their improvement was even observed in patients with mild PH after pulmonary endarterectomy or balloon pulmonary angioplasty. Furthermore, covariance analysis revealed that RV global longitudinal strain and RV fractional area change improved after riociguat administration, even with the same mean pulmonary arterial pressure, implicating the improvement of RV contractile function by riociguat, regardless of RV loading. CONCLUSIONS: Riociguat not only improved the hemodynamics of patients with PH but also ameliorated the echocardiographic parameters with RV function. RV strain could detect the subtle improvement in mild PH, and riociguat may have a benefit even after intervention, as assessed by speckle-tracking echocardiography.

12.
Pulm Circ ; 10(4): 2045894020954310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240484

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome is known to have various cardiovascular defects, which include pulmonary artery stenosis. Pulmonary artery stenosis is characterized by obstruction of pulmonary artery blood flow that can cause elevated pulmonary artery pressure and ventilation-perfusion inequality, which can cause dyspnea on exertion and eventually, heart failure. Although the etiology of pulmonary artery stenosis related to congenital diseases is still unknown, balloon pulmonary angioplasty has being reported to be effective to selected patients with Alagille and Williams syndromes, but not from Noonan syndrome despite of modest prevalence of pulmonary artery stenosis. Here, we report the first Noonan syndrome patient with pulmonary artery stenosis who underwent successful balloon pulmonary angioplasty. The strategy used in balloon pulmonary angioplasty was planned with careful morphologic evaluation by computed tomographic angiography, and performed with scoring balloons in a graded approach with multiple sessions. After balloon pulmonary angioplasty, we confirmed maintained dilation of lesions and symptom alleviation, suggesting that balloon pulmonary angioplasty can be performed safely on pulmonary artery stenosis in a Noonan syndrome patient.

13.
Carcinogenesis ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196828

RESUMO

AT-rich interactive domain 1A (ARID1A), which is a tumor suppressor gene, is frequently mutated in Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer [EBV (+) GC]. While most ARID1A mutations in GC are truncating mutations, leading to loss of ARID1A protein expression, epigenetic modifications appear to contribute to ARID1A deficiency in EBV (+) GC harboring wild-type ARID1A. Based on the significant role of epigenetic modifications in EBV (+) GC that contributes to ARID1A deficiency, the methylation status of ARID1A was evaluated in EBV-infected cells and GC patients using a publicly available microarray and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. EBV-encoded miRNAs that potentially target ARID1A were identified as an additional epigenetic modulator by computational prediction. In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate how EBV-encoded miRNAs affected ARID1A mRNA and protein levels. In clinical GC samples, the expression of predicted miRNAs and ARID1A and the mutation status of ARID1A was evaluated. As results, ARID1A was not hypermethylated in EBV (+) GC samples or EBV-infected GC cells. EBV infection did not alter ARID1A mRNA levels, suggesting that ARID1A protein deficiency was caused by post-transcriptional gene silencing in ARID1A-WT EBV (+) GC. Overexpression of miR-BART11-3p and miR-BART12, which were identified as miRNAs that potentially bind ARID1A, suppressed ARID1A protein expression in MKN7 and NCI-N87 cells. Highly expressed miR-BART11-3p and miR-BART12 were correlated with decreased ARID1A levels in GC tumors which did not harbor ARID1A mutations. The present findings revealed that ARID1A expression was epigenetically regulated by miR-BART11-3p and miR-BART12 in EBV (+) GC.

14.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 61(10): 1502-1507, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162448

RESUMO

An 18-year-old woman presented with fever and liver dysfunction. Computed tomography showed lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and vascular lesions such as aneurysms and irregularities at multiple arteries, including coronary arteries. Based on the high copy number of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-DNA in the peripheral blood, EBV-infected CD4+T cells, and the proliferation of EBER-positive cells in the bone marrow, chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) was diagnosed. Although the fever and liver dysfunction improved as a result of the initial immunosuppressive therapy and multiagent chemotherapy, EBV-DNA remained high. Moreover, she experienced repeated episodes of angina pectoris due to coronary arterial lesions. Therefore, cord blood transplantation was performed after reduced-intensity conditioning. EBV-DNA decreased quickly after initiating the conditioning and became undetectable at day 7 after the transplant. Vascular lesions did not progress after the transplant, and the patient's angina pectoris resolved. At 2.5 years after the transplant, she is alive without disease recurrence. The prognosis of CAEBV with vascular lesions is especially poor. Although the indication for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is difficult to determine in such cases, the clinical course of our case suggests that allogenic HSCT could be safely performed under appropriate management and could successfully control not only CAEBV but also vascular lesions.

15.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a highly prevalent, heterogeneous, and life-threatening condition. Precise prognostic understanding is essential for effective decision-making, but little is known about patients' attitudes toward prognostic communication with their physicians. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a questionnaire survey, consisting of patients' prognostic understanding, preferences for information disclosure, and depressive symptoms, among hospitalized HF patients (92 items in total). Individual 2-year survival rates were calculated using the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM), and its agreement level with patient self-expectations of 2-year survival were assessed. A total of 113 patients completed the survey (male 65.5%, median age 75.0 [66.0-81.0] years). Compared to the SHFM-prediction, patient-expectation of 2-year survival was matched only in 27.8%; their agreement level was low (weighted kappa = 0.11). Notably, 50.9% wished to know "more," albeit 27.7% felt that they did not have adequate prognostic discussion. Compared to the known prognostic variables (e.g. age and HF severity), logistic regression analysis demonstrated that female and less depressive patients were associated with patients' preference for "more" prognostic discussion. CONCLUSIONS: Patients' overall prognostic understanding was suboptimal. The communication process requires further improvement for patients to accurately understand their HF prognosis and be involved in making a better-informed decision.

16.
Carcinogenesis ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152763

RESUMO

Although some previous studies have examined epigenomic alterations in lung adenocarcinomas, correlations between epigenomic events and genomic driver mutations have not been fully elucidated. Single-CpG resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis with the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip was performed using 162 paired samples of adjacent normal lung tissue (N) and the corresponding tumorous tissue (T) from patients with lung adenocarcinomas. Correlations between DNA methylation data on the one hand and clinicopathological parameters and genomic driver mutations, i.e. mutations of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, and HER2 and fusions involving ALK, RET, and ROS1, were examined. DNA methylation levels in 12,629 probes from N samples were significantly correlated with recurrence-free survival. Principal component analysis revealed that distinct DNA methylation profiles at the precancerous N stage tended not to induce specific genomic driver aberrations. Most of the genes showing significant DNA methylation alterations during transition from N to T were shared by two or more driver aberration groups. After siRNA knockdown of ZNF132, which showed DNA hypermethylation only in the pan-negative group and was correlated with vascular invasion, the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of cancer cell lines were examined. ZNF132 knockdown led to increased cell migration ability, rather than increased cell growth or reduced apoptosis. We concluded that DNA hypermethylation of the ZNF132 gene participates in the clinicopathological aggressiveness of "pan-negative" lung adenocarcinomas. In addition, DNA methylation alterations at the precancerous stage may determine tumor aggressiveness, and such alterations that accumulate after driver mutation may additionally modify clinicopathological features through alterations of gene expression.

17.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113911

RESUMO

Early and rapid risk stratification of patients with acute heart failure (AHF) is crucial for appropriate patient triage and outcome improvements. We aimed to develop an easy-to-use, in-hospital mortality risk prediction tool based on data collected from AHF patients at their initial presentation. Consecutive patients' data pertaining to 2006-2017 were extracted from the West Tokyo Heart Failure (WET-HF) and National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (NaDEF) registries (n = 4351). Risk model development involved stepwise logistic regression analysis and prospective validation using data pertaining to 2014-2015 in the Registry Focused on Very Early Presentation and Treatment in Emergency Department of Acute Heart Failure Syndrome (REALITY-AHF) (n = 1682). The final model included data describing six in-hospital mortality risk predictors, namely, age, systolic blood pressure, blood urea nitrogen, serum sodium, albumin, and natriuretic peptide (SOB-ASAP score), available at the time of initial triage. The model showed excellent discrimination (c-statistic = 0.82) and good agreement between predicted and observed mortality rates. The model enabled the stratification of the mortality rates across sixths (from 14.5% to <1%). When assigned a point for each associated factor, the integer score's discrimination was similar (c-statistic = 0.82) with good calibration across the patients with various risk profiles. The models' performance was retained in the independent validation dataset. Promptly determining in-hospital mortality risks is achievable in the first few hours of presentation; they correlate strongly with mortality among AHF patients, potentially facilitating clinical decision-making.

18.
Echocardiography ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107156

RESUMO

AIMS: Balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA) improves hemodynamics and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). However, its diagnostic and predictive values remain unclear. We investigated the diagnostic and predictive values of BPA by assessing the mechanism of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hemodynamic improvement was maintained over 6 months in 99 patients with CTEPH who underwent BPA. Notably, 57 of 99 patients showed normalization of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) after BPA. The RV mid free wall longitudinal strain (RVMFS) was inversely correlated with the 6-min walk distance (r = -.35, P = .01) and serum levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTNT) (r = -.39, P = .004) 6 months post-BPA in the PVR-normalized group. Among all variables analyzed, only the pre-BPA RVMFS was correlated with the post-BPA RVMFS (r = .40, P = .001), and the pre-BPA RVMFS (<-15.8%) was the strongest predictor of post-BPA normalization of RVMFS (area under the curve 0.80, P = .01, sensitivity 89%, and specificity 63%). The immediate post-BPA RVMFS showed worsening over 6 months after the procedure (-25.8% to -21.1%) in patients with high serum hs-cTNT levels (>0.0014 ng/mL). In contrast, we observed an improvement in these values in those with low serum hs-cTNT levels (-23.6% to -24.4%). CONCLUSION: RVMFS of -15.8% may be a useful cutoff value to categorize the refractory and non-refractory stages of disease. Sustained serum hs-cTNT elevation post-BPA indicates subclinical RV myocardial injury, with resultant RVMFS deterioration and poor exercise tolerance.

19.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(21): e018096, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107377

RESUMO

Background Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is a prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its mechanism and pathophysiology remain unknown. We investigated RV function using RV-specific 3-dimensional (3D)-speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. We also assessed regional wall motion abnormalities in the RV and chronological changes during balloon pulmonary angioplasty (BPA). Methods and Results Twenty-nine patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension who underwent BPA were enrolled and underwent right heart catheterization and echocardiography before, immediately after, and 6 months after BPA. Echocardiographic assessment of RV function included both 2-dimensional-STE and RV-specific 3D-STE. Before BPA, global area change ratio measured by 3D-STE was significantly associated with invasively measured mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance (r=0.671 and r=0.700, respectively). Dividing the RV into the inlet, apex, and outlet, inlet area change ratio showed strong correlation with mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance before BPA (r=0.573 and r=0.666, respectively). Only outlet area change ratio was significantly correlated with troponin T values at 6 months after BPA (r=0.470), and its improvement after BPA was delayed compared with the inlet and apex regions. Patients with poor outlet area change ratio were associated with a delay in RV reverse remodeling after treatment. Conclusions RV-specific 3D-STE analysis revealed that 3D RV parameters were novel useful indicators for assessing RV function and hemodynamics in pulmonary hypertension and that each regional RV portion presents a unique response to hemodynamic changes during treatment, implicating that evaluation of RV regional functions might lead to a new guide for treatment strategies.

20.
Genome Res ; 30(9): 1243-1257, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887687

RESUMO

Here, we report the application of a long-read sequencer, PromethION, for analyzing human cancer genomes. We first conducted whole-genome sequencing on lung cancer cell lines. We found that it is possible to genotype known cancerous mutations, such as point mutations. We also found that long-read sequencing is particularly useful for precisely identifying and characterizing structural aberrations, such as large deletions, gene fusions, and other chromosomal rearrangements. In addition, we identified several medium-sized structural aberrations consisting of complex combinations of local duplications, inversions, and microdeletions. These complex mutations occurred even in key cancer-related genes, such as STK11, NF1, SMARCA4, and PTEN The biological relevance of those mutations was further revealed by epigenome, transcriptome, and protein analyses of the affected signaling pathways. Such structural aberrations were also found in clinical lung adenocarcinoma specimens. Those structural aberrations were unlikely to be reliably detected by conventional short-read sequencing. Therefore, long-read sequencing may contribute to understanding the molecular etiology of patients for whom causative cancerous mutations remain unknown and therapeutic strategies are elusive.

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