Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 22
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126882, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957289

RESUMO

Methamphetamine, mainly consumed as an illicit drug, is a potent addictive psychostimulant that has been detected in surface water at concentrations ranging from nanograms to micrograms per litre, especially in Middle and East Europe. The aim of this study was to expose brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) to environmental (1 µg L-1) and higher (50 µg L-1) concentrations of methamphetamine for 35 days with a four-day depuration phase to assess the possible negative effects on fish health. Degenerative liver and heart alterations, similar to those described in mammals, were observed at both concentrations, although at different intensities. Apoptotic changes in hepatocytes, revealed by activated caspase-3, were found in exposed fish. The parent compound and a metabolite (amphetamine) were detected in fish tissues in both concentration groups, in the order of kidney > liver > brain > muscle > plasma. Bioconcentration factors ranged from 0.13 to 80. A therapeutic plasma concentration was reached for both compounds in the high-concentration treatment. This study indicates that chronic environmental concentrations of methamphetamine can lead to health issues in aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Metanfetamina/toxicidade , Truta/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Rim/patologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Truta/metabolismo
2.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114150, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062094

RESUMO

Environmental monitoring and surveillance studies of pharmaceuticals routinely examine occurrence of substances without current information on human consumption patterns. We selected 10 streams with diverse annual flows and differentially influenced by population densities to examine surface water occurrence and fish accumulation of select psychoactive medicines, for which consumption is increasing in the Czech Republic. We then tested whether passive sampling can provide a useful surrogate for exposure to these substances through grab sampling, body burdens of young of year fish, and tissue specific accumulation of these psychoactive contaminants. We identified a statistically significant (p < 0.05) relationship between ambient grab samples and passive samplers in these streams when psychoactive contaminants were commonly quantitated by targeted liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, though we did not observe relationships between passive samplers and tissue specific pharmaceutical accumulation. We further observed smaller lotic systems with elevated contamination when municipal effluent discharges from more highly populated cities contributed a greater extent of instream flows. These findings identify the importance of understanding age and species specific differences in fish uptake, internal disposition, metabolism and elimination of psychoactive drugs across surface water quality gradients.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Cidades , República Tcheca , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Água
3.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 466-484, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159481

RESUMO

This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler. Compared to a control pond, the total concentration of PPCPs was 45, 16, 7, and 7 times higher in Cezarka pond at day 30, 90, 180, and 360, respectively. The result of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme biomarkers indicated alterations in the liver and intestine tissues of fish from Cezarka pond at day 30 and 360, respectively. High plasma vitellogenin levels were observed in both exposed females (180 and 360 days) and males (360 days) compared with their respective controls. However, only exposed female fish had higher vitellogenin mRNA expression than the control fish in these periods. Exposed female fish showed irregular structure of the ovary with scattered oocytes, which further developed to a vitellogenic stage at day 360. Low white blood cell levels were indicated in all exposed fish. Despite numerous alterations in exposed fish, favorable ecological conditions including high availability of food resulted in a better overall condition of the exposed fish after 1 year of exposure compared to the controls.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Esgotos , Vitelogeninas
4.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 485, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404738

RESUMO

The original version of this Article unfortunately contained an error. The authors' given and family names were transposed erroneously. It has been corrected now in this Erratum.

5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 164: 92-99, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098510

RESUMO

Monitoring the contamination level in aquatic environments and assessing the impact on aquatic life occurs throughout the world. In the present study, an approach based on a combination of biomarkers and the distribution of various industrial and municipal pollutants was used to investigate the effect of aquatic environmental contamination on fish. Monitoring was performed in ten rivers in the Czech Republic (Berounka, Dyje, Elbe, Luznice, Odra, Ohre, Otava, Sázava, Svratka, and Vltava rivers, with one or two locations in each river) at the same sites that were regularly monitored within the Czech National Monitoring Program in 2007-2011. Health status, hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, total cytochrome P450 content, and the plasma vitellogenin concentration were assessed in wild chub (Squalius cephalus) males caught at the monitored sites. The contamination level was the highest in the Svratka River downstream of Brno. Among all measured persistent organic pollutants (POPs), polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites were the major contributors of POPs in fish muscle. Elbe, Odra, and Svratka rivers were identified as the most polluted. Fish from these locations showed reduced gonad size, increased vitellogenin concentration in male plasma, EROD, and total cytochrome P450 content. These biomarkers can be used for future environmental monitoring assessments. Overall, this study improves our understanding of the relationship between human activities and pollutant loads and further contributes to the decision to support local watershed managers to protect water quality in this region.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , República Tcheca , DDT/análise , Poluição Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Vitelogeninas/sangue , Qualidade da Água
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 625: 1494-1509, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29996446

RESUMO

Concerns about the effect of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluent on the health of freshwater ecosystems have increased. In this study, a unique approach was designed to show the effect of an STP effluent-dominated stream on native wild brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed under fully natural conditions. Zivny stream is located in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. The downstream site of Zivny stream is an STP-affected site, which receives 25% of its water from Prachatice STP effluent. Upstream, however, is a minimally polluted water site and it is considered to be the control site. Native fish were collected from the upstream site, tagged, and distributed to both upstream and downstream sites. After 30, 90, and 180days, fish were recaptured from both sites to determine whether the downstream site of the Zivny stream is associated with the effects of environmental pollution. Several biomarkers indicating the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities, cytochrome P450 activity, xenoestrogenic effects, bacterial composition, and lipid composition were investigated. Additionally, polar chemical contaminants (pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs)) were quantified using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Fifty-three PPCPs were detected in the downstream site; 36 of those were constantly present during the 180-day investigation period. Elevated hepatic 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD) (after 90days) and blood plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males were detected in fish downstream of the STP effluent during all sampling events. An increase in the fishes' total fat content was also observed, but with low levels of ω-3 fatty acid in muscle tissue. Two bacterial taxa related to activated sludge were found in the intestines of fish from downstream. Our results show that Prachatice STP is a major source of PPCPs in the Zivny stream, which has biological consequences on fish physiology.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Truta/fisiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , República Tcheca , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Rios/química , Esgotos , Truta/microbiologia , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 635: 1160-1169, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29710571

RESUMO

Sewage treatment plants (STPs) are one of the major source of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment. Generally, the effects of individual chemicals on fish are studied under laboratory conditions, which leads to results that are potentially not realistic regarding the effects of these chemicals under environmental conditions. Therefore, in this study, common carps were held in exposed pond that receive water from STP effluents for 360 days under natural conditions. Elimination of xenobiotics starts in the fish intestine, in which the microbial community strongly influences its function. Moreover, the fish intestine functions as crucial organ for absorbing lipids and fatty acids (FA), with consequent transport to the liver where their metabolism occurs. The liver is the primary organ performing xenobiotic metabolism in fish, and therefore, the presence of pollutants may interact with the metabolism of FA. The catalytic activity of CYP1A and CYP3A-like enzymes, their gene expression, FA composition and intestinal microbiome consortia were measured. The catalytic activity of enzymes and their gene and protein expression, were induced in hepatic and intestinal tissues of fish from the exposed pond. Also, fish from the exposed pond had different compositions of FA than those from the control pond: concentration of 18:1 n-9 and 18:2 n-6 were significantly elevated and the longer chain n-3 FA 20:5 n-3, 22:5 n-3 and 22:6 n-3 were significantly lowered. There were clear differences among microbiome consortia in fish intestines across control and exposed groups. Microbiome taxa measured in exposed fish were also associated with those found in STP activated sludge. This study reveals that treated STP water, which is assumed to be clean, affected measured biomarkers in common carp.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Esgotos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 342: 401-407, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854392

RESUMO

Although pharmaceuticals are frequently studied contaminants, their fate in the environment is still not completely clear. During a one year study, a complex approach including water, sediment and fish sampling was used to describe the behaviour of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites (PTMs) in the environment. Eighteen pharmaceuticals and seven of their metabolites were determined in a pond used for the tertiary treatment of wastewater effluent. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to determine the PTMs concentrations in all matrices. Seasonal variations in concentrations were evaluated. The partitioning of contaminants between pond compartments was estimated by means of solid water distribution coefficients (Kd) and bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for the livers of fish. Kd values were almost stable throughout the year, which may be a sign of the continuous transport of PTMs between water and sediment under the experimental conditions. Almost all of the studied compounds, with exception of sertraline (BAF of 6200), were found to not be bioaccumulative in fish livers. The pond removal efficiency was calculated for all PTMs, and favourable conditions for natural pharmaceutical removal were proposed. Further aspects regarding fish pharmaceutical exposure need to be studied.


Assuntos
Peixes/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Águas Residuárias/análise , Água/análise , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Cromatografia Líquida , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Estações do Ano
9.
Water Res ; 124: 654-662, 2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825984

RESUMO

The treated effluent from sewage treatment plants (STP) is a major source of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that enter the aquatic environment. Bioaccumulation of 11 selected psychoactive pharmaceuticals (citalopram, clomipramine, haloperidol, hydroxyzine, levomepromazine, mianserin, mirtazapine, paroxetine, sertraline, tramadol and venlafaxine) was examined in Zivny Stream (tributary of the Blanice River, the Czech Republic), which is a small stream highly affected by effluent from the Prachatice STP. Six of the 11 pharmaceuticals were detected in grab water samples and in passive samplers. All pharmaceuticals were found in fish exposed to the stream for a defined time. The organs with highest presence of the selected pharmaceuticals were the liver and kidney; whereas only one pharmaceutical (sertraline) was detected in the brain of exposed fish. Fish plasma and muscle samples were not adequate in revealing exposure because the number of hits was much lower than that in the liver or kidney. Using the criterion of a bioaccumulation factor (BAF) ≥ 500, citalopram, mianserin, mirtazapine and sertraline could be classified as potential bioaccumulative compounds. In combination, data from integrative passive samplers and fish liver or kidney tissue samples were complimentary in detection of target compounds and simultaneously helped to distinguish between bioconcentration and bioaccumulation.


Assuntos
Peixes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Animais , República Tcheca , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Rios , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
10.
Physiol Behav ; 171: 127-134, 2017 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087365

RESUMO

Parasitization by the larvae (glochidia) of freshwater mussels can cause harm to a fish's gills, resulting in less effective respiration and/or reduced activity by the host fish. The impact of glochidia infections on the host's physiology remains poorly understood, and no information is available concerning energy consumption in parasitized fish. Hence, we obtained glochidia of the invasive unionid mussel Sinanodonta (Anodonta) woodiana and experimentally infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio, tagged with physiological sensors to measure energy consumption. We tested the hypothesis that parasitization affects energy consumption in the host fish, reflected as higher energy costs for movement and reduced movement activity over eight days post-infection within a twenty-four-hour cycle. Parasitized fish showed higher energy costs of movement; however, no changes in movement activity were found compared with activity in control fish. Significantly increased biochemical indices were measured in host fish blood samples, including aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferase levels, indicating liver injury, and high concentrations of potassium (K+), signifying kidney injury (hyperkalemia). Increased Cl- concentrations indicate gill dysfunction. Our results show that the energy costs due to glochidia parasitization are independent of overall movement activity patterns and vary in time according to the parasitic phase and the diurnal cycle. Moreover, the side effects of parasitization have a more important impact on fish hosts than has been shown in previous reports.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Carpas/parasitologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Análise de Variância , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Carpas/sangue , Cloretos/sangue , Eletromiografia , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Potássio/sangue , Probabilidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 157: 57-64, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27208646

RESUMO

Diltiazem is a pharmaceutical belonging to a group of calcium channel blockers (CCB) that is widely used in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of diltiazem on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Juvenile trout were exposed for 21 and 42 days to three nominal concentrations of diltiazem: 0.03 µg L(-1) (environmentally relevant concentration), 3 µg L(-1), and 30 µg L(-1) (sub-lethal concentrations). The number of mature neutrophilic granulocytes was significantly increased by 450 and 400% in fish exposed to 3 µg L(-1) and 30 µg L(-1) diltiazem compared to the control, respectively. Antioxidant enzyme activity was affected in liver and gills of fish exposed to all tested concentrations of diltiazem but the changes were mostly transient and not concentration dependent. Creatine kinase activity was markedly increased (ranging from 520 to 845%) at all tested diltiazem concentrations at the end of the exposure indicating muscle and/or kidney damage. The highest concentration was associated with histological changes in heart, liver, and kidney. These alterations can be attributed to the effects of diltiazem on the cardiovascular system, similar to those observed in the human body, as well as to its metabolism. At the environmentally relevant concentration, diltiazem was found to induce some alterations in the blood, gills, and liver of fish, indicating its potential for adverse effects on non-target organisms in the aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Diltiazem/farmacologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Animais , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Brânquias/enzimologia , Brânquias/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Oxirredutases/análise , Fatores de Tempo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
12.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 35 Suppl 2: 81-5, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25638370

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to compare the different doses of clove oil, Propiscin, and tricaine methane sulphonate (MS 222) in relation to water temperature in pikeperch aquaculture. DESIGN: For assessment of this experiment 168 fish (10.77 ± 0.59 cm total body length and 7.88 ± 1.74 g body weight) were used. Three different anaesthetic treatments (Propiscin, clove oil and MS 222) were used. Three doses of each anaesthetic treatment (Propiscin: 0.5; 1; 1.5 ml x L(-1), clove oil: 15; 30; 60 mg x L(-1), MS 222: 50; 100; 150 mg x L(-1)) were compared at three different temperatures 9.5; 15.5 and 23 degrees C. RESULTS: In comparison of these doses of anaesthetic in different temperature, the significantly shortest time to attain phase A7 (total complete anaesthesia) was observed for Propiscin (1.5 ml L(-1)) 0:31 ± 0:04 min (23 degrees C) to 0:33 ± 0:25 min (9.5 degrees C) compared to MS 222 (150 mg x L(-1)) 1:04 ± 0:21 min (23 degrees C) to 1:54 ± 0:32 min (9.5 degrees C) and clove oil (60 mg x L(-1)) 1:05 ± 0:17 min (23 degrees C) to 3:05 ± 0:31 min (9.5 degrees C). On the other hand, the longest time of anaesthesia recovery was attained using Propiscin (1.5 ml x L(-1)) 10:35 ± 1:40 min (23 degrees C) to 32:30 ± 1:10 min (9.5 degrees C) compared to clove oil (60 mg x L(-1)) 2:39 ± 0:50 min (23 degrees C) to 9:36 ± 2:34 min (60 mg x L(-1), 9.5 degrees C) and MS 222 (150 mg x L(-1)) 2:26 ± 1:27 min (23 degrees C) to 4:59 ± 0:39 min (9.5 degrees C). CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study showed that the optimal and sufficient doses in all tested temperatures for pikeperch are 30 mg x L(-1) of clove oil, 100 mg x L(-1) of MS 222 and 0.5 ml x L(-1) of Propiscin.


Assuntos
Aminobenzoatos/farmacologia , Anestésicos/farmacologia , Óleo de Cravo/farmacologia , Etomidato/farmacologia , Percas , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Temperatura , Água
13.
Environ Toxicol ; 28(3): 119-26, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21384499

RESUMO

In this study, the toxic effects of propiconazole (PCZ), a triazole fungicide present in aquatic environment, were studied in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by acute toxicity test with the concentration of 5.04 mg/L (96 h LC50). Morphological indices, hematological parameters, liver xenobiotic-metabolizing response, and tissue antioxidant status were evaluated. Compared with the control group, fish exposed to PCZ showed significantly higher Leuko, PCV, MCHC, and hepatic EROD, and significantly lower MCV. CF and HSI were not significantly different among groups. SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR activities increased significantly in liver of experimental groups, but decreased significantly in gill. In general, antioxidant enzyme activity in intestine was less evident than in liver. Oxidative stress indices (levels of LPO and CP) were significantly higher in gill. Additionally, through chemometrics of all parameters measured in this study, two groups with 67.29% of total accumulated variance were distinguished. In short, the physiological and biochemical responses in different tissues of fish indicated that PCZ-induced the stressful environmental conditions. But according to PCZ residual status in the natural environment, more long-term experiments at lower concentrations will be necessary in the future. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Triazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/enzimologia , Brânquias/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/enzimologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
14.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 16(3): 210-4, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21919778

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate genetic variants predicting cardiovascular events in patients with dyslipidemia and compare its relationship with common risk factors including hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome, history of acute myocardial infarction, thrombosis, obesity, and smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five hundred two individuals divided into six groups corresponding with the risk factors and a control group of normolypidemic patients were analyzed for the presence of eight mutations and polymorphisms (endothelial nitric oxide synthase -786T → C and G894T; lymphotoxin A C804A; angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] ins/del; human platelet antigen 1 a/b; beta-fibrinogen -455G → A; apolipoprotein B [ApoB] R3500Q; APOE E2/E3/E4) using the ViennaLab CVD Strip assay. RESULTS: ACE deletions are the most frequent genetic variants in risk groups of dyslipidemic patients (from 58% in cardiovascular events to 51% in smokers). We found a strong relationship between genetic variants and risk factors. G894T is significantly associated with smoking (value of odds ratio [OR] = 1.62, p = 0.04), and ACE deletions are negatively associated with cardiovascular events (OR = 0.62, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Significant associations between genetic variants predicting cardiovascular events and common risk factors in dyslipidemic patients were found.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Dislipidemias/genética , Variação Genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
Water Res ; 45(3): 1403-13, 2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21111439

RESUMO

Sewage water treatment plants (STPs) are frequently associated with the release of xenobiotics and, consequently, with biological responses of fish to these substances. The impact of three STPs situated on small streams was assessed in 2009. Brown trout (Salmo trutta fario L.), captured upstream and downstream of these STPs, were used as biomonitors. The concentrations of 39 organic pollutants (PCBs, OCPs, PBDEs, HBCDs, and MCs), and the biological responses related to oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and carbonyl protein), and antioxidant responses (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were measured. Through chemometrics of these parameters, three groups with 97.62% of the total accumulated variance were distinguished. Integration of the assessed biomarkers using the IBR index, ranked environment impact on sites as: DS Pacov > DS Prachatice > DS Brloh > US Pacov > US Prachatice > US Brloh (most to least affected). STPs are a major source of xenobiotic pollution in streams of the Czech Republic. The combined use of chemical analysis and biological responses is necessary to validate the efficacy of a battery of biomarkers chosen to detect environmental stress due to pollution.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , República Tcheca , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Redutase/análise , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase/análise , Truta
16.
Chemosphere ; 83(4): 572-8, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21190711

RESUMO

Blood is an indicator of physiological condition of an animal. Therefore, the chronic effects of propiconazole, a triazole fungicide present in aquatic environment, on hematology of rainbow trout were investigated in this study. Fish were exposed at various concentrations of PCZ (0.2, 50 and 500 µg L(-1)) for 7, 20 and 30 d. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including hematological indices (hemoglobin concentration, red blood cells count, hematocrit, leukocyte count, mean erythrocyte hemoglobin, mean erythrocyte volume and mean color concentration) and plasma biochemical parameters (ammonia, glucose, total proteins, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). Through principal component analysis and integrated biomarker response assessment, influence extent induced by PCZ-stress of each test group was distinguished. Additional, all parameters measured in this study displayed different dependent patterns to PCZ concentrations and exposure time by two-way ANOVA. The results of this study indicate that chronic exposure of PCZ has altered multiple physiological indices in fish hematology and CK activity may be an early biomarker of PCZ toxicity; however, before these parameters are used as special biomarkers for monitoring residual PCZ in aquatic environment, more detailed experiments in laboratory need to be performed in the future.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Oncorhynchus mykiss/sangue , Triazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Amônia/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/sangue , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica
17.
J Hazard Mater ; 185(2-3): 870-80, 2011 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20970250

RESUMO

In this study, the toxic effects of verapamil (VRP) were studied on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by chronic semi-static bioassay. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27 and 270 µg/L) for 0, 21 and 42 d. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indices, hematological parameters and antioxidant responses of different tissues (brain, gill, liver, muscle and intestine). Based on the results, there was no significant change in all parameters measured in fish exposed to VRP at environmental related concentration, but VRP-induced stress in fish exposed to higher concentrations reflected the significant changes of physiological and biochemical responses. Through principal component analysis and integrated biomarker response assessment, effects induced by VRP-stress in each test group were distinguished. Additionally, all parameters measured in this study displayed various dependent patterns to VRP concentrations and exposure time using two-way ANOVA statistic analysis. In short, the multiple responses in fish indicated that VRP induced physiological stress and could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual VRP in aquatic environment; but molecular and genetic mechanisms of these physiological responses in fish are not clear and need to be further studied.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/toxicidade , Oncorhynchus mykiss/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Verapamil/toxicidade , Animais , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 74(3): 319-27, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20971511

RESUMO

Awareness of residual pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment is growing as investigations into these pollutants are increasing and analytical detection techniques are improving. However, the toxicological effects of PhACs have not been adequately researched. In this study, the toxic effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), an anticonvulsant drug commonly present in surface and groundwater, was studied in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by acute semi-static bioassay. Blood parameters, liver xenobiotic-metabolizing response and tissue antioxidant status were evaluated. Compared to the control group, fish exposed to CBZ (96 h LC50) showed significantly higher Er, Hb, MCHC, monocytes, neutrophil granulocytes and plasma enzymes activity, and significantly lower MCV and lymphocytes. CF and HSI were not significantly different among groups such as hepatic EROD. SOD, CAT, GPx and GR activity was significantly higher in liver of experimental groups, but decreased significantly in brain and gill. In general, antioxidant enzyme activity in intestine and muscle was less evident than in liver. Oxidative stress indices (levels of LPO and CP) were significantly higher in gill and brain, despite a trend to increased values were manifested in the remaining tissues. In short, CBZ-induced stress responses in different tissues were reflected in the oxidant stress indices and hematological parameters. However, before those parameters are used as special biomarkers for monitoring residual pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment, more detailed experiments in laboratory need to be performed in the future.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/toxicidade , Carbamazepina/toxicidade , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Oncorhynchus mykiss/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 183(1): 98-104, 2010 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19778526

RESUMO

Recently, residual pharmaceuticals are generally recognized as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants. However, the toxicological effects of these contaminants have not been adequately researched. In this study, the chronic toxic effect of carbamazepine (CBZ), an anticonvulsant drug commonly present in surface and ground water, on hepatic antioxidant status and hematological parameters of rainbow trout were investigated. Fish were exposed at sublethal concentrations of CBZ (1.0mug/l, 0.2mg/l and 2.0mg/l) for 7, 21 and 42 days. Compared to the control group, fish exposed at higher concentration (0.2mg/l or 2.0mg/l) of CBZ showed significantly higher levels of hemoglobin, ammonia and glucose, and significantly higher plasma enzymes activities. During the exposure duration, erythrocyte count, hematocrit, mean erythrocyte hemoglobin, mean erythrocyte volume, mean color concentration and total protein content in all groups were not significantly different. At the highest test concentration (2.0mg/l) of CBZ, oxidative stress was apparent as reflected by the significant higher lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl levels in liver after 42 days exposure, associated with an inability to induce antioxidant enzymes activities including superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. After 42 days exposure, reduced glutathione level was significantly decreased in the fish exposed at 0.2mg/l CBZ, compared with the control. In short, CBZ-induced physiological and biochemical responses in fish were reflected in the oxidant stress indices and hematological parameters. These results suggest that hepatic antioxidant responses and hematological parameter could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual pharmaceuticals present in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carbamazepina/toxicidade , Fígado/enzimologia , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Testes Hematológicos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Carbonilação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
20.
Neuro Endocrinol Lett ; 30 Suppl 1: 225-9, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20027175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A controlled laboratory study was carried out to quantify vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in a common cyprinid freshwater fish, the chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.), exposed to steroid hormones. DESIGN: The effect of 17betaestradiol, testosterone and testosterone-estradiol mixture was investigated on vitellogenin induction. Gonad status was also determined. RESULTS: Oral exposure to estradiol and a testosterone-estradiol mixture increased (p < 0.01) blood plasma concentrations of VTG in blood plasma of both sexes. The testosterone-estradiol mixture had a negative effect on the investigated chub gonads. The effects were signified by histological changes when compared to control fish. CONCLUSION: Our results showed a significant VTG increase in blood plasma of both sexes, indicating that vitellogenic response in the chub is sensitive to steroid hormones.


Assuntos
Cyprinidae/fisiologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estradiol/toxicidade , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/toxicidade , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo , Animais , Cyprinidae/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Testículo/fisiologia , Vitelogeninas/sangue
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...