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4.
BJPsych Open ; 8(1): e31, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35076357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although recent reports suggest that service users in West African psychiatric facilities are exposed to poor quality of care and human rights violations, evidence is lacking on the extent and profile of specific deficits in the services provided to persons with mental health conditions. AIMS: To evaluate the quality of care and respect of human rights in psychiatric facilities in four West African countries, The Gambia, Ghana, Liberia and Sierra Leone, using the World Health Organization QualityRights Toolkit. METHOD: Trained research workers collected information through observation, review of records and interviews with service users, caregivers and staff. Independent panels of assessors used the information to assign scores to the criteria, standards and themes of the QualityRights Toolkit. RESULTS: The study revealed significant gaps in these facilities. The rights to an adequate standard of living and to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health were poorly promoted. Adherence to the right to exercise legal capacity and the right to personal liberty and security was almost absent. Severe shortcomings in the promotion of the right to live independently and be included in the community were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Inadequate appreciation of service users' rights, lack of basic approaches to protect them and the non-promotion of rights-based services in these facilities are major problems that need to be addressed. Although it recognises the resource constraints and need for more human and financial resources, the study also identifies critical areas and challenges that require significant changes at the facility level.

5.
Transcult Psychiatry ; : 13634615211064370, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913379

RESUMO

As part of formative studies to design a program of collaborative care for persons with psychosis, we explored personal experience and lay attributions of illness as well as treatment among persons who had recently received care at traditional and faith healers' (TFHs) facilities in three cultural groups in Sub-Saharan Africa. A purposive sample of 85 individuals in Ibadan (Nigeria), Kumasi (Ghana), and Nairobi (Kenya) were interviewed. Data was inductively explored for themes and analysis was informed by the Framework Method. Across the three sites, illness experiences featured suffering and disability in different life domains. Predominant causal attribution was supernatural, even when biological causation was also acknowledged. Prayer and rituals, steeped in traditional spiritual beliefs, were prominent both in traditional faith healing settings as well as those of Christianity and Islam. Concurrent or consecutive use of TFHs and conventional medical services was common. TFHs provided services that appear to meet the therapeutic goals of their patients even when harmful treatment practices were employed. Cultural and linguistic differences did not obscure the commonality of a core set of beliefs and practices across these three groups. This similarity of core worldviews across diverse cultural settings means that a collaborative approach designed in one cultural group would, with adaptations to reflect differences in context, be applicable in another cultural group. Studies of patients' experience of illness and care are useful in designing and implementing collaborations between biomedical and TFH services as a way of scaling up services and improving the outcome of psychosis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34779878

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This paper describes the design of a theory-informed pragmatic intervention for adolescent perinatal depression in primary care in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) among 17 adolescent mothers and 25 maternal health care providers with experience in the receipt and provision of care for perinatal depression. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) was used to systematically examine the barriers and facilitators affecting adolescent mothers' use of an existing intervention package for depression. The Theoretical Domain Framework (TDF) and the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, Behaviour (COM-B) model were used to analyze the results of the data across the five CFIR domains. RESULTS: FGD analysis revealed that care providers lacked knowledge on approaches to engage young mothers in treatment. Young mothers had poor treatment engagement, low social support, and little interest in parenting. A main characteristic of the newly designed intervention is the inclusion of age-appropriate psychoeducation supported with weekly mobile phone calls, to address treatment engagement and parenting behaviours of young mothers. Also in the outer setting, low social support from relatives was addressed with education, "as need arises" phone calls, and the involvement of "neighborhood mothers". In the inner settings, care providers' behaviour is addressed with training to increase their capacity to engage young mothers in treatment. CONCLUSION: A theory-based approach helped develop an age-appropriate intervention package targeting depression and parenting skills deficit among perinatal adolescents in primary maternal care and in which a pragmatic use of mobile phone was key.

9.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 15(1): 73, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The large treatment gap for mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) necessitates task-sharing approaches in scaling up care for mental disorders. Previous work have shown that primary health care workers (PHCW) can be trained to recognize and respond to common mental disorders but there are lingering questions around sustainable implementation and scale-up in real world settings. METHOD: This project is a hybrid implementation-effectiveness study guided by the Replicating Effective Programmes Framework. It will be conducted in four overlapping phases in maternal care clinics (MCC) in 11 local government areas in and around Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. In Phase I, engagement meetings with relevant stake holders will be held. In phase II, the organizational and clinical profiles of MCC to deliver chronic depression care will be assessed, using interviews and a standardized assessment tool administered to staff and managers of the clinics. To ascertain the current level of care, 167 consecutive women presenting for antenatal care for the first time and who screened positive for depression will be recruited and followed up till 12 months post-partum. In phase III, we will design and implement a cascade training programme for PHCW, to equip them to identify and treat perinatal depression. In phase IV, a second cohort of 334 antenatal women will be recruited and followed up as in Phase I, to ascertain post-training level of care. The primary implementation outcome is change in the identification and treatment of perinatal depression by the PHCW while the primary effectiveness outcome is recovery from depression among the women at 6 months post-partum. A range of mixed-method approaches will be used to explore secondary implementation outcomes, including fidelity and acceptability. Secondary effectiveness outcomes are measures of disability and of infant outcomes. DISCUSSION: This study represents an attempt to systematically assess and document an implementation strategy that could inform the scaling up of evidence based interventions for perinatal depression using the WHO mhGAP-IG in LMIC. Trial registration This study was registered on 03 December, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN94230307 .

10.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(6): e24115, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a growing global need for scalable approaches to training and supervising primary care workers (PCWs) to deliver mental health services. Over the past decade, the World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) and associated training and implementation guidance have been disseminated to more than 100 countries. On the basis of the opportunities provided by mobile technology, an updated electronic Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (e-mhGAP-IG) is now being developed along with a clinical dashboard and guidance for the use of mobile technology in supervision. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, adoption, and other implementation parameters of the e-mhGAP-IG for diagnosis and management of depression in 2 lower-middle-income countries (Nepal and Nigeria) and to conduct a feasibility cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) to evaluate trial procedures for a subsequent fully powered trial comparing the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the e-mhGAP-IG and remote supervision with standard mhGAP-IG implementation. METHODS: A feasibility cRCT will be conducted in Nepal and Nigeria to evaluate the feasibility of the e-mhGAP-IG for use in depression diagnosis and treatment. In each country, an estimated 20 primary health clinics (PHCs) in Nepal and 6 PHCs in Nigeria will be randomized to have their staff trained in e-mhGAP-IG or the paper version of mhGAP-IG v2.0. The PHC will be the unit of clustering. All PCWs within a facility will receive the same training (e-mhGAP-IG vs paper mhGAP-IG). Approximately 2-5 PCWs, depending on staffing, will be recruited per clinic (estimated 20 health workers per arm in Nepal and 15 per arm in Nigeria). The primary outcomes of interest will be the feasibility and acceptability of training, supervision, and care delivery using the e-mhGAP-IG. Secondary implementation outcomes include the adoption of the e-mhGAP-IG and feasibility of trial procedures. The secondary intervention outcome-and the primary outcome for a subsequent fully powered trial-will be the accurate identification of depression by PCWs. Detection rates before and after training will be compared in each arm. RESULTS: To date, qualitative formative work has been conducted at both sites to prepare for the pilot feasibility cRCT, and the e-mhGAP-IG and remote supervision guidelines have been developed. CONCLUSIONS: The incorporation of mobile digital technology has the potential to improve the scalability of mental health services in primary care and enhance the quality and accuracy of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04522453; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04522453. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): PRR1-10.2196/24115.

13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(6): 535-550, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639109

RESUMO

Most of the global population live in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), which have historically received a small fraction of global resources for mental health. The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly in many of these countries. This Review examines the mental health implications of the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs in four parts. First, we review the emerging literature on the impact of the pandemic on mental health, which shows high rates of psychological distress and early warning signs of an increase in mental health disorders. Second, we assess the responses in different countries, noting the swift and diverse responses to address mental health in some countries, particularly through the development of national COVID-19 response plans for mental health services, implementation of WHO guidance, and deployment of digital platforms, signifying a welcome recognition of the salience of mental health. Third, we consider the opportunity that the pandemic presents to reimagine global mental health, especially through shifting the balance of power from high-income countries to LMICs and from narrow biomedical approaches to community-oriented psychosocial perspectives, in setting priorities for interventions and research. Finally, we present a vision for the concept of building back better the mental health systems in LMICs with a focus on key strategies; notably, fully integrating mental health in plans for universal health coverage, enhancing access to psychosocial interventions through task sharing, leveraging digital technologies for various mental health tasks, eliminating coercion in mental health care, and addressing the needs of neglected populations, such as children and people with substance use disorders. Our recommendations are relevant for the mental health of populations and functioning of health systems in not only LMICs but also high-income countries impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, with wide disparities in quality of and access to mental health care.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Telemedicina , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
JMIR Ment Health ; 8(1): e20314, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are several barriers that may hamper adolescent mothers' utilization of available health interventions for perinatal depression. Innovative treatment approaches are needed to increase adolescent mothers' access to mental health care for improved maternal and child health outcomes. Mobile phones have the potential to serve as important conduits to mental health care in Africa. However, mobile phone use patterns and needs among young mothers in Nigeria are not well documented. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the prevalence of mobile phone use among perinatal adolescents and report patterns of use, as well as to assess the openness of young mothers to mobile health (mHealth) mental health interventions. METHODS: We surveyed 260 adolescent mothers (ages 16-19 years) in their perinatal or postnatal periods of pregnancies in 33 primary health care clinics in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria in 2020. Respondents were included if they were pregnant with a gestation age of greater than or equal to 4 weeks, or had babies (which they had birthed) that were younger than 12 months. RESULTS: The total study sample consisted of 260 adolescent mothers with a mean age of 18.4 (SD 0.88) years. The majority of the respondents (233/260, 89.6%) owned mobile phones (eg, keypad, keypad and internet, smartphones); 22 (8.5%) of the 260 mothers had access to phones that belonged to relatives who lived in the same household, while 5 (1.9%) had access only to public paid phones. Only 23% (54/233) of phone owners (which is 20.5% of the total study population) had smartphones. On average, respondents reported first using mobile phones at 15.5 (SD 2.06) years old. The majority of respondents (222/260, 85.4%) reported using their phones for an average of 45 minutes daily for calls to family members. Facebook was the social media platform that was most often used among respondents who had phones with internet access (122/146 minutes per day, 83.4%). The majority of the sample responded as being "interested" and "very interested" in the use of mobile phones for preventive interventions (250/260, 96.2%) and treatment (243/260, 93.5%) information on mental illness such as depression and "hearing voices." Half of the respondents (126/233, 50.4%) preferred to receive such information in the form of text messages. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study suggest that the vast majority of perinatal adolescents in Nigeria own and use mobile phones and that they are interested in leveraging these devices for prevention, treatment, and informational campaigns focused on mental health. The use of smartphones in this population is relatively low, and health intervention through text messages were favored by the women.

15.
Lancet ; 396(10251): 612-622, 2020 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional and faith healers (TFH) provide care to a large number of people with psychosis in many sub-Saharan African countries but they practise outside the formal mental health system. We aimed to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a collaborative shared care model for psychosis delivered by TFH and primary health-care providers (PHCW). METHODS: In this cluster-randomised trial in Kumasi, Ghana and Ibadan, Nigeria, we randomly allocated clusters (a primary care clinic and neighbouring TFH facilities) 1:1, stratified by size and country, to an intervention group or enhanced care as usual. The intervention included a manualised collaborative shared care delivered by trained TFH and PHCW. Eligible participants were adults (aged ≥18 years) newly admitted to TFH facilities with active psychotic symptoms (positive and negative syndrome scale [PANSS] score ≥60). The primary outcome, by masked assessments at 6 months, was the difference in psychotic symptom improvement as measured with the PANSS in patients in follow-up at 3 and 6 months. Patients exposure to harmful treatment practices, such as shackling, were also assessed at 3 and 6 months. Care costs were assessed at baseline, 3-month and 6-month follow-up, and for the entire 6 months of follow-up. This trial was registered with the National Institutes of Health Clinical Trial registry, NCT02895269. FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2016, and May 3, 2017, 51 clusters were randomly allocated (26 intervention, 25 control) with 307 patients enrolled (166 [54%] in the intervention group and 141 [46%] in the control group). 190 (62%) of participants were men. Baseline mean PANSS score was 107·3 (SD 17·5) for the intervention group and 108·9 (18·3) for the control group. 286 (93%) completed the 6-month follow-up at which the mean total PANSS score for intervention group was 53·4 (19·9) compared with 67·6 (23·3) for the control group (adjusted mean difference -15·01 (95% CI -21·17 to -8·84; 0·0001). Harmful practices decreased from 94 (57%) of 166 patients at baseline to 13 (9%) of 152 at 6 months in the intervention group (-0·48 [-0·60 to -0·37] p<0·001) and from 59 (42%) of 141 patients to 13 (10%) of 134 in the control group (-0·33 [-0·45 to -0·21] p<0·001), with no significant difference between the two groups. Greater reductions in overall care costs were seen in the intervention group than in the control group. At the 6 month assessment, greater reductions in total health service and time costs were seen in the intervention group; however, cumulative costs over this period were higher (US $627 per patient vs $526 in the control group). Five patients in the intervention group had mild extrapyramidal side effects. INTERPRETATION: A collaborative shared care delivered by TFH and conventional health-care providers for people with psychosis was effective and cost-effective. The model of care offers the prospect of scaling up improved care to this vulnerable population in settings with low resources. FUNDING: US National Institute of Mental Health.


Assuntos
Cura pela Fé/organização & administração , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 294, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and severe disorder among low-income adolescent mothers in low-and middle-income countries where resources for treatment are limited. We wished to identify factors influencing health service utilization for adolescent perinatal depression, in Nigeria to inform new strategies of care delivery. METHODS: Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted among purposively selected low-income young mothers (with medical histories of adolescent perinatal depression), and separately with primary care clinicians treating this condition in Ibadan, Nigeria. Participants from this community-based study were from the database of respondents who participated in a previous randomized control trial (RCT) conducted between 2014 and 2016 in 28 primary health care facilities in the 11 Local government areas in Ibadan. Semi-structured interview guides, framed by themes of the Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations, was developed to obtain views of participants on the factors that promote or hinder help-seeking and engagement (see additional files 1 & 2). FGDs were conducted, and saturation of themes was achieved after discussions with six groups. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 42 participants, 17 mothers (who were adolescents at the time of the RCT), and 25 care providers participated in 6 FGDs. The availability of care for perinatal depression at the primary care level was an important enabling factor in healthcare utilization for the adolescents. Perceived health benefits of treatment received for perinatal depression were strong motivation for service use. Significant stigma and negative stereotypes expressed by care providers towards adolescent pregnancy and perinatal depression were obstacles to care. However, individual patient resilience was a major enabling factor, facilitating service engagement. Providers trained in the management of perinatal depression were perceived to deliver more tolerant and supportive care that adolescent mothers valued. CONCLUSIONS: Participants identified unsupportive and stigmatizing clinic environments towards pregnant and parenting adolescents as significant barriers to accessing available care. Interventions to reduce stigma among healthcare providers may improve services for this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/psicologia , Nigéria , Assistência Perinatal , Pobreza , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Trials ; 21(1): 231, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent pregnancy is a pressing public health issue globally, and particularly in low and middle-income countries. Depression occurring in the perinatal period is common among women and more so among adolescent mothers. Effective treatments for the condition have been demonstrated in adults but the needs of adolescents are often unique, making such treatments unlikely to meet those needs. METHOD/STUDY DESIGN: A hybrid effectiveness-implementation research study is described in which a cluster randomized trial design is used to explore the effectiveness as well as the utility in routine practice of an intervention package specifically designed for adolescents with perinatal depression. Consenting pregnant adolescents (aged less than 20 years) who are newly registered for antenatal care are enrolled into the trial if their fetal gestational age is less than 36 weeks and they score 12 or more on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The intervention package consists of structured sessions of behavior activation, problem-solving treatment, and parenting skills training, and is delivered by primary maternal health care providers, complemented by support provided by a "neighborhood mother" identified by the adolescent. Mothers in the control arm receive care as usual. The trial is conducted in clinics where the maternal providers are trained to deliver routine depression care with the use of the WHO Mental Health Gap Action Programme, intervention guide. Assessments are undertaken by trained blinded assessors at baseline, at childbirth, and at 3 and 6 months postpartum. The primary outcome, assessed at 6 months, is the level of maternal depression (measured with the EPDS). The secondary outcome is parenting skills (assessed with the Home Observation Measurement of the Environment, Infant-Toddler version), while tertiary outcomes include measures of disability, quality of life, mother-child bonding, as well as infants' nutritional and growth indices. DISCUSSION: This, to the best of our knowledge, will be the first fully-powered trial of an intervention package specifically designed to address the unique needs of adolescents with perinatal depression. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16775958. Registered on 30 April 2019.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Gravidez na Adolescência , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Tocologia/educação , Mães/psicologia , Nigéria , Gravidez , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 761, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708817

RESUMO

Background: Depression is common among women in the perinatal period. Although pregnancy and motherhood among adolescents are global public health issues, little is known about how adolescents differ from adults in the occurrence and correlates of perinatal depression. Methods: Data were derived from a cluster randomized controlled trial of psychosocial interventions for perinatal depression in primary maternal care in Nigeria (the Expanding Care for Perinatal Women with Depression trial). Adolescents and adult participants recruited during pregnancy and followed up till 6-month postpartum were compared: proportions with depression [screening positive to depression on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (score ≥ 12) and meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria using the short form of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview]; adjustment and attitude to pregnancy and motherhood (using the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes scale); and parenting skills (measured on Infant-Toddler version of the Home Inventory for Measurement of the Environment). Infant and fetal growth were assessed by measures of weight and head circumference at birth and upper mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) at 6 months. Results: Of 8,580 adults screened, 6.9% had major depression compared with 17.7% of 772 screened adolescents (p < 0.001). Adolescents had significantly poorer adjustment and attitudes to pregnancy, lower mean fetal gestational age at birth, and a smaller mean baby's birth weight. At 6-month postpartum, there were no significant differences in the rates of remission from depression between adolescent and adult women (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score <6). Adolescent mothers continued to have poorer maternal attitudes and parenting skills indicated by significantly lower scores on the Infant-Toddler version of the Home Inventory for Measurement of the Environment responsivity and involvement subscales. Infants of adolescent mothers had a higher rate of undernutrition (defined as MUAC < 12.5 cm) compared with those of adult mothers: 14.8 and 6.3%, respectively (p = 0.008), with the mean MUAC remaining significantly lower for infants of adolescent mothers after adjusting for their lower birth weight (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Perinatal depression is more common and is associated with poorer maternal attitudes and parenting skills in adolescents compared with those in adults. Evidence from this exploratory study suggests that in improving outcomes in infants of adolescent mothers with perinatal depression, depression treatment may need to be supplemented with specific approaches to improve parenting skills.

20.
BJPsych Open ; 5(5): e69, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a global drive to improve access to mental healthcare by scaling up integrated mental health into primary healthcare (PHC) systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). AIMS: To investigate systems-level implications of efforts to scale-up integrated mental healthcare into PHC in districts in six LMICs. METHOD: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 121 managers and service providers. Transcribed interviews were analysed using framework analysis guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and World Health Organization basic building blocks. RESULTS: Ensuring that interventions are synergistic with existing health system features and strengthening of the healthcare system building blocks to support integrated chronic care and task-sharing were identified as aiding integration efforts. The latter includes (a) strengthening governance to include technical support for integration efforts as well as multisectoral collaborations; (b) ring-fencing mental health budgets at district level; (c) a critical mass of mental health specialists to support task-sharing; (d) including key mental health indicators in the health information system; (e) psychotropic medication included on free essential drug lists and (f) enabling collaborative and community- oriented PHC-service delivery platforms and continuous quality improvement to aid service delivery challenges in implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Scaling up integrated mental healthcare in PHC in LMICs is more complex than training general healthcare providers. Leveraging existing health system processes that are synergistic with chronic care services and strengthening healthcare system building blocks to provide a more enabling context for integration are important. DECLARATION OF INTEREST: None.

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