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1.
Hum Genet ; 138(4): 389-409, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887117

RESUMO

Incidence rates of Mendelian diseases vary among ethnic groups, and frequencies of variant types of causative genes also vary among human populations. In this study, we examined to what extent we can predict population frequencies of recessive disorders from genomic data, and explored better strategies for variant interpretation and classification. We used a whole-genome reference panel from 3552 general Japanese individuals constructed by the Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (ToMMo). Focusing on 32 genes for 17 congenital metabolic disorders included in newborn screening (NBS) in Japan, we identified reported and predicted pathogenic variants through variant annotation, interpretation, and multiple ways of classifications. The estimated carrier frequencies were compared with those from the Japanese NBS data based on 1,949,987 newborns from a previous study. The estimated carrier frequency based on genomic data with a recent guideline of variant interpretation for the PAH gene, in which defects cause hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) and phenylketonuria (PKU), provided a closer estimate to that by the observed incidence than the other methods. In contrast, the estimated carrier frequencies for SLC25A13, which causes citrin deficiency, were much higher compared with the incidence rate. The results varied greatly among the 11 NBS diseases with single responsible genes; the possible reasons for departures from the carrier frequencies by reported incidence rates were discussed. Of note, (1) the number of pathogenic variants increases by including additional lines of evidence, (2) common variants with mild effects also contribute to the actual frequency of patients, and (3) penetrance of each variant remains unclear.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/diagnóstico , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/genética , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Padrões de Referência
2.
Sleep ; 42(6)2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810208

RESUMO

Usual sleep duration has substantial heritability and is associated with various physical and psychiatric conditions as well as mortality. However, for its genetic locus, only PAX8 and VRK2 have been replicated in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of self-reported usual sleep duration using three population-based cohorts totaling 31 230 Japanese individuals. A genome-wide significant locus was identified at 12q24 (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8). Subsequently, a functional variant in the ALDH2 locus, rs671, was replicated in an independent sample of 5140 Japanese individuals (p-value = 0.004). The association signal, however, disappeared after adjusting for alcohol consumption, indicating the possibility that the rs671 genotype modifies sleep duration via alcohol consumption. This hypothesis explained a modest genetic correlation observed between sleep duration and alcohol consumption (rG = 0.23). A Mendelian randomization analysis using rs671 and other variants as instrumental variables confirmed this by showing a causal effect of alcohol consumption, but not of coffee consumption on sleep duration. Another genome-wide significant locus was identified at 5q33 after adjusting for drinking frequency. However, this locus was not replicated, nor was the PAX8 and VRK2. Our study has confirmed that a functional ALDH2 variant, rs671, most strongly influences on usual sleep duration possibly via alcohol consumption in the Japanese population, and presumably in East Asian populations. This highlights the importance of considering the involvement of alcohol consumption in future GWAS of usual sleep duration, even in non-East Asian populations, where rs671 is monomorphic.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 102, 2019 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643196

RESUMO

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and cholestatic autoimmune liver disease caused by the destruction of intrahepatic small bile ducts. Our previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six susceptibility loci for PBC. Here, in order to further elucidate the genetic architecture of PBC, a GWAS was performed on an additional independent sample set, then a genome-wide meta-analysis with our previous GWAS was performed based on a whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) imputation analysis of a total of 4,045 Japanese individuals (2,060 cases and 1,985 healthy controls). A susceptibility locus on chromosome 3q13.33 (including ARHGAP31, TMEM39A, POGLUT1, TIMMDC1, and CD80) was previously identified both in the European and Chinese populations and was replicated in the Japanese population (OR = 0.7241, P = 3.5 × 10-9). Subsequent in silico and in vitro functional analyses identified rs2293370, previously reported as the top-hit SNP in this locus in the European population, as the primary functional SNP. Moreover, e-QTL analysis indicated that the effector gene of rs2293370 was Protein O-Glucosyltransferase 1 (POGLUT1) (P = 3.4 × 10-8). This is the first study to demonstrate that POGLUT1 and not CD80 is the effector gene regulated by the primary functional SNP rs2293370, and that increased expression of POGLUT1 might be involved in the pathogenesis of PBC.

5.
Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 7(3): 515-532, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and cholestatic liver disease that eventually leads to cirrhosis and hepatic failure. We recently identified several susceptibility genes included NFKB1 and MANBA for PBC in the Japanese population by genome-wide association study. However, the primary functional variants in the NFKB1/MANBA region and the molecular mechanism for conferring disease susceptibility to PBC have not yet been clarified. METHODS: We performed high-density association mapping based on a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) imputation analysis, using data from a whole-genome sequence reference panel of 1070 Japanese individuals and the previous genome-wide association study (1389 PBC patients, 1508 healthy controls). Among SNPs (P < 5.0 × 10-7) in the NFKB1/MANBA region, putative primary functional variants and the molecular mechanism for conferring disease susceptibility to PBC were identified by in silico/in vitro functional analysis. RESULTS: Among the SNPs in the NFKB1/MANBA region, rs17032850 and rs227361, which changed the binding of transcription factors lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF-1) and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), respectively, were identified as putative primary functional variants that regulate gene expression. In addition, expression-quantitative trait locus data and gene editing using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system supported the potential role of rs17032850 and rs227361 in regulating NFKB1 and MANBA expression, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We identified independent putative primary functional variants in NFKB1/MANBA and showed the distinct molecular mechanism by which each putative primary functional variant conferred susceptibility to PBC. Our approach was useful to dissect the pathogenesis not only of PBC, but also other digestive diseases in which NFKB1/MANBA has been reported as a susceptibility locus.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/genética , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , beta-Manosidase/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Células Jurkat , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
J Biochem ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452759

RESUMO

Personalized healthcare (PHC) based on an individual's genetic make-up is one of the most advanced, yet feasible, forms of medical care. The Tohoku Medical Megabank (TMM) Project aims to combine population genomics, medical genetics, and prospective cohort studies to develop a critical infrastructure for the establishment of PHC. To date, a TMM-CommCohort (adult general population) and a TMM-BirThree Cohort (birth+three-generation families) have conducted recruitments and baseline surveys. Genome analyses as part of the TMM Project will aid in the development of a high-fidelity whole-genome Japanese reference panel, in designing custom single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays specific to Japanese, and in estimation of the biological significance of genetic variations through linked investigations of the cohorts. Whole-genome sequencing from >3,500 unrelated Japanese and establishment of a Japanese reference genome sequence from long-read data have been done. We next aim to obtain genotype data for all TMM cohort participants (>150,000) using our custom SNP arrays. These data will help identify disease-associated genomic signatures in the Japanese population, while genomic data from TMM-BirThree Cohort participants will be used to improve the reference genome panel. Follow-up of the cohort participants will allow us to test the genetic markers and, consequently, contribute to the realization of PHC.

7.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 29(8): 2189-2199, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012571

RESUMO

Background Nephrotic syndrome is the most common cause of chronic glomerular disease in children. Most of these patients develop steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), but the loci conferring susceptibility to childhood SSNS are mainly unknown.Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Japanese population; 224 patients with childhood SSNS and 419 adult healthy controls were genotyped using the Affymetrix Japonica Array in the discovery stage. Imputation for six HLA genes (HLA-A, -C, -B, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1) was conducted on the basis of Japanese-specific references. We performed genotyping for HLA-DRB1/-DQB1 using a sequence-specific oligonucleotide-probing method on a Luminex platform. Whole-genome imputation was conducted using a phased reference panel of 2049 healthy Japanese individuals. Replication was performed in an independent Japanese sample set including 216 patients and 719 healthy controls. We genotyped candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms using the DigiTag2 assay.Results The most significant association was detected in the HLA-DR/DQ region and replicated (rs4642516 [minor allele G], combined Pallelic=7.84×10-23; odds ratio [OR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.26 to 0.41; rs3134996 [minor allele A], combined Pallelic=1.72×10-25; OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.37). HLA-DRB1*08:02 (Pc=1.82×10-9; OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.94 to 3.54) and HLA-DQB1*06:04 (Pc=2.09×10-12; OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.21) were considered primary HLA alleles associated with childhood SSNS. HLA-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*03:02 (Pc=7.01×10-11; OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 2.46 to 5.29) was identified as the most significant genetic susceptibility factor.Conclusions The most significant association with childhood SSNS was detected in the HLA-DR/DQ region. Further HLA allele/haplotype analyses should enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying SSNS.

8.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 551, 2018 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genotype imputation from single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data using a haplotype reference panel consisting of thousands of unrelated individuals from populations of interest can help to identify strongly associated variants in genome-wide association studies. The Tohoku Medical Megabank (TMM) project was established to support the development of precision medicine, together with the whole-genome sequencing of 1070 human genomes from individuals in the Miyagi region (Northeast Japan) and the construction of the 1070 Japanese genome reference panel (1KJPN). Here, we investigated the performance of 1KJPN for genotype imputation of Japanese samples not included in the TMM project and compared it with other population reference panels. RESULTS: We found that the 1KJPN population was more similar to other Japanese populations, Nagahama (south-central Japan) and Aki (Shikoku Island), than to East Asian populations in the 1000 Genomes Project other than JPT, suggesting that the large-scale collection (more than 1000) of Japanese genomes from the Miyagi region covered many of the genetic variations of Japanese in mainland Japan. Moreover, 1KJPN outperformed the phase 3 reference panel of the 1000 Genomes Project (1KGPp3) for Japanese samples, and IKJPN showed similar imputation rates for the TMM and other Japanese samples for SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) higher than 1%. CONCLUSIONS: 1KJPN covered most of the variants found in the samples from areas of the Japanese mainland outside the Miyagi region, implying 1KJPN is representative of the Japanese population's genomes. 1KJPN and successive reference panels are useful genome reference panels for the mainland Japanese population. Importantly, the addition of whole genome sequences not included in the 1KJPN panel improved imputation efficiencies for SNPs with MAFs under 1% for samples from most regions of the Japanese archipelago.

9.
Heliyon ; 4(5): e00625, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872759

RESUMO

Forensic DNA typing is widely used to identify missing persons and plays a central role in forensic profiling. DNA typing usually uses capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of PCR amplification products to detect the length of short tandem repeat (STR) markers. Here, we analyzed whole genome data from 1,070 Japanese individuals generated using massively parallel short-read sequencing of 162 paired-end bases. We have analyzed 843,473 STR loci with two to six basepair repeat units and cataloged highly polymorphic STR loci in the Japanese population. To evaluate the performance of the cataloged STR loci, we compared 23 STR loci, widely used in forensic DNA typing, with capillary electrophoresis based STR genotyping results in the Japanese population. Seventeen loci had high correlations and high call rates. The other six loci had low call rates or low correlations due to either the limitations of short-read sequencing technology, the bioinformatics tool used, or the complexity of repeat patterns. With these analyses, we have also purified the suitable 218 STR loci with four basepair repeat units and 53 loci with five basepair repeat units both for short read sequencing and PCR based technologies, which would be candidates to the actual forensic DNA typing in Japanese population.

10.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8071, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795304

RESUMO

Approximately 10-20% of patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) progress to jaundice stage regardless of treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid and bezafibrate. In this study, we performed a GWAS and a replication study to identify genetic variants associated with jaundice-stage progression in PBC using a total of 1,375 patients (1,202 early-stage and 173 jaundice-stage) in a Japanese population. SNP rs13720, which is located in the 3'UTR of cathepsin Z (CTSZ), showed the strongest association (odds ratio [OR] = 2.15, P = 7.62 × 10-7) with progression to jaundice stage in GWAS. High-density association mapping at the CTSZ and negative elongation factor complex member C/D (NELFCD) loci, which are located within a strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) block, revealed that an intronic SNP of CTSZ, rs163800, was significantly associated with jaundice-stage progression (OR = 2.16, P = 8.57 × 10-8). In addition, eQTL analysis and in silico functional analysis indicated that genotypes of rs163800 or variants in strong LD with rs163800 influence expression levels of both NELFCD and CTSZ mRNA. The present novel findings will contribute to dissect the mechanism of PBC progression and also to facilitate the development of therapies for PBC patients who are resistant to current therapies.

11.
J Hum Genet ; 63(2): 213-230, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192238

RESUMO

Clarifying allele frequencies of disease-related genetic variants in a population is important in genomic medicine; however, such data is not yet available for the Japanese population. To estimate frequencies of actionable pathogenic variants in the Japanese population, we examined the reported pathological variants in genes recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) in our reference panel of genomic variations, 2KJPN, which was created by whole-genome sequencing of 2049 individuals of the resident cohort of the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project. We searched for pathogenic variants in 2KJPN for 57 autosomal ACMG-recommended genes responsible for 26 diseases and then examined their frequencies. By referring to public databases of pathogenic variations, we identified 143 reported pathogenic variants in 2KJPN for the 57 ACMG recommended genes based on a classification system. At the individual level, 21% of the individuals were found to have at least one reported pathogenic allele. We then conducted a literature survey to review the variants and to check for evidence of pathogenicity. Our results suggest that a substantial number of people have reported pathogenic alleles for the ACMG genes, and reviewing variants is indispensable for constructing the information infrastructure of genomic medicine for the Japanese population.


Assuntos
Alelos , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer ; 57(2): 51-60, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044863

RESUMO

Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is the most refractory subtype of ovarian cancer and more prevalent in Japanese than Caucasians (25% and 5% of all ovarian cancer, respectively). The aim of this study is to discover the genomic alterations that may cause OCCC and effective molecular targets for chemotherapy. Paired genomic DNAs of 48 OCCC tissues and corresponding noncancerous tissues were extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded specimens collected between 2007 and 2015 at Tohoku University Hospital. All specimens underwent exome sequencing and the somatic genetic alterations were identified. We divided the cases into three clusters based on the mutation spectra. Clinical characteristics such as age of onset and endometriosis are similar among the clusters but one cluster shows mutations related to APOBEC activation, indicating its contribution to subset of OCCC cases. There are three hypermutated cases (showing 12-fold or higher somatic mutations than the other 45 cases) and they have germline and somatic mismatch repair gene alterations. The frequently mutated genes are ARID1A (66.7%), PIK3CA (50%), PPP2R1A (18.8%), and KRAS (16.7%). Somatic mutations important for selection of chemotherapeutic agents, such as BRAF, ERBB2, PDGFRB, PGR, and KRAS are found in 27.1% of OCCC cases, indicating clinical importance of exome analysis for OCCC. Our study suggests that the genetic instability caused by either mismatch repair defect or activation of APOBEC play critical roles in OCCC carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Células Claras/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Exoma , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
13.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0186678, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29261660

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the genetic association between Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and the previously reported POAG susceptibility loci and to perform genotype-phenotype analysis. METHODS: Genetic associations for 27 SNPs from 16 loci previously linked to POAG were assessed using genome-wide SNP data of the primary cohort (565 Japanese POAG patients and 1,104 controls). Reproducibility of the assessment was tested in 607 POAG cases and 455 controls (second cohort) with a targeted genotyping approach. For POAG-associated variants, a genotype-phenotype correlation study (additive, dominant, recessive model) was performed using the objective clinical data derived from 598 eyes of 598 POAG patients. RESULTS: Among 27 SNPs from 16 loci previously linked to POAG, genotypes for total of 20 SNPs in 13 loci were available for targeted association study. Among 8 SNPs in 3 loci that showed at least nominal association (P < 5.00E-02) in the primary cohort, a representative SNP for each loci (rs2157719 for CDKN2B-AS1, rs33912345 for SIX6, and rs9913911 for GAS7) were selected. For these SNPs the association was found significant in both the second cohort analysis and meta-analysis. The genotype-phenotype analysis revealed significant correlations between CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719) and decreased intraocular pressure (ß = -6.89 mmHg, P = 1.70E-04; dominant model) after multiple corrections. In addition, nominal correlation was observed between CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719) and optic nerve head blood flow (ß = -0.54 and -0.67 arbitrary units (AU), P = 2.00E-02 and 1.39E-02), between SIX6 (rs33912345) and decreased total peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (ß = -2.16 and -2.82 µm, P = 4.68E-02 and 2.40E-02, additive and recessive model, respectively) and increased optic nerve head blood flow (ß = 0.44 AU, P = 2.20E-02; additive model) and between GAS7 (rs9913911) and increased cup volume (ß = 0.03 mm3, P = 4.60E-02) and mean cup depth (ß = 0.03 mm3, P = 4.11E-02; additive model) and decreased pattern standard deviation (ß = -0.87 dB, P = 2.44E-02; dominant model). CONCLUSION: The association between SNPs near GAS7 and POAG was found in Japanese patients for the first time. Clinical characterization of the risk variants is an important step toward understanding the pathology of the disease and optimizing treatment of patients with POAG.


Assuntos
Alelos , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p15/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Transativadores/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2904, 2017 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588209

RESUMO

Numerous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed to identify susceptibility genes to various human complex diseases. However, in many cases, neither a functional variant nor a disease susceptibility gene have been clarified. Here, we show an efficient approach for identification of a functional variant in a primary biliary cholangitis (PBC)-susceptible region, chromosome 17q12-21 (ORMDL3-GSDMB-ZPBP2-IKZF3). High-density association mapping was carried out based on SNP imputation analysis by using the whole-genome sequence data from a reference panel of 1,070 Japanese individuals (1KJPN), together with genotype data from our previous GWAS (PBC patients: n = 1,389; healthy controls: n = 1,508). Among 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with P < 1.0 × 10-8, rs12946510 was identified as the functional variant that influences gene expression via alteration of Forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) binding affinity in vitro. Moreover, expression-quantitative trait locus (e-QTL) analyses showed that the PBC susceptibility allele of rs12946510 was significantly associated with lower endogenous expression of ORMDL3 and GSDMB in whole blood and spleen. This study not only identified the functional variant in chr.17q12-21 and its molecular mechanism through which it conferred susceptibility to PBC, but it also illustrated an efficient systematic approach for post-GWAS analysis that is applicable to other complex diseases.

15.
Gastroenterology ; 152(6): 1383-1394, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28163062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is still a risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development after eradication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with antiviral agents. We investigated genetic factors associated with the development of HCC in patients with a sustained virologic response (SVR) to treatment for chronic HCV infection. METHODS: We obtained genomic DNA from 457 patients in Japan with a SVR to interferon-based treatment for chronic HCV infection from 2007 through 2015. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS), followed by a replication analysis of 79 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an independent set of 486 patients in Japan. The study end point was HCC diagnosis or confirmation of lack of HCC (at follow-up examinations until December 2014 in the GWAS cohort, and until January 2016 in the replication cohort). We collected clinical and laboratory data from all patients. We analyzed expression levels of candidate gene variants in human hepatic stellate cells, rats with steatohepatitis caused by a choline-deficient L-amino acid-defined diet, and a mouse model of liver injury caused by administration of carbon tetrachloride. We also analyzed expression levels in liver tissues of patients with chronic HCV infection with different stages of fibrosis or tumors vs patients without HCV infection (controls). RESULTS: We found a strong association between the SNP rs17047200, located within the intron of the tolloid like 1 gene (TLL1) on chromosome 4, and development of HCC; there was a genome-wide level of significance when the results of the GWAS and replication study were combined (odds ratio, 2.37; P = 2.66 × 10-8). Multivariate analysis showed rs17047200 AT/TT to be an independent risk factor for HCC (hazard ratio, 1.78; P = .008), along with male sex, older age, lower level of albumin, advanced stage of hepatic fibrosis, presence of diabetes, and higher post-treatment level of α-fetoprotein. Combining the rs17047200 genotype with other factors, we developed prediction models for HCC development in patients with mild or advanced hepatic fibrosis. Levels of TLL1 messenger RNA (mRNA) in human hepatic stellate cells increased with activation. Levels of Tll1 mRNA increased in liver tissues of rodents with hepatic fibrogenesis compared with controls. Levels of TLL1 mRNA increased in liver tissues of patients with progression of fibrosis. Gene expression levels of TLL1 short variants, including isoform 2, were higher in patients with rs17047200 AT/TT. CONCLUSIONS: In a GWAS, we identified the association between the SNP rs17047200, within the intron of TLL1, and development of HCC in patients who achieved an SVR to treatment for chronic HCV infection. We found levels of Tll1/TLL1 mRNA to be increased in rodent models of liver injury and liver tissues of patients with fibrosis, compared with controls. We propose that this SNP might affect splicing of TLL1 mRNA, yielding short variants with high catalytic activity that accelerates hepatic fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to determine how rs17047200 affects TLL1 mRNA levels, splicing, and translation, as well as the prevalence of this variant among other patients with HCC. Tests for the TLL1 SNP might be used to identify patients at risk for HCC after an SVR to treatment of HCV infection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Metaloproteases Semelhantes a Toloide/genética , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Animais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Tetracloreto de Carbono , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colina/administração & dosagem , Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/metabolismo , Humanos , Íntrons , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ratos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Resposta Viral Sustentada , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo
16.
J Hum Genet ; 62(4): 485-489, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28100913

RESUMO

A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for cold medicine-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome (CM-SJS) with severe ocular complications (SOC) was performed in a Japanese population. A recently developed ethnicity-specific array with genome-wide imputation that was based on the whole-genome sequences of 1070 unrelated Japanese individuals was used. Validation analysis with additional samples from Japanese individuals and replication analysis using samples from Korean individuals identified two new susceptibility loci on chromosomes 15 and 16. This study might suggest the usefulness of GWAS using the ethnicity-specific array and genome-wide imputation based on large-scale whole-genome sequences. Our findings contribute to the understanding of genetic predisposition to CM-SJS with SOC.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/genética , Antígeno HLA-A2/genética , Recombinases/genética , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Oftalmopatias/induzido quimicamente , Oftalmopatias/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicamentos Compostos contra Resfriado, Influenza e Alergia/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/complicações , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/patologia
17.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(3): 650-659, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28062665

RESUMO

A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) performed in 963 Japanese individuals (487 primary biliary cholangitis [PBC] cases and 476 healthy controls) identified TNFSF15 (rs4979462) and POU2AF1 (rs4938534) as strong susceptibility loci for PBC. In this study, we performed GWAS in additional 1,923 Japanese individuals (894 PBC cases and 1,029 healthy controls), and combined the results with the previous data. This GWAS, together with a subsequent replication study in an independent set of 7,024 Japanese individuals (512 PBC cases and 6,512 healthy controls), identified PRKCB (rs7404928) as a novel susceptibility locus for PBC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.26, P = 4.13 × 10-9). Furthermore, a primary functional variant of PRKCB (rs35015313) was identified by genotype imputation using a phased panel of 1,070 Japanese individuals from a prospective, general population cohort study and subsequent in vitro functional analyses. These results may lead to improved understanding of the disease pathways involved in PBC, forming a basis for prevention of PBC and development of novel therapeutics.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/genética , Proteína Quinase C beta/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Japão , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/patologia , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
BMC Genomics ; 17(1): 991, 2016 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27912743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the estimation of repeat numbers in a short tandem repeat (STR) region from high-throughput sequencing data, two types of strategies are mainly taken: a strategy based on counting repeat patterns included in sequence reads spanning the region and a strategy based on estimating the difference between the actual insert size and the insert size inferred from paired-end reads. The quality of sequence alignment is crucial, especially in the former approaches although usual alignment methods have difficulty in STR regions due to insertions and deletions caused by the variations of repeat numbers. RESULTS: We proposed a new dynamic programming based realignment method named STR-realigner that considers repeat patterns in STR regions as prior knowledge. By allowing the size change of repeat patterns with low penalty in STR regions, accurate realignment is expected. For the performance evaluation, publicly available STR variant calling tools were applied to three types of aligned reads: synthetically generated sequencing reads aligned with BWA-MEM, those realigned with STR-realigner, those realigned with ReviSTER, and those realigned with GATK IndelRealigner. From the comparison of root mean squared errors between estimated and true STR region size, the results for the dataset realigned with STR-realigner are better than those for other cases. For real data analysis, we used a real sequencing dataset from Illumina HiSeq 2000 for a parent-offspring trio. RepeatSeq and lobSTR were applied to the sequence reads for these individuals aligned with BWA-MEM, those realigned with STR-realigner, ReviSTER, and GATK IndelRealigner. STR-realigner shows the best performance in terms of consistency of the size of estimated STR regions in Mendelian inheritance. Root mean squared error values were also calculated from the comparison of these estimated results with STR region sizes obtained from high coverage PacBio sequencing data, and the results from the realigned sequencing data with STR-realigner showed the least (the best) root mean squared error value. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of the proposed realignment method for STR regions was verified from the comparison with an existing method on both simulation datasets and real whole genome sequencing dataset.


Assuntos
Repetições de Microssatélites , Alinhamento de Sequência/métodos , Software , Algoritmos , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
20.
BMC Genomics ; 17 Suppl 5: 494, 2016 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27586631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two types of approaches are mainly considered for the repeat number estimation in short tandem repeat (STR) regions from high-throughput sequencing data: approaches directly counting repeat patterns included in sequence reads spanning the region and approaches based on detecting the difference between the insert size inferred from aligned paired-end reads and the actual insert size. Although the accuracy of repeat numbers estimated with the former approaches is high, the size of target STR regions is limited to the length of sequence reads. On the other hand, the latter approaches can handle STR regions longer than the length of sequence reads. However, repeat numbers estimated with the latter approaches is less accurate than those with the former approaches. RESULTS: We proposed a new statistical model named coalescentSTR that estimates repeat numbers from paired-end read distances for multiple individuals simultaneously by connecting the read generative model for each individual with their genealogy. In the model, the genealogy is represented by handling coalescent trees as hidden variables, and the summation of the hidden variables is taken on coalescent trees sampled based on phased genotypes located around a target STR region with Markov chain Monte Carlo. In the sampled coalescent trees, repeat number information from insert size data is propagated, and more accurate estimation of repeat numbers is expected for STR regions longer than the length of sequence reads. For finding the repeat numbers maximizing the likelihood of the model on the estimation of repeat numbers, we proposed a state-of-the-art belief propagation algorithm on sampled coalescent trees. CONCLUSIONS: We verified the effectiveness of the proposed approach from the comparison with existing methods by using simulation datasets and real whole genome and whole exome data for HapMap individuals analyzed in the 1000 Genomes Project.


Assuntos
Repetições de Microssatélites , Algoritmos , Simulação por Computador , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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