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Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(3): 033702, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820037


We present a statistical method to remove background and estimate a unit height of atomic steps of an image obtained using a scanning probe microscope. We adopt a mixture model consisting of multiple statistical distributions to describe an image. This statistical approach provides a comprehensive way to subtract a background surface even in the presence of atomic steps as well as to evaluate terrace heights in a single framework. Moreover, it also enables us to extract further quantitative information by introducing additional prior knowledge about the image. An example of this extension is estimating a unit height of atomic steps together with the terrace heights. We demonstrate the capability of our method for a topographic image of a Cu(111) surface taken using a scanning tunneling microscope. The background subtraction corrects all terraces to be parallel to a horizontal plane, and the precision of the estimated unit height reaches the order of a picometer. An open-source implementation of our method is available on the web.

Sci Adv ; 4(5): eaar6419, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806028


Unconventional superconductivity often competes or coexists with other electronic orders. In iron-based superconductors, a central issue has been the relationship between superconductivity and electronic nematicity, spontaneous breaking of the lattice rotational symmetry. Using spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we simultaneously investigated the electronic structure and the superconducting gap in FeSe1-x S x , where the nematicity diminishes above the nematic end point (NEP) at x = 0.17. The nematic band structure appears as anisotropic quasiparticle-interference patterns that gradually become isotropic with increasing x without anomalies at the NEP. By contrast, the superconducting gap, which is intact in the nematic phase, discontinuously shrinks above the NEP. This implies that the presence or absence of nematicity results in two distinct pairing states, whereas the pairing interaction is insensitive to the strength of nematicity.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(46): 16309-13, 2014 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25378706


Fermi systems in the cross-over regime between weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and strongly coupled Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits are among the most fascinating objects to study the behavior of an assembly of strongly interacting particles. The physics of this cross-over has been of considerable interest both in the fields of condensed matter and ultracold atoms. One of the most challenging issues in this regime is the effect of large spin imbalance on a Fermi system under magnetic fields. Although several exotic physical properties have been predicted theoretically, the experimental realization of such an unusual superconducting state has not been achieved so far. Here we show that pure single crystals of superconducting FeSe offer the possibility to enter the previously unexplored realm where the three energies, Fermi energy εF, superconducting gap Δ, and Zeeman energy, become comparable. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that εF of FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio Δ/εF ~ 1(~0.3) in the electron (hole) band. Moreover, thermal-conductivity measurements give evidence of a distinct phase line below the upper critical field, where the Zeeman energy becomes comparable to εF and Δ. The observation of this field-induced phase provides insights into previously poorly understood aspects of the highly spin-polarized Fermi liquid in the BCS-BEC cross-over regime.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(30): E3026-32, 2014 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24989503


The identity of the fundamental broken symmetry (if any) in the underdoped cuprates is unresolved. However, evidence has been accumulating that this state may be an unconventional density wave. Here we carry out site-specific measurements within each CuO2 unit cell, segregating the results into three separate electronic structure images containing only the Cu sites [Cu(r)] and only the x/y axis O sites [Ox(r) and O(y)(r)]. Phase-resolved Fourier analysis reveals directly that the modulations in the O(x)(r) and O(y)(r) sublattice images consistently exhibit a relative phase of π. We confirm this discovery on two highly distinct cuprate compounds, ruling out tunnel matrix-element and materials-specific systematics. These observations demonstrate by direct sublattice phase-resolved visualization that the density wave found in underdoped cuprates consists of modulations of the intraunit-cell states that exhibit a predominantly d-symmetry form factor.

J Am Chem Soc ; 124(41): 12275-8, 2002 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12371870


Single crystals of Na-doped Ca(2)CuO(2)Cl(2) have been grown for the first time by a flux method under high pressures of up to 5.5 GPa. By changing the Na-solubility limit through the applied pressure, the Na content x was successfully controlled without introducing appreciable compositional inhomogeneity within the millimeter-sized crystals. Structural and chemical characterization indicated that the crystals span the phase diagram continuously from the parent antiferromagnetic insulator to an underdoped high-temperature superconductor. Because of the well-defined cleavage plane and resulting high surface quality, these oxychloride single crystals will provide a unique opportunity to explore the electronic evolution of the high-temperature superconductors, using spectroscopic techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy.