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1.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 52(2): 371-378, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894559

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Data on the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in heamodialysis (HD) patients are conflicting, ranging from 0 to 44%. The aim of this study was to determine the HEV seroprevalence and risk factors among HD patients in Croatia. METHODS: A total of 394 HD patients from six medical facilities in five Croatian cities (three sites in the continental and three sites in the coastal region) were tested for HEV IgM/IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, all samples were tested for HEV RNA by RT-PCR. Sociodemographic data and risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS: HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 110 (27.9%) patients. The seroprevalence varied significantly between dialysis centres, ranging from 5.2 to 43.4% (p = 0.001). HEV IgM antibodies were found in 0.04% of IgG positive patients. All patients tested negative for HEV RNA. Factors associated with HEV IgG seropositivity were age > 60 years (OR 8.17; 95% CI 1.08-62.14), living in the continental parts of the country (OR 2.58; 95% CI 1.55-4.30), and transfusion of blood products (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.01-2.73). After adjusting for age and gender, patients from continental regions had higher odds of HEV seropositivity compared to patients from coastal regions (OR 2.88; 95% CI 1.71-4.85) and those who had RBC transfusions (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.02-2.69) compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: The study showed a high HEV seropositivity among HD patients in Croatia, with significant variations between geographical regions. Continental area of residence and RBC transfusion were the most significant risk factors for HEV seropositivity. Due to the high seroprevalence, routine HEV screening among HD patients, especially in transplant candidates should be considered.

2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618309

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We analyzed the seroprevalence/risk factors of HEV in Croatian liver transplant recipients. METHODS: Two hundred forty-two serum samples were tested for HEV immunoglobuline IgG/IgM and HEV RNA. Sociodemographic data and risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS: HEV IgG seroprevalence rate was 24.4%. Positive/equivocal HEV IgM were found in two patients. HEV RNA was not detected. Logistic regression showed that older age, female gender, rural area/farm, water well, and septic tank were associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a high exposure rate to HEV in Croatian liver recipients.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/imunologia , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Croácia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite E/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
J Biophotonics ; 12(12): e201900218, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452335

RESUMO

Modern document protection relies on the simultaneous combination of many optical features with micron and submicron structures, whose complexity is the main obstacle for unauthorized copying. In that sense, documents are best protected by the diffractive optical elements generated lithographically and mass-produced by embossing. The problem is that the resulting security elements are identical, facilitating mass-production of both original and counterfeited documents. Here, we prove that each butterfly wing-scale is structurally and optically unique and can be used as an inimitable optical memory tag and applied for document security. Wing-scales, exhibiting angular variability of their color, were laser-cut and bleached to imprint cryptographic information of an authorized issuer. The resulting optical memory tag is extremely durable, as verified by several century-old insect specimens still retaining their coloration. The described technique is simple, amenable to mass-production, low cost and easy to integrate within the existing security infrastructure.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) has been associated with certain risk factors, but studies of the association between ABO blood group and NMSCs have been rare and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the association of the previously known risk factors and blood group as a new potential risk factor in NMSCs. METHODS: The study included 401 patients, 202 men, and 199 women, which included 367 diagnosed cases of basal cell carcinoma and 148 diagnosed cases of squamous cell carcinoma. The control group consisted of 438 subjects, 198 men, and 240 women. A standardized questionnaire adapted for this targeted study was used. The relation between the dependent variable (NMSCs) and independent variables was investigated by logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared to the non AB blood group, the risk of developing NMSCs was significantly higher in the AB blood group (MOR = 2.28; 95% CI = 1.41-3.69). We established a logistic model that could best describe the probability of NMSCs development. CONCLUSION: Study results are expected to instigate basic research into the role of A and B antigens in normal skin epithelium, NMSCs etiopathogenesis, possible effect on metastatic potential and disease prognosis, potential tumor immunotherapy, and targeted detection and prevention in subjects at an increased risk of NMSCs development.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Basocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Basocelular/fisiopatologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/sangue , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/sangue , Neoplasias Cutâneas/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Basocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Croácia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia
5.
J Biophotonics ; 12(9): e201800470, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134739

RESUMO

The wings of some insect species are known to fluoresce under illumination by ultraviolet light. Their fluorescence properties are however, not comprehensively documented. In this article, the optical properties of one specific insect, the Trictenotoma childreni yellow longhorn beetle, were investigated using both linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) methods, including one- and two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic generation (SHG). These three distinct optical signals discovered in this beetle are attributed to the presence of fluorophores embedded within the scales covering their elytra. Experimental evidence collected in this study indicates that the fluorophores are non-centrosymmetric, a fundamental requirement for SHG. This study is the first reported optical behavior of this type in insects. We described how NLO techniques can complement other more convenient approaches to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of insect scales and integument properties.

6.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 1): 99-104, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) defines the quality of life as an individual perception of personal position in the cultural and social system within an individual's environment. Elderly people, in general, prefer to live in their own home as much as possible, and moving means for them losing social relationships, changing routines and lifestyles and losing independence. The research aimed to gain insight into the use of gerontology services for the elderly people, their availability, diversity of information, a range of services they provide, and impact of these services on quality of life. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study population is defined as persons residing in Zagreb, 65 years of age or older, with no physical disability or severe bodily, cognitive or mental illnesses who are users of the gerontology center. The survey was conducted using a customized questionnaire survey on a total sample of 103 respondents. RESULTS: The most significant number of respondents, since they use the facilities, feel satisfied (68%) and very satisfied (28.2%) in their life. More than half of the participants (52.4%) rated their quality of life as very good and excellent, 46.6% of respondents rated their quality of life as good. Issues that effect on quality of life point to the dissatisfaction of the respondents are their financial resources, inadequate health services, and the lack of a positive social network. CONCLUSIONS: Community services, such as gerontology centers, enable social network development, new learning, physical activity, which have an impact on physical and psychological health and thus on the quality of life of elderly people. The satisfaction of the respondents using these services was rated above the average (3.71), which indicates that the society is moving in the right direction, encouraging this form of care for the elderly.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Geriatria , Saúde Mental , Idoso , Pessoas com Deficiência , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(1): 496-499, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641752

RESUMO

AIMS: Recent studies have implicated possible contribution of adipocytokines in development and progression of microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The aim of our study was to investigate relationship between adipocytokines, namely leptin, resistin, adiponectin and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity, with albuminuria in T1DM. METHODS: This study included 202 T1DM without or with incipient microvascular complications. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) was measured from at least two 24-h urine samples. Serum DPP-4 activity was measured by a colorimetric assay, and the level of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin was determined by the ELISA method. RESULTS: Serum DPP-4 activity and adiponectin were significantly higher in patients with normoalbuminuria compared to patients with microalbuminuria (47 vs 36 U/L, and 10.9 vs 7.3 µg/mL, respectively, p ≤ 0.02). In multivariate logistic regression analysis adiponectin and serum DPP-4 activity were significantly associated with risk of microalbuminuria in our subjects (p ≤ 0.04), with odds ratios of 0.72-0.99. However, after adjustment for age, sex, HbA1c, duration of diabetes and BMI, only serum DPP-4 activity was significantly associated with risk of microalbuminuria (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that serum DPP-4 activity is lower in T1DM with microalbuminuria. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the relationship between serum DPP-4 activity and progression and development of albuminuria and nephropathy in T1DM.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/sangue , Albuminúria/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Angiopatias Diabéticas/sangue , Adiponectina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Crônica , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Resistina/sangue , Adulto Jovem
8.
Interface Focus ; 9(1): 20180052, 2019 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603071

RESUMO

Upon illumination by ultraviolet light, many animal species emit light through fluorescence processes arising from fluorophores embedded within their biological tissues. Fluorescence studies in living organisms are however relatively scarce and so far limited to the linear regime. Multiphoton excitation fluorescence analyses as well as nonlinear optical techniques offer unique possibilities to investigate the effects of the local environment on the excited states of fluorophores. Herein, these techniques are applied for the first time to study of the naturally controlled fluorescence in insects. The case of the male Hoplia coerulea beetle is investigated because the scales covering the beetle's elytra are known to possess an internal photonic structure with embedded fluorophores, which controls both the beetle's coloration and the fluorescence emission. An intense two-photon excitation fluorescence signal is observed, the intensity of which changes upon contact with water. A third-harmonic generation signal is also detected, the intensity of which depends on the light polarization state. The analysis of these nonlinear optical and fluorescent responses unveils the multi-excited states character of the fluorophore molecules embedded in the beetle's elytra. The role of form anisotropy in the photonic structure, which causes additional tailoring of the beetle's optical responses, is demonstrated by circularly polarized light and nonlinear optical measurements.

9.
J Biophotonics ; 12(1): e201800262, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288959

RESUMO

In this perspective article, we review the optical study of different biophotonic geometries and biological structures using classical light in linear and nonlinear regime, especially highlighting the link between these morphologies and modern biomedical research. Additionally, the importance of nonlinear optical study in biological research, beyond traditional cell imaging is also highlighted and described. Finally, we present a short introduction regarding nonclassical light and describe the new future perspective of quantum optical study in biology, revealing the link between quantum realm and biological research.

10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20190302, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1041520

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. We analyzed the seroprevalence/risk factors of HEV in Croatian liver transplant recipients. METHODS Two hundred forty-two serum samples were tested for HEV immunoglobuline IgG/IgM and HEV RNA. Sociodemographic data and risk factors were collected using a questionnaire. RESULTS HEV IgG seroprevalence rate was 24.4%. Positive/equivocal HEV IgM were found in two patients. HEV RNA was not detected. Logistic regression showed that older age, female gender, rural area/farm, water well, and septic tank were associated with HEV seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS This study revealed a high exposure rate to HEV in Croatian liver recipients.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463348

RESUMO

In the second half of the 20th century, the town of Bakar (Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Croatia), where a coking plant was operational 1978⁻1994, experienced intensive industrialisation. The town of Mali Losinj (Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Croatia) in this period based its economy on non-industrial sectors. The study goal was comparing mortality characteristics of these populations in the northern Mediterranean for 1960⁻2012. An ecological study design was used. Data were analysed for 1960⁻2012 for the deceased with recorded place of residence in the study area. Data on the deceased for 1960⁻1993 were taken from death reports, for 1994⁻2012 from digital archives of the Teaching Institute of Public Health, Primorje-Gorski Kotar County. Data on causes of death for 1960⁻1994 were recoded to the three-digit code of underlying cause of death according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD⁻10). Among studied populations significant difference was found among the causes of deaths coded within ICD⁻10 chapters: neoplasms (particularly stomach carcinoma), mental and behavioural disorders and diseases of the respiratory system (particularly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, (COPD)). Increase in mortality from neoplasms, increase in respiratory diseases for the area exposed to industrial pollution, also stomach carcinoma and COPD particularly in the town Bakar require further research.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Industrial/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Croácia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 51(5): 591-595, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30304263

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies have been shown to persist for up to 500 days in certain patients. To evaluate the usefulness of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity assessment in the diagnosis of WNV infection, we analyzed 54 WNV IgM- and/or IgG-positive serum samples from 39 patients with neuroinvasive disease and 15 asymptomatic cases tested during a seroprevalence investigation. METHODS: Serological tests (WNV IgM/IgG antibody detection, IgG avidity) were performed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: WNV IgM antibodies were detected in 47 (87%) samples. Acute/recent WNV infection was confirmed based on low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 44 IgM-positive samples (93.6%). In three IgM-positive samples (6.4%), high IgG AIs were detected, thus indicating persisting IgM antibodies from previous infections. All IgM-negative samples showed high AIs. Patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease tested within 30 days showed low AIs. In six patients tested 34-50 days after disease onset, AI was borderline (42%-60%), suggesting earlier WNV IgG maturation. Samples with the highest IgM values were associated with the lowest AIs (Spearman's rho coefficient -0.767, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that IgG avidity differentiates current/recent WNV infection from persistent IgM seropositivity from the previous WNV transmission season both in patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease and in asymptomatic persons. A strong negative correlation between IgM antibody levels and AI indicates that in cases with very high IgM levels, determination of IgG avidity may not be necessary. As many patients showed rapid avidity maturation, low IgG avidity is indicative of WNV infection within the previous month.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Afinidade de Anticorpos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/diagnóstico , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Estações do Ano
13.
Vaccine ; 36(49): 7530-7535, 2018 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366807

RESUMO

The Croatian Immunization Programme is a mandatory prevention programme in which vaccines are offered free of charge and little is known about parental vaccine-related beliefs and attitudes. We aimed to describe beliefs and attitudes towards childhood vaccination of parents in Zagreb, estimate the proportion of parents with positive attitudes towards vaccination, and to identify the possible predictors of positive attitudes. Using a self-administered questionnaire, we performed a cluster sampling survey among parents of 6-years-old children in Zagreb. In total 542 questionnaires were collected, 80% (n = 430/542) of respondents were mothers. Even though 72.6% (n = 385/531; 95%CI: 69-76) respondents feel that childhood vaccination should remain mandatory, 36.3% (n = 192/528; 95%CI: 58.3-65.3) considered that simultaneous administration of vaccines can have negative effect to their child's health. In addition, 38% (n = 202/532; 95%CI: 33.2-43.1%) feared that vaccines may harm their child. Of total, parents mostly reported positive attitude towards vaccination (61.8%; 95% CI: 34.7-42). Parents with positive attitudes were more likely to state their child experienced mild or no adverse reaction after vaccination, report not delaying vaccination and provide additional non-mandatory vaccines to their child (p < 0.05). Gender, age, education and marital status of parent were not significantly associated with the positive attitude towards vaccination. Our results suggest the need for educational interventions and communication strategies that could foster better knowledge on immunization with a focus on parental misconceptions, perceived constraints and safety issues about vaccine.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Imunização , Pais/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Croácia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas/efeitos adversos
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(5): 591-595, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-957467

RESUMO

Abstract INTRODUCTION West Nile virus (WNV) immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies have been shown to persist for up to 500 days in certain patients. To evaluate the usefulness of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity assessment in the diagnosis of WNV infection, we analyzed 54 WNV IgM- and/or IgG-positive serum samples from 39 patients with neuroinvasive disease and 15 asymptomatic cases tested during a seroprevalence investigation. METHODS Serological tests (WNV IgM/IgG antibody detection, IgG avidity) were performed using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS WNV IgM antibodies were detected in 47 (87%) samples. Acute/recent WNV infection was confirmed based on low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 44 IgM-positive samples (93.6%). In three IgM-positive samples (6.4%), high IgG AIs were detected, thus indicating persisting IgM antibodies from previous infections. All IgM-negative samples showed high AIs. Patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease tested within 30 days showed low AIs. In six patients tested 34-50 days after disease onset, AI was borderline (42%-60%), suggesting earlier WNV IgG maturation. Samples with the highest IgM values were associated with the lowest AIs (Spearman's rho coefficient -0.767, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that IgG avidity differentiates current/recent WNV infection from persistent IgM seropositivity from the previous WNV transmission season both in patients with WNV neuroinvasive disease and in asymptomatic persons. A strong negative correlation between IgM antibody levels and AI indicates that in cases with very high IgM levels, determination of IgG avidity may not be necessary. As many patients showed rapid avidity maturation, low IgG avidity is indicative of WNV infection within the previous month.

16.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 20(2): 86-90, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29431301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is one of the most common viruses found in humans, causing lifelong infection in up to 95% of the world population. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the seroprevalence of EBV infection in different population groups in Croatia. METHODS: During a 2 year period (2015-2016), a total of 2022 consecutive serum samples collected from Croatian residents were tested for the presence of EBV-specific viral capsid antigen (VCA) immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. IgM/IgG-positive samples were further tested for IgG avidity. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of EBV IgG antibodies was 91.4%. Females had significantly higher IgG seroprevalence than males (93.1% vs. 89.9%, P = 0.008). According to age, IgG seropositivity increased progressively from 59.6% in children age < 9 years to 98.3% in 30-39 year olds, and remained stable thereafter (P < 0.001). The IgG seroprevalence differed significantly among groups: 68.1% in children/adolescents and 95.9% in adults; multiple sclerosis (100%), hemodialysis patients (97.7%), heart transplant recipients (93.8%), hematological malignancies (91.2%), and Crohn's disease (88.5%), P < 0.001. IgM antibodies were detected in 9% of participants. Using IgG avidity, recent primary EBV infection was documented in 83.8% of IgM-positive subjects < 9 years old, 69.2% age 10-19, 33.3% age 20-29, and 3.6-4.2% > 40. All IgM positive participants > 40 years showed high IgG avidity. Logistic regression showed that age is associated with EBV IgG seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: EBV is widespread in the Croatian population. Older age appears to be the main risk factor for EBV seropositivity.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/sangue , Proteínas do Capsídeo/sangue , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Criança , Croácia/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Acta Dermatovenerol Croat ; 26(4): 3147-320, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665481

RESUMO

HIV and sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) represent a significant public health problem worldwide. We analyzed the seroprevalence and risk factors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis in populations with high-risk behaviors in Croatia. During a three-year period, a total of 443 men who have sex with men (MSM) / bisexual persons, sex workers (SW) / clients of SW, persons with multiple sexual partners, and persons with a history of STD were tested for the presence of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Treponema pallidum (syphilis) antibodies within the framework of second generation HIV surveillance. Participants were recruited from 11 Croatian counties, the vast majority among clients of voluntary counselling and testing centers. The overall prevalence of HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, and syphilis was 1.4%, 2.6%, 12.1%, and 3.4%, respectively. HBV and syphilis seroprevalence differed significantly between, genders with higher prevalence among men (anti-HBc 13.8% vs. 5.7%, P=0.043; syphilis 4.4% vs. 0%; P=0.049), as well as between age groups, with a steady increase according to age. Participants with a history of STD were more often seropositive than participants who did not report STD (HBsAg 8.2% vs. 1.0%, P=0.002; anti-HBc 32.4% vs. 6.4%, P<0.001; syphilis 12.0% vs. 1.7%, P<0.001). Syphilis seroprevalence was higher in homo / bisexual persons (12.2%) compared with heterosexual persons (1.2%, P<0.001). Logistic regression showed that history of STD was a significant risk factor for hepatitis B (HBsAg AOR=6.229, 95% CI=1.491-26.022; anti-HBc AOR=5.872, 95% CI=2.899-11.896) and syphilis seropositivity (AOR=5.572, 95% CI=1.751-17.726), while homo / bisexual behavior was associated with syphilis seropositivity (AOR=12.820, 95% CI=3.688-44.557). Our results highlight the importance of continuing STDs screening and prevention in at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Croácia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Hepatite B/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Psychiatr Danub ; 29(3): 369-375, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28949318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study was designed as a gerontologic-public health analysis of the relationship between the leading and accompanying psychogeriatric diagnoses and negative health behaviors recorded in the old people's home users, with the aim to evaluate and redefine gerontologic-public health priorities and geroprophylactic measures, with special reference to persons suffering from Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Gerontologic-public health indicators obtained by monitoring health care needs of the elderly in specific institutional primary health care at 10 old people's homes (N=1185) in Croatia in 2013 were analyzed using the professional methodology developed at Department of Health Gerontology, Andrija Stampar Teaching Institute of Public Health (Registry List 1 that refers to monitoring specific primary health care needs of elderly at old people's homes). RESULTS: Study results revealed that essential arterial hypertension was the principal (leading) principal diagnosis in the old people's home users as of 2013, accounting for 13% of all leading diagnoses recorded in the elderly in institutional health care. In the study population, psychogeriatric diagnoses were recorded among the first five accompanying and leading diagnoses. Refusal of occupational therapy was the most common unfavorable health behavior recorded in the old people's home users, accounting for 22%, followed by poor personal and environmental hygiene (19%), physical inactivity (18%), mental inactivity (15%), obesity (13%) and smoking (5%) of 861 unfavorable behaviour characteristics recorded in study subjects. Study results showed the leading diagnoses in the old people's home users (such as circulatory system diseases, hip fracture, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) to be associated with negative health behaviors that can be considered as risk factors for the development or progression of the disease, in psychogeriatric patients in particular. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained by gerontological-public health indicator analysis indicate that programs of geroprophylaxis, gerontologic and psychogeriatric measures should be implemented in old people's homes as a priority, with day centers for Alzheimer's disease patients. It is necessary to identify and evaluate risk factors for the occurrence of preventable diseases, change the negative health behaviors in the elderly, and apply the nutritional-gerontologic dietary standards at old people's homes including follow up of dietary intake of nutrients such as vitamins and mineral, with special reference to psychogeriatric patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/psicologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Croácia , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Int J Prev Med ; 8: 51, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an ongoing debate regarding possible cost and benefits, but also harm of universal screening for the emerging sexually transmitted pathogen Mycoplasma genitalium. METHODS: From the initial pool of 8665 samples that were tested, a subset of Chlamydia trachomatis-positive and randomly selected C. trachomatis-negative cervical swabs were further interrogated for M. genitalium by real-time polymerase chain reaction, using a 224 bp long fragment of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. RESULTS: M. genitalium was detected in 4.8% of C. trachomatis-positive samples and none of C. trachomatis-negative samples. Accordingly, a significant association was shown between M. genitalium and C. trachomatis (P < 0.01), but also between M. genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis infection (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, routine screening is recommended only for women with one or more identified risk factors. Moreover, younger age does not represent an appropriate inclusion/exclusion criterion for M. genitalium testing in the low-risk female population.

20.
Acta Clin Croat ; 56(2): 255-261, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485792

RESUMO

Herpes group viruses (herpes simplex virus, HSV; varicella-zoster virus, VZV; cytomegalovirus, CMV; and Epstein-Barr virus, EBV) remain an important cause of morbidity in immunocompromised persons. The aim of the study was to analyze the prevalence of HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, CMV and EBV in patients undergoing hemodialysis. During a three-year period (2013-2015), 152 consecutive serum samples from hemodialysis patients and 150 healthy subjects (control group) were tested for the presence of IgM/IgG antibodies to herpes group viruses. Serologic tests were performed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or enzyme-linked immunofluorescent assay (ELFA). Hemodialysis patients showed significantly higher CMV IgG seropositivity compared to controls (88.2% vs. 78.7%, p=0.011). In addition, seroprevalence rates of HSV-1 and VZV were higher in hemodialysis patients; however, these differences did not reach statistical significance (85.5% vs. 80.0%, p=0.054 and 99.3% vs. 96.0%, p=0.051, respectively). The prevalence of HSV-2 and EBV was similar in both groups (12.5% vs. 12.7%, p=0.137 and 98.0% vs. 95.3%, p=0.113, respectively). There was no difference in IgG seropositivity according to gender and place of residence. Logistic regression showed that older age was a significant predictor for CMV and EBV IgG seropositivity (increase in age by one year: CMV OR=1.055; 95%CI=1.030-1.080 and EBV OR=1.075, 95%CI=1.023-1.130).


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Croácia/epidemiologia , Citomegalovirus/imunologia , Citomegalovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Herpesviridae/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/fisiologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
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