Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.049
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259641, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Prophylactic administration of antibiotics within 24 hours of surgery is recommended to reduce the risk of infection. We conducted a prospective study to compare the efficacy of single administration of antibiotics with a historical control of continuous administration of antibiotics for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of malignant liver tumors. METHODS: Between February 1, 1999 and November 30, 2010, a total of 6,763 RFA treatments were performed in 2,355 patients, using a protocol with continuous administration of prophylactic antibiotics. On December 1, 2010, we began using a revised protocol with a single administration of prophylactic antibiotics, while continuing to use the old continuous administration protocol for patients who declined the new protocol. Interim analysis was performed to assess the safety of the single administration protocol. Thereafter, from April 1, 2012, all patients were treated using the new protocol. Risk factors for infectious complications of RFA were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: From December 2010 to March 2012, 766 RFA treatments were performed in 663 patients using the new antibiotic protocol. Infectious complications were observed following 4 of these treatments (0.52%). As the upper limit of the confidence interval (CI) resulting from a one-sided binomial test was exactly the prespecified limit of 1.0%, from April 2012 onwards, we treated all patients using the new protocol with single administration of prophylactic antibiotics. A total of 3,547 RFA treatments were performed using the single administration protocol. Univariable logistic regression indicated that prior transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and maximal tumor diameter were significant risk factors for infectious complications (P = 0.04 and P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariable analysis indicated that the adjusted hazard ratio of single vs. continuous administration of antibiotics was 1.20 (95% CI: 0.53-2.75; P = 0.66). CONCLUSIONS: The rate of infectious complications related to RFA was acceptably low. Single administration of prophylactic antibiotics did not significantly increase the rate of infectious complications related to RFA, compared with a more intensive antibiotic protocol.

2.
Hepatol Res ; 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755420

RESUMO

AIM: Sleep disorder is common in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Liver-related silent complications, including muscle cramps, covert hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and sarcopenia, often reduce the quality of life of patients with CLD and have been reported to cause sleep disorders. In this study, we clarified the prevalence of liver-related complications associated with sleep disorders in patients with CLD. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cohort study of 271 patients with CLD. The Athens Insomnia Scale, muscle cramps questionnaires, and Stroop test were used to assess insomnia, muscle cramps, and covert HE, respectively. In addition, sarcopenia, dynapenia, and myopenia were diagnosed according to the guidelines of the Japan Society of Hepatology. RESULTS: In total, 136 patients (50.2%) had sleep disorders. Serum albumin and hemoglobin levels and prothrombin time activity were significantly lower in patients with sleep disorders than in those without sleep disorders. On univariate and multivariate analyses adjusted with inverse probability weighting, muscle cramps, covert HE, and dynapenia were associated with a sleep disorder. Sleep disorder was categorized as follows: cramp, covert HE, dynapenia, multiple complications, and others. In total, 106 of 136 patients (77.9%) with sleep disorder had at least one liver-related complication, whereas 75 patients had multiple liver-related complications. CONCLUSION: Sleep disorder in patients with CLD was classified into four categories (muscle cramp, covert HE, dynapenia, and others). Questionnaire for sleep disorder might be an easy primary step for surveillance of high-risk patients with silent complications associated CLD.

3.
JMA J ; 4(4): 332-338, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796287

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis and liver cancer are worldwide health problems, and they have been called national afflictions in Japan. We have been studying the mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis, chiefly using experimental animal models, starting from clinical observations of patients. Observations of the early development of liver cancer in young patients with chronic hepatitis B with minimal hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, as well as the frequent development of hepatic steatosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C, prompted us to study direct roles of hepatitis viruses B and C in such liver pathogenesis. In addition, our establishment of a new paradigm, "hepatitis C as a metabolic disease," further led us to elucidating the mechanism of nonviral, metabolism-associated liver cancer. Most hepatologists may appreciate a conquest in the war against viral hepatitis and associated liver cancer. However, even if we conquer the external enemies, hepatitis viruses B and C, an intrinsic enemy, metabolism-associated liver disease, would be waiting for us as an alternative cause of liver cancer. Confrontation of liver cancer has never ended.

4.
Case Rep Gastroenterol ; 15(3): 819-824, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34720829

RESUMO

Heyde's syndrome, which is caused by aortic stenosis and subsequent acquired von Willebrand factor deficiency, is a gastrointestinal bleeding disease. Gastrointestinal bleeding develops in patients with Heyde's syndrome, which may have a different prognosis from general gastrointestinal bleeding; thus, it is important to understand the clinical course. We report a 76-year-old Japanese female who underwent aortic mechanical valve replacement 1 year ago and presented with recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding in angiodysplasia of the sigmoid colon. Endoscopic interventions achieved hemostasis. However, 6 rebleeding events occurred due to a sigmoid colon ulcer and gastric and jejunal angiodysplasia 7 years after first hemostasis. The patient underwent multiple endoscopic hemostatic procedures (upper, lower, and balloon-assisted endoscopy) and repeated transfusions (total of 394 units of red blood cells). The intensive treatment contributed to the survival time of 10 years. In addition, we performed a literature review of the prognosis of patients with Heyde's syndrome.

5.
World J Gastrointest Endosc ; 13(9): 426-436, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate diagnosis of the depth of gastric cancer invasion is crucial in clinical practice. The diagnosis of gastric cancer depth is often made using endoscopic characteristics of the tumor and its margins; however, evaluating invasion depth based on endoscopic background gastritis remains unclear. AIM: To investigate predicting submucosal invasion using the endoscopy-based Kyoto classification of gastritis. METHODS: Patients with gastric cancer detected on esophagogastroduodenoscopy at Toyoshima Endoscopy Clinic were enrolled. We analyzed the effects of patient and tumor characteristics, including age, sex, body mass index, surveillance endoscopy within 2 years, current Helicobacter pylori infection, the Kyoto classification, and Lauren's tumor type, on submucosal tumor invasion and curative endoscopic resection. The Kyoto classification included atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, enlarged folds, nodularity, and diffuse redness. Atrophy was characterized by non-reddish and low mucosa. Intestinal metaplasia was detected as patchy whitish or grayish-white flat elevations, forming an irregular uneven surface. An enlarged fold referred to a fold width ≥ 5 mm in the greater curvature of the corpus. Nodularity was characterized by goosebump-like multiple nodules in the antrum. Diffuse redness was characterized by uniform reddish non-atrophic mucosa in the greater curvature of the corpus. RESULTS: A total of 266 gastric cancer patients (mean age, 66.7 years; male sex, 58.6%; mean body mass index, 22.8 kg/m2) were enrolled. Ninety-three patients underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for surveillance within 2 years, and 140 had current Helicobacter pylori infection. The mean Kyoto score was 4.54. Fifty-eight cancers were diffuse-type, and 87 cancers had invaded the submucosa. Multivariate analysis revealed that low body mass index (odds ratio 0.88, P = 0.02), no surveillance esophagogastroduodenoscopy within 2 years (odds ratio 0.15, P < 0.001), endoscopic enlarged folds of gastritis (odds ratio 3.39, P = 0.001), and Lauren's diffuse-type (odds ratio 5.09, P < 0.001) were independently associated with submucosal invasion. Similar results were obtained with curative endoscopic resection. Among cancer patients with enlarged folds, severely enlarged folds (width ≥ 10 mm) were more related to submucosal invasion than mildly enlarged folds (width 5-9 mm, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Enlarged folds of gastritis were associated with submucosal invasion. Endoscopic observation of background gastritis as well as the lesion itself may help diagnose the depth of cancer invasion.

6.
Endoscopy ; 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To compare endoscopy gastric cancer images diagnosis rate between artificial intelligence (AI) and expert endoscopists. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used the retrospective data of 500 patients, including 100 with gastric cancer, matched 1:1 to diagnosis by AI or expert endoscopists. We retrospectively evaluated the non-inferiority (prespecified margin 5%) of the per-patient rate of gastric cancer diagnosis by AI and compared the per-image rate of gastric cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: Gastric cancer was diagnosed in 49 of 49 patients (100%) in the AI group and 48 of 51 patients (94.12%) in the expert endoscopist group (difference 5.88, 95% confidence interval: -0.58 to 12.3). The per-image rate of gastric cancer diagnosis was higher in the AI group (99.87%, 747/748 images) than in the expert endoscopist group (88.17%, 693/786 images) (difference 11.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Non inferiority of the rate of gastric cancer diagnosis by AI was demonstrated but superiority is not demonstrated.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27182, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477177

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In this single-center retrospective study, we intended to evaluate the frequencies and characteristics of computed tomography findings of pancreatobiliary inflammation (PBI) in patients treated with lenvatinib and the relationship of these findings with treatment-planning changes.We included 78 patients (mean ±â€Šstandard deviation, 69.8 ±â€Š9.4 years, range: 39-84 years, 62 men) with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 62) or thyroid carcinoma (n = 16) who received lenvatinib (June 2016-September 2020). Two radiologists interpreted the posttreatment computed tomography images and assessed the radiological findings of PBI (symptomatic pancreatitis, cholecystitis, or cholangitis). The PBI effect on treatment was statistically evaluated.PBI (pancreatitis, n = 1; cholecystitis, n = 7; and cholangitis, n = 2) was diagnosed in 11.5% (9/78) of the patients at a median of 35 days after treatment initiation; 6 of 9 patients discontinued treatment because of PBI. Three cases of cholecystitis and 1 of cholangitis were accompanied by gallstones, while the other 5 were acalculous. The treatment duration was significantly shorter in patients with PBI than in those without (median: 44 days vs. 201 days, P = .02). Overall, 9 of 69 patients without PBI showed asymptomatic gallbladder subserosal edema.Lenvatinib-induced PBI developed in 11.5% of patients, leading to a significantly shorter treatment duration. Approximately 55.6% of the PBI cases were acalculous. The recognition of this phenomenon would aid physicians during treatment planning in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Biliares/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Biliares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Biliares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pancreatite/diagnóstico por imagem , Pancreatite/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
8.
Hepatol Res ; 51(10): 1013-1025, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533266

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious public health issue not only in Western countries but also in Japan. Within the wide spectrum of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of disease that often develops into liver cirrhosis and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While a definite diagnosis of NASH requires liver biopsy to confirm the presence of hepatocyte ballooning, hepatic fibrosis is the most important prognostic factor in NAFLD. With so many NAFLD patients, it is essential to have an effective screening method for NAFLD with hepatic fibrosis. As HCC with non-viral liver disease has increased markedly in Japan, effective screening and surveillance of HCC are also urgently needed. The most common death etiology in NAFLD patients is cardiovascular disease event. Gastroenterologists must, therefore, pay close attention to CVD when examining NAFLD patients. In the updated guidelines, we propose screening and follow-up methods for hepatic fibrosis, HCC, and CVD in NAFLD patients. Several drug trials are ongoing for NAFLD/NASH therapy, however, there is currently no specific drug therapy for NAFLD/NASH. In addition to vitamin E and thiazolidinedione derivatives, recent trials have focused on sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues, and effective therapies are expected to be developed. These practical guidelines for NAFLD/NASH were established by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology in conjunction with the Japan Society of Hepatology. Clinical evidence reported internationally between 1983 and October 2018 was collected, and each clinical and background question was evaluated using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This English summary pro- vides the core essentials of these clinical practice guidelines, which include the definition and concept, screening systems for hepatic fibrosis, HCC and CVD, and current therapies for NAFLD/NASH in Japan.

9.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: HBV causes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While it was recently shown that the ability of HBV X protein (HBx) to impair the Smc5/6 (structural maintenance of chromosome 5/6) complex is important for viral transcription, HBx is also a potent driver of HCC. However, the mechanism by which HBx expression induces hepatocarcinogenesis is unclear. METHODS: Degradation of the Smc5/6 complex and accumulation of DNA damage were observed in both in vivo and in vitro HBV infection models. Rescue experiments were performed using nitazoxanide (NTZ), which inhibits degradation of the Smc5/6 complex by HBx. RESULTS: HBx-triggered degradation of the Smc5/6 complex causes impaired homologous recombination (HR) repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), leading to cellular transformation. We found that DNA damage accumulated in the liver tissue of HBV-infected humanized chimeric mice, HBx-transgenic mice, and human tissues. HBx suppressed the HR repair of DSBs, including that induced by the CRISPR-Cas9 system, in an Smc5/6-dependent manner, which was rescued by restoring the Smc5/6 complex. NTZ restored HR repair in, and colony formation by, HBx-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS: Degradation of the Smc5/6 complex by HBx increases viral transcription and promotes cellular transformation by impairing HR repair of DSBs. LAY SUMMARY: The hepatitis B virus expresses a regulatory protein called HBV X protein (or HBx). This protein degrades the Smc5/6 complex in human hepatocytes, which is essential for viral replication. We found that this process also plays a key role in the accumulation of DNA damage, which contributes to HBx-mediated tumorigenesis.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18508, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531474

RESUMO

Recently, covering materials for protecting post-endoscopic ulcers are being developed using hydrogels. Existing hydrogels are not ideal coating materials because it is difficult to control their physical properties. Therefore, we conducted an animal pilot study to investigate the protective effect of a novel ulcer coating material, whose physical properties can be easily controlled and designed. We applied the novel injectable hydrogel to artificial ulcers induced on the gastric mucosa of rats. Rats were assigned to the hydrogel or the control group. To measure the protective effect of hydrogel on ulcers, the perforation rate, ulcer diameter, and ulcer area were evaluated 48 h after gel application. As secondary endpoints, we assessed the residual rate of the hydrogel at the bottom of the ulcer, performed histological analysis, and analyzed adverse events associated with hydrogel. The perforation rate was significantly lower (16% vs. 75%) and the mean diameter of ulcers was significantly smaller (5.4 ± 1.8 mm vs. 7.8 ± 2.8 mm) in the hydrogel group. Histopathological findings revealed the inflammatory cell count was significantly higher in the control group. Our novel hydrogel showed a protective effect on artificial gastric ulcers in a rat model.


Assuntos
Endoscopia/efeitos adversos , Hidrogéis/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Projetos Piloto , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
11.
J Gastroenterol ; 56(11): 951-963, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533632

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become a serious public health issue not only in Western countries but also in Japan. Within the wide spectrum of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive form of disease that often develops into liver cirrhosis and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While a definite diagnosis of NASH requires liver biopsy to confirm the presence of hepatocyte ballooning, hepatic fibrosis is the most important prognostic factor in NAFLD. With so many NAFLD patients, it is essential to have an effective screening method for NAFLD with hepatic fibrosis. As HCC with non-viral liver disease has increased markedly in Japan, effective screening and surveillance of HCC are also urgently needed. The most common death etiology in NAFLD patients is cardiovascular disease (CVD) event. Gastroenterologists must, therefore, pay close attention to CVD when examining NAFLD patients. In the updated guidelines, we propose screening and follow-up methods for hepatic fibrosis, HCC, and CVD in NAFLD patients. Several drug trials are ongoing for NAFLD/NASH therapy, however, there is currently no specific drug therapy for NAFLD/NASH. In addition to vitamin E and thiazolidinedione derivatives, recent trials have focused on sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues, and effective therapies are expected to be developed. These practical guidelines for NAFLD/NASH were established by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology in conjunction with the Japan Society of Hepatology. Clinical evidence reported internationally between 1983 and October 2018 was collected, and each clinical and background question was evaluated using the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. This English summary provides the core essentials of these clinical practice guidelines, which include the definition and concept, screening systems for hepatic fibrosis, HCC and CVD, and current therapies for NAFLD/NASH in Japan.

12.
Heliyon ; 7(7): e07586, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345745

RESUMO

Although nucleos(t)ide analogs and interferons suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, they must be taken continuously and have a low response rate. Therefore, therapeutics for HBV with novel modes of action are needed. Humanized virus-suppressing factor (hzVSF) is a monoclonal antibody against vimentin that exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Here, hzVSF significantly inhibited HBV infection. Although hzVSF inhibited HBV RNA production, it did not affect viral transcription from minicircle DNA mimicking covalently closed circular DNA. Additionally, hzVSF did not inhibit viral protein or DNA release from infected cells. Rather, hzVSF inhibited the cell entry of viral preS1 peptides, possibly by altering intracellular vimentin localization, which is important for HBV cell entry. These results suggest that hzVSF has therapeutic potential for HBV infection with a novel mode of action.

13.
JHEP Rep ; 3(4): 100315, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345813

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Liver lobules are typically subdivided into 3 metabolic zones: zones 1, 2, and 3. However, the contribution of zonal differences in hepatocytes to liver regeneration, as well as to carcinogenic susceptibility, remains unclear. Methods: We developed a new method for sustained genetic labelling of zone 3 hepatocytes and performed fate tracing to monitor these cells in multiple mouse liver tumour models. Results: We first examined changes in the zonal distribution of the Wnt target gene Axin2 over time using Axin2-Cre ERT2 ;Rosa26-Lox-Stop-Lox-tdTomato mice (Axin2;tdTomato). We found that following tamoxifen administration at 3 weeks of age, approximately one-third of total hepatocytes that correspond to zone 3 were labelled in Axin2;tdTomato mice; the tdTomato+ cell distribution closely matched that of the zone 3 marker CYP2E1. Cell fate analysis revealed that zone 3 hepatocytes maintained their own lineage but rarely proliferated beyond their liver zonation during homoeostasis; this indicated that our protocol enabled persistent genetic labelling of zone 3 hepatocytes. Using this system, we found that zone 3 hepatocytes generally had high neoplastic potential, which was promoted by constitutive activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signalling in the pericentral area. However, the frequency of zone 3 hepatocyte-derived tumours varied depending on the regeneration pattern of the liver parenchyma in response to liver injury. Notably, Axin2-expressing hepatocytes undergoing chronic liver injury significantly contributed to liver regeneration and possessed high neoplastic potential. Additionally, we revealed that the metabolic phenotypes of liver tumours were acquired during tumorigenesis, irrespective of their spatial origin. Conclusions: Hepatocytes receiving Wnt/ß-catenin signalling from their microenvironment have high neoplastic potential, and Wnt/ß-catenin signalling is a potential drug target for the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Lay summary: Lineage tracing revealed that zone 3 hepatocytes residing in the pericentral niche have high neoplastic potential. Under chronic liver injury, hepatocytes receiving Wnt/ß-catenin signalling broadly exist across all hepatic zones and significantly contribute to liver tumorigenesis as well as liver regeneration. Wnt/ß-catenin signalling is a potential drug target for the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma.

14.
Liver Cancer ; 10(4): 309-319, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414119

RESUMO

Background and Aims: It remains unclear whether obesity increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C who achieved a sustained virological response (SVR) with antiviral therapy. Methods: In this multicenter cohort study, we enrolled patients with chronic hepatitis C who achieved SVR with interferon (IFN)-based therapy (IFN group) or direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy (DAA group) between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2018. The patients underwent regular surveillance for HCC. Cumulative incidence of and the risk factors for HCC development after SVR were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, respectively. Results: Among 2,055 patients (840 in the IFN group and 1,215 in the DAA group), 75 developed HCC (41 in the IFN group and 34 in the DAA group) during the mean observation period of 4.1 years. The incidence rates of HCC at 1, 2, and 3 years were 1.2, 1.9, and 3.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that in addition to older age, lower albumin level, lower platelet count, higher alpha-fetoprotein level, and absence of dyslipidemia, obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2) and heavy alcohol consumption (≥60 g/day) were independent risk factors for HCC development, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.53 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-4.25) and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.14-5.75), respectively. The adjusted HR was not significant between the 2 groups (DAA vs. IFN; HR 1.19, 95% CI: 0.61-2.33). Conclusions: Obesity and heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of HCC development after SVR.

15.
Int J Colorectal Dis ; 36(10): 2227-2235, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386841

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The therapeutic effect of top-down therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been fully evaluated in real-world clinical settings. We compared the effectiveness of top-down and step-up therapies for IBD. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients who were admitted with IBD (Crohn's disease [CD] or ulcerative colitis [UC]) between 2012 and 2019 using the nationwide Japan Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. Patients who received immunomodulators or biologic agents at the start of observation were assigned to the top-down group and those who did not were enrolled in the step-up group. Relapse was the primary outcome, a composite outcome defined as surgery, new steroid or immunomodulator use, hospitalization, a new biologic agent, or switching biologic agents. RESULTS: We analyzed 6715 patients (CD, N = 3643; UC, N = 3072). Relapse occurred in 1982 CD cases (54.4%). The cumulative CD relapse incidence was 32.9% at 1 year and 61.3% at 5 years in the top-down group and 30.7% at 1 year and 58.6% at 5 years in the step-up group. Relapse occurred in 2032 UC cases (47.8%). The cumulative relapse incidence was 33.5% at 1 year and 50.0% at 5 years in the top-down group and 35.2% at 1 year and 51.6% at 5 years in the step-up group. No clinical factors associated with relapse were identified in patients with CD or UC. CONCLUSION: Compared with step-up therapy, top-down therapy was not associated with a decreased relapse risk in a real-world population of patients with CD or UC.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Estudos de Coortes , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) has rapidly spread worldwide and become a serious problem. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a class of commonly prescribed medications, but recent studies have suggested the increased risk of infection with MDRB in PPI users. We evaluated the association between PPI use and incidence of cholangitis with MDRB. METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) between January 2010 and August 2019 were included in this retrospective study. The incidence of cholangitis with MDRB was compared between regular and non-regular PPI users. RESULTS: A total of 1224 regular PPI users and 1528 non-regular PPI users were identified. There was no clinically significant difference in age and sex between the groups. Indication of ERCP was different between the groups. The number of ERCP sessions during the study periods was higher in regular PPI users. The incidence of cholangitis with MDRB was significantly higher in regular PPI users (3.0% vs 1.1%; P < .001). Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for cholangitis with MDRB comparing regular PPI users to non-regular users was 2.19 (95% confidence interval 1.20-4.00; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: Regular PPI use was associated with a higher risk of cholangitis with MDRB.

17.
Liver Int ; 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459096

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the leading cause of chronic liver disease, affecting approximately 25% of the world's population. Recently, because of the sedentary lifestyle and overnutrition resulting from urbanisation, the burden of NAFLD has rapidly increased in many Asian countries. Currently, the prevalence of NAFLD in Asia is approximately 30%, as is the case in many Western countries. In Asia, the prevalence and presentation of NAFLD vary widely across regions because of the substantial diversity in race, socioeconomic status and living environment. Furthermore, the dual aetiology of fatty liver, particularly with viral hepatitis in Asia, makes it complex and challenging to manage. Because Asians are likely to have central adiposity and insulin resistance, approximately 7%-20% of non-obese Asians with body mass indexes of less than 25 kg/m2 are estimated to have NAFLD. Accumulating evidence indicates that NAFLD is associated with various extrahepatic comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, malignancy, in addition to liver-specific complications. Therefore, NAFLD should be managed as a multisystem disease in conjunction with metabolic syndrome. Lifestyle modification remains the basis of NAFLD management, but few patients can achieve adequate weight loss and maintain it long term. While various pharmacological agents are in phase 3 trials for steatohepatitis, Asian patients are underrepresented in most trials. This article reviews the epidemiological trends, clinical features, optimal assessment and current management practices for NAFLD in Asia.

18.
Front Oncol ; 11: 682872, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249730

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is the most common lethal malignancy, with little improvement in patient outcomes over the decades. The development of early detection methods and effective therapeutic strategies are needed to improve the prognosis of patients with this disease. Recent advances in cancer genomics have revealed the genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer, and clinical trials are currently being conducted to match the treatment to underlying mutations. Liquid biopsy-based diagnosis is a promising method to start personalized treatment. In addition to genome-based medicine, personalized models have been studied as a tool to test candidate drugs to select the most efficacious treatment. The innovative three-dimensional organoid culture platform, as well as patient-derived xenografts can be used to conduct genomic and functional studies to enable personalized treatment approaches. Combining genome-based medicine with drug screening based on personalized models may fulfill the promise of precision medicine for pancreatic cancer.

20.
JGH Open ; 5(7): 770-777, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34263071

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a potential cause of gastric carcinogenesis after Helicobacter pylori eradication. Thus, appropriate management including chemoprevention is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the incidence of post-eradication gastric cancer in PPI users. Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was conducted. Patients who used a PPI (≥30 days) after H. pylori eradication between 2014 and 2019 were analyzed in nine hospital databases. Gastric cancer incidence was a primary outcome, and their association with NSAIDs use and clinical factors was evaluated. Hazard ratios were adjusted by age, sex, smoking, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results: During the mean follow-up period of 2.38 years, 1.13% (31/2431) of all patients developed gastric cancer. The cumulative incidence of gastric cancer in PPI users was 0.25% at 1 year, 0.51% at 3 years, and 1.09% at 5 years in the NSAID users and 0.89% at 1 year, 2.32% at 3 years, and 3.61% at 5 years in nonusers. NSAIDs were associated with a lower gastric cancer risk (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.28, P = 0.005). No gastric cancer was observed in the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor users (n = 256). NSAID use with high dose and long duration was significantly associated with a lower incidence of gastric cancer. Conclusion: NSAIDs were associated with a 60% decrease in the gastric cancer incidence in H. pylori-eradicated PPI users, with dose and duration response effects. NSAIDs may be effective for chemoprevention against PPI-related gastric cancer.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...