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1.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 256, 2019 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy and neuropathy (Spoan syndrome) is an autosomal recessive disease with approximately 70 cases recorded in Brazil and Egypt. METHODS: This is a prospective longitudinal study performed with 47 patients affected with Spoan syndrome of seven communities of Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil) to investigate changes in motor function based on comparative data obtained from a 10-year follow-up. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 47.21 ± 12.42 years old, and the mean age at loss of ambulation and hand function were 10.78 ± 5.55 and 33.58 ± 17.47 years old, respectively. Spearman's correlation analysis between the score on the Modified Barthel Index and the investigated variables evidenced statistical significance for age (p < 0.001) and right- and left-hand grip strength (p = 0.042 and p = 0.021, respectively). Statistical significance was not evidenced for the remainder of the variables, including age at onset of symptoms (p = 0.634), age at loss of ambulation (p = 0.664) and age at loss of hand function (p = 0.118). CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis allows asserting that the participants exhibited slight dependence until age 35. The greatest losses occurred from ages 35 to 41, and starting at 50, practically all patients become completely dependent. These findings are relevant for determining the prognosis as well as suitable treatment, rehabilitation and assistive technology for these individuals.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 302-316, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256877

RESUMO

Members of a paralogous gene family in which variation in one gene is known to cause disease are eight times more likely to also be associated with human disease. Recent studies have elucidated DHX30 and DDX3X as genes for which pathogenic variant alleles are involved in neurodevelopmental disorders. We hypothesized that variants in paralogous genes encoding members of the DExD/H-box RNA helicase superfamily might also underlie developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD and/or ID) disease phenotypes. Here we describe 15 unrelated individuals who have DD and/or ID, central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, vertebral anomalies, and dysmorphic features and were found to have probably damaging variants in DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes. In addition, these individuals exhibit a variety of other tissue and organ system involvement including ocular, outer ear, hearing, cardiac, and kidney tissues. Five individuals with homozygous (one), compound-heterozygous (two), or de novo (two) missense variants in DHX37 were identified by exome sequencing. We identified ten total individuals with missense variants in three other DDX/DHX paralogs: DHX16 (four individuals), DDX54 (three individuals), and DHX34 (three individuals). Most identified variants are rare, predicted to be damaging, and occur at conserved amino acid residues. Taken together, these 15 individuals implicate the DExD/H-box helicases in both dominantly and recessively inherited neurodevelopmental phenotypes and highlight the potential for more than one disease mechanism underlying these disorders.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1210-1222, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079897

RESUMO

We delineate a KMT2E-related neurodevelopmental disorder on the basis of 38 individuals in 36 families. This study includes 31 distinct heterozygous variants in KMT2E (28 ascertained from Matchmaker Exchange and three previously reported), and four individuals with chromosome 7q22.2-22.23 microdeletions encompassing KMT2E (one previously reported). Almost all variants occurred de novo, and most were truncating. Most affected individuals with protein-truncating variants presented with mild intellectual disability. One-quarter of individuals met criteria for autism. Additional common features include macrocephaly, hypotonia, functional gastrointestinal abnormalities, and a subtle facial gestalt. Epilepsy was present in about one-fifth of individuals with truncating variants and was responsive to treatment with anti-epileptic medications in almost all. More than 70% of the individuals were male, and expressivity was variable by sex; epilepsy was more common in females and autism more common in males. The four individuals with microdeletions encompassing KMT2E generally presented similarly to those with truncating variants, but the degree of developmental delay was greater. The group of four individuals with missense variants in KMT2E presented with the most severe developmental delays. Epilepsy was present in all individuals with missense variants, often manifesting as treatment-resistant infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Microcephaly was also common in this group. Haploinsufficiency versus gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects specific to these missense variants in KMT2E might explain this divergence in phenotype, but requires independent validation. Disruptive variants in KMT2E are an under-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 3, 2019 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616629

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of the inositol cycle is implicated in a wide variety of human diseases, including developmental defects and neurological diseases. A homozygous frameshift mutation in IMPA1, coding for the enzyme inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPase), has recently been associated with severe intellectual disability (ID) in a geographically isolated consanguineous family in Northeastern Brazil (Figueredo et al., 2016). However, the neurophysiologic mechanisms that mediate the IMPA1 mutation and associated ID phenotype have not been characterized. To this end, resting EEG (eyes-open and eyes-closed) was collected from the Figueredo et al. pedigree. Quantitative EEG measures, including mean power, dominant frequency and dominant frequency variability, were investigated for allelic associations using multivariate family-based association test using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: We found that the IMPA1 mutation was associated with relative decreases in frontal theta band power as well as altered alpha-band variability with no regional specificity during the eyes-open condition. For the eyes-closed condition, there was altered dominant theta frequency variability in the central and parietal regions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings represent the first human in vivo phenotypic assessment of brain function disturbances associated with a loss-of-function IMPA1 mutation, and thus an important first step towards an understanding the pathophysiologic mechanisms of intellectual disability associated with the mutation that affects this critical metabolic pathway.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mutação/genética , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Linhagem
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 203-212, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612693

RESUMO

Using exome sequencing, we have identified de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 in 13 unrelated individuals presenting with an overlapping phenotype of mild to severe intellectual disability. The de novo variants comprise six missense variants, three of which are recurrent, and three truncating variants. Brain anomalies such as perisylvian polymicrogyria, cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum were consistent among individuals harboring recurrent de novo missense variants. MAPK8IP3 has been shown to be involved in the retrograde axonal-transport machinery, but many of its specific functions are yet to be elucidated. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system to target six conserved amino acid positions in Caenorhabditis elegans, we found that two of the six investigated human alterations led to a significantly elevated density of axonal lysosomes, and five variants were associated with adverse locomotion. Reverse-engineering normalized the observed adverse effects back to wild-type levels. Combining genetic, phenotypic, and functional findings, as well as the significant enrichment of de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 within our total cohort of 27,232 individuals who underwent exome sequencing, we implicate de novo variants in MAPK8IP3 as a cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder with intellectual disability and variable brain anomalies.

6.
Radiographics ; 39(1): 153-168, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620693

RESUMO

Leukodystrophies usually affect children, but in the last several decades, many instances of adult leukodystrophies have been reported in the medical literature. Because the clinical manifestation of these diseases can be nonspecific, MRI can help with establishing a diagnosis. A step-by-step approach to assist in the diagnosis of adult leukodystrophies is proposed in this article. The first step is to identify symmetric white matter involvement, which is more commonly observed in these patients. The next step is to fit the symmetric white matter involvement into one of the proposed patterns. However, a patient may present with more than one pattern of white matter involvement. Thus, the third step is to evaluate for five distinct characteristics-including enhancement, lesions with signal intensity similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid, susceptibility-weighted MRI signal intensity abnormalities, abnormal peaks at MR spectroscopy, and spinal cord involvement-to further narrow the differential diagnosis. ©RSNA, 2019.

7.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2019 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690204

RESUMO

The Na+/K+- ATPase acts as an ion pump maintaining the essential plasma membrane potential in all mammalian cell types, and is essential for many cellular functions. There are four α isoforms (α1, α2, α3 and α4) with distinct expression patterns, kinetic properties and substrate affinity. The α2-isoform is encoded by ATP1A2 and evidence supports its utmost importance in Cl- homeostasis in neurons, and in the function of respiratory neurons at birth. Monallelic pathogenic variants in ATP1A2 are associated with familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2) and on rare occasions with alternating hemiplegia of childhood 1 (AHC1). To date, no instances of biallelic loss of function variants have been reported in humans. However, Atp1a2 homozygous loss of function knockout mice (α2-/- mice) show severe motor deficits, with lack of spontaneous movements, and are perinatally lethal due to absent respiratory activity. In this report we describe three newborns from two unrelated families, who died neonatally, presenting in utero with an unusual form of fetal hydrops, seizures and polyhydramnios. At birth they had multiple joint contractures (e.g. arthrogryposis), microcephaly, malformations of cortical development, dysmorphic features and severe respiratory insufficiency. Biallelic loss of function variants in ATP1A2, predicted to be pathogenic were found on whole exome sequencing. We propose that this is a distinctive new syndrome caused by complete absence of Na+/K+- ATPase α2-isoform expression.

8.
Parkinsonism Relat Disord ; 62: 148-155, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is an important form of inherited ataxia with a varied clinical spectrum. Detailed studies of phenotype and genotype are necessary to improve diagnosis and elucidate this disorder pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To investigate the clinical phenotype, retinal architecture, neuroimaging features and genetic profile of Brazilian patients with ARSACS, we performed neurological and ophthalmological evaluation in thirteen Brazilian patients with molecularly confirmed ARSACS, and examined their mutation profiles. Optical coherence tomography protocol (OCT) consisted in peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurement and qualitative analysis of perifoveal scans. Neuroimaging protocol accessed the frequency of atrophy in cerebellum, corpus callosum and parietal lobe, brainstem signal abnormalities, and posterior fossa arachnoid cysts. We reviewed the literature to delineate the ARSACS phenotype in the largest series worldwide. RESULTS: All patients had ataxia and spasticity, and 11/13 had peripheral neuropathy. Macular microcysts were present in two patients. Peripapillary striations, dentate appearance of inner retina and papillomacular fold were found in eleven cases. All individuals exhibited thickening of RNFL in OCT. The most frequent radiological signs were cerebellar atrophy (13/13), biparietal atrophy (12/13), and linear pontine hypointensities (13/13). Genetic analysis revealed 14 different SACS variants, of which two are novel. CONCLUSION: Macular microcysts, inner retina dentate appearance and papillomacular fold are novel retinal imaging signs of ARSACS. Ophthalmological and neuroimaging changes are common findings in Brazilian patients. The core clinical features of ARSACS are ataxia, spasticity and peripheral neuropathy with onset predominantly in the first decade of life.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16552, 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410084

RESUMO

The mutation age and local ancestry of chromosomal segments harbouring mutations associated with autosomal recessive (AR) disorders in Brazilian admixed populations remain unknown; additionally, inbreeding levels for these affected individuals continue to be estimated based on genealogical information. Here, we calculated inbreeding levels using a runs of homozygosity approach, mutation age and local ancestry to infer the origin of each chromosomal segments containing disorder-causing mutations in KLC2, IMPA1, MED25 and WNT7A. Genotyped data were generated from 18 patients affected by AR diseases and combined to the 1000 genome project (1KGP) and Simons genome diversity project (SGDP) databases to infer local ancestry. We found a major European contribution for mutated haplotypes with recent mutation age and inbreeding values found only in Native American and Middle East individuals. These results contribute to identifying the origin of and to understanding how these diseases are maintained and spread in Brazilian and world populations.

10.
Brain ; 141(11): 3160-3178, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351409

RESUMO

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels control neuronal excitability and their dysfunction has been linked to epileptogenesis but few individuals with neurological disorders related to variants altering HCN channels have been reported so far. In 2014, we described five individuals with epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo HCN1 variants. To delineate HCN1-related disorders and investigate genotype-phenotype correlations further, we assembled a cohort of 33 unpublished patients with novel pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants: 19 probands carrying 14 different de novo mutations and four families with dominantly inherited variants segregating with epilepsy in 14 individuals, but not penetrant in six additional individuals. Sporadic patients had epilepsy with median onset at age 7 months and in 36% the first seizure occurred during a febrile illness. Overall, considering familial and sporadic patients, the predominant phenotypes were mild, including genetic generalized epilepsies and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) spectrum. About 20% manifested neonatal/infantile onset otherwise unclassified epileptic encephalopathy. The study also included eight patients with variants of unknown significance: one adopted patient had two HCN1 variants, four probands had intellectual disability without seizures, and three individuals had missense variants inherited from an asymptomatic parent. Of the 18 novel pathogenic missense variants identified, 12 were associated with severe phenotypes and clustered within or close to transmembrane domains, while variants segregating with milder phenotypes were located outside transmembrane domains, in the intracellular N- and C-terminal parts of the channel. Five recurrent variants were associated with similar phenotypes. Using whole-cell patch-clamp, we showed that the impact of 12 selected variants ranged from complete loss-of-function to significant shifts in activation kinetics and/or voltage dependence. Functional analysis of three different substitutions altering Gly391 revealed that these variants had different consequences on channel biophysical properties. The Gly391Asp variant, associated with the most severe, neonatal phenotype, also had the most severe impact on channel function. Molecular dynamics simulation on channel structure showed that homotetramers were not conducting ions because the permeation path was blocked by cation(s) strongly complexed to the Asp residue, whereas heterotetramers showed an instantaneous current component possibly linked to deformation of the channel pore. In conclusion, our results considerably expand the clinical spectrum related to HCN1 variants to include common generalized epilepsy phenotypes and further illustrate how HCN1 has a pivotal function in brain development and control of neuronal excitability.

11.
J Cell Biochem ; 119(12): 10021-10032, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129250

RESUMO

The deficiency of the enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, known as glutaric acidemia type I (GA-I), leads to the accumulation of glutaric acid (GA) and glutarilcarnitine (C5DC) in the tissues and body fluids, unleashing important neurotoxic effects. l-carnitine (l-car) is recommended for the treatment of GA-I, aiming to induce the excretion of toxic metabolites. l-car has also demonstrated an important role as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in some neurometabolic diseases. This study evaluated GA-I patients at diagnosis moment and treated the oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and the inflammatory profile, as well as in vivo and in vitro DNA damage, reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and antioxidant capacity, verifying if the actual treatment with l-car (100 mg kg-1 day-1 ) is able to protect the organism against these processes. Significant increases of GA and C5DC were observed in GA-I patients. A deficiency of carnitine in patients before the supplementation was found. GA-I patients presented significantly increased levels of isoprostanes, di-tyrosine, urinary oxidized guanine species, and the RNS, as well as a reduced antioxidant capacity. The l-car supplementation induced beneficial effects reducing these biomarkers levels and increasing the antioxidant capacity. GA, in three different concentrations, significantly induced DNA damage in vitro, and the l-car was able to prevent this damage. Significant increases of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, and TNF-α were shown in patients. Thus, the beneficial effects of l-car presented in the treatment of GA-I are due not only by increasing the excretion of accumulated toxic metabolites, but also by preventing oxidative damage.

12.
Brain ; 2018 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010796

RESUMO

Defects in iron-sulphur [Fe-S] cluster biogenesis are increasingly recognized as causing neurological disease. Mutations in a number of genes that encode proteins involved in mitochondrial [Fe-S] protein assembly lead to complex neurological phenotypes. One class of proteins essential in the early cluster assembly are ferredoxins. FDX2 is ubiquitously expressed and is essential in the de novo formation of [2Fe-2S] clusters in humans. We describe and genetically define a novel complex neurological syndrome identified in two Brazilian families, with a novel homozygous mutation in FDX2. Patients were clinically evaluated, underwent MRI, nerve conduction studies, EMG and muscle biopsy. To define the genetic aetiology, a combination of homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing was performed. We identified six patients from two apparently unrelated families with autosomal recessive inheritance of a complex neurological phenotype involving optic atrophy and nystagmus developing by age 3, followed by myopathy and recurrent episodes of cramps, myalgia and muscle weakness in the first or second decade of life. Sensory-motor axonal neuropathy led to progressive distal weakness. MRI disclosed a reversible or partially reversible leukoencephalopathy. Muscle biopsy demonstrated an unusual pattern of regional succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome c oxidase deficiency with iron accumulation. The phenotype was mapped in both families to the same homozygous missense mutation in FDX2 (c.431C > T, p.P144L). The deleterious effect of the mutation was validated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, which demonstrated normal expression of FDX2 mRNA but severely reduced expression of FDX2 protein in muscle tissue. This study describes a novel complex neurological phenotype with unusual MRI and muscle biopsy features, conclusively mapped to a mutation in FDX2, which encodes a ubiquitously expressed mitochondrial ferredoxin essential for early [Fe-S] cluster biogenesis.

15.
Mol Cytogenet ; 11: 14, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29441128

RESUMO

Background: Syndromic obesity is an umbrella term used to describe cases where obesity occurs with additional phenotypes. It often arises as part of a distinct genetic syndrome with Prader-Willi syndrome being a classical example. These rare forms of obesity provide a unique source for identifying obesity-related genetic changes. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) has allowed the characterization of new genetic forms of syndromic obesity, which are due to copy number variants (CNVs); however, CMA in large cohorts requires more study. The aim of this study was to characterize the CNVs detected by CMA in 279 patients with a syndromic obesity phenotype. Results: Pathogenic CNVs were detected in 61 patients (22%) and, among them, 35 had overlapping/recurrent CNVs. Genomic imbalance disorders known to cause syndromic obesity were found in 8.2% of cases, most commonly deletions of 1p36, 2q37 and 17p11.2 (5.4%), and we also detected deletions at 1p21.3, 2p25.3, 6q16, 9q34, 16p11.2 distal and proximal, as well as an unbalanced translocation resulting in duplication of the GNB3 gene responsible for a syndromic for of childhood obesity. Deletions of 9p terminal and 22q11.2 proximal/distal were found in 1% and 3% of cases, respectively. They thus emerge as being new putative obesity-susceptibility loci. We found additional CNVs in our study that overlapped with CNVs previously reported in cases of syndromic obesity, including a new case of 13q34 deletion (CHAMP1), bringing to 7 the number of patients in whom such defects have been described in association with obesity. Our findings implicate many genes previously associated with obesity (e.g. PTBP2, TMEM18, MYT1L, POU3F2, SIM1, SH2B1), and also identified other potentially relevant candidates including TAS1R3, ALOX5AP, and GAS6. Conclusion: Understanding the genetics of obesity has proven difficult, and considerable insight has been obtained from the study of genomic disorders with obesity associated as part of the phenotype. In our study, CNVs known to be causal for syndromic obesity were detected in 8.2% of patients, but we provide evidence for a genetic basis of obesity in as many as 14% of cases. Overall, our results underscore the genetic heterogeneity in syndromic forms of obesity, which imposes a substantial challenge for diagnosis.

16.
Hum Genet ; 137(3): 231-246, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29426960

RESUMO

Deletion and truncation mutations in the X-linked gene CASK are associated with severe intellectual disability (ID), microcephaly and pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia in girls (MICPCH). The molecular origin of CASK-linked MICPCH is presumed to be due to disruption of the CASK-Tbr-1 interaction. This hypothesis, however, has not been directly tested. Missense variants in CASK are typically asymptomatic in girls. We report three severely affected girls with heterozygous CASK missense mutations (M519T (2), G659D (1)) who exhibit ID, microcephaly, and hindbrain hypoplasia. The mutation M519T results in the replacement of an evolutionarily invariant methionine located in the PDZ signaling domain known to be critical for the CASK-neurexin interaction. CASKM519T is incapable of binding to neurexin, suggesting a critically important role for the CASK-neurexin interaction. The mutation G659D is in the SH3 (Src homology 3) domain of CASK, replacing a semi-conserved glycine with aspartate. We demonstrate that the CASKG659D mutation affects the CASK protein in two independent ways: (1) it increases the protein's propensity to aggregate; and (2) it disrupts the interface between CASK's PDZ (PSD95, Dlg, ZO-1) and SH3 domains, inhibiting the CASK-neurexin interaction despite residing outside of the domain deemed critical for neurexin interaction. Since heterozygosity of other aggregation-inducing mutations (e.g., CASKW919R) does not produce MICPCH, we suggest that the G659D mutation produces microcephaly by disrupting the CASK-neurexin interaction. Our results suggest that disruption of the CASK-neurexin interaction, not the CASK-Tbr-1 interaction, produces microcephaly and cerebellar hypoplasia. These findings underscore the importance of functional validation for variant classification.

17.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(4): 392-399, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330393

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only treatment that enhances survival and stabilizes neurologic symptoms in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) with cerebral involvement, a severe demyelinating disease of childhood. Patients with X-ALD who lack a well-matched HLA donor need a rapid alternative. Haploidentical HSCT using post transplant cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) has been performed in patients with malignant and nonmalignant diseases showing similar outcomes compared to other alternative sources. We describe the outcomes of transplants performed for nine X-ALD patients using haploidentical donors and PT/Cy. Patients received conditioning regimen with fludarabine 150 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 29 mg/kg and 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) with or without antithymocyte globulin. Graft-vs.-host disease prophylaxis consisted of cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg/day on days +3 and +4, tacrolimus or cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil. One patient had a primary graft failure and was not eligible for a second transplant. Three patients had secondary graft failure and were successfully rescued with second haploidentical transplants. Trying to improve engraftment, conditioning regimen was changed, substituting 2 Gy TBI for 4 Gy total lymphoid irradiation. Eight patients are alive and engrafted (17-37 months after transplant). Haploidentical HSCT with PT/Cy is a feasible alternative for X-ALD patients lacking a suitable matched donor. Graft failure has to be addressed in further studies.

18.
Neurol Genet ; 3(6): e198, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264390

RESUMO

Objective: To perform functional characterization of a potentially pathogenic KCNB1 variant identified by clinical exome sequencing of a proband with a neurodevelopmental disorder that included epilepsy and centrotemporal spikes on EEG. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing identified the KCNB1 variant c.595A>T (p.Ile199Phe). Biochemical and electrophysiologic experiments were performed to determine whether this variant affected protein expression, trafficking, and channel functional properties. Results: Biochemical characterization of the variant suggested normal protein expression and trafficking. Functional characterization revealed biophysical channel defects in assembled homotetrameric and heterotetrameric channels. Conclusions: The identification of the KCNB1 variant c.595A>T (p.Ile199Phe) in a neurodevelopmental disorder that included epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes expands the phenotypic spectrum of epilepsies associated with KCNB1 variants. The KCNB1-I199F variant exhibited partial loss of function relative to the wild-type channel. This defect is arguably less severe than previously reported KCNB1 variants, suggesting the possibility that the degree of KCNB1 protein dysfunction may influence disease severity.

20.
J Hum Genet ; 62(12): 1073-1078, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28855715

RESUMO

We have recently described a family with a condition (Santos syndrome (SS; MIM 613005)) characterized by fibular agenesis/hypoplasia, hypoplastic femora and grossly malformed/deformed clubfeet with severe oligodactyly, ungual hypoplasia/anonychia, sometimes associated with mild brachydactyly and occasional pre-axial polydactyly. Autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance was suggested, but autosomal recessive inheritance could not be ruled out, due to the high frequency of consanguineous matings in the region where the family lived. This report deals with linkage studies and exome sequencing, disclosing a novel variant in WNT7A, c.934G>A (p.Gly312Ser), as the cause of this syndrome. This variant was present in homozygous state in five individuals typically affected by the SS syndrome, and in heterozygous state in the son of one affected homozygous individual. The heterozygous boy presented only unilateral complex polysyndactyly and we hypothesize that he either presents a distinct defect or that his phenotype results from a rare, mild clinical manifestation of the variant in heterozygous state. Variants in WNT7A are known to cause at least two other limb defect disorders, the syndromes of Fuhrmann and Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild. Despite their variable degree of expressivity and overlap, the three related conditions can be differentiated phenotypically in most instances.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Pé Torto Equinovaro/genética , Fíbula/anormalidades , Dedos/anormalidades , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Unhas Malformadas/genética , Polidactilia/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Consanguinidade , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Alinhamento de Sequência
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