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1.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642983

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We determined the association of total sugar intake with body weight and fat mass in children on an energy-equivalent basis and potential changes in the association from 2 to 8 years of age. METHODS: Data were available from the Childhood Obesity Project Trial initiated in 2002. Sugar intake was measured by 3-day weighed food protocols at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years of age. Body mass index (BMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were available at the same time points. To investigate the association of sugar intake with anthropometrics over time, linear mixed models were applied. Odds ratios for having a high BMI or FMI (above one standard deviation) were estimated by logistic random-effects models. To control for total energy intake, the residual method was chosen and models were additionally adjusted for total energy intake. RESULTS: Data were available for 809 children with in total 2846 observations. In an isocaloric model, an increase of 100 kcal from sugar per day was significantly associated with lower zBMI (- 0.033; 95% CI -0.061, - 0.005) and zFMI (- 0.050; 95% CI - 0.089, - 0.011). In addition, a 100 kcal higher sugar intake was related to lower odds of having a high zBMI (OR 0.743; 95% CI 0.611, 0.903). CONCLUSION: This study provides no indication that increased total sugar intake positively affects BMI on an energy-equivalent basis. Whether the negative association of sugar is due to physiological effects or points more to macronutrient preferences or a reporting bias (lower sugar intake) in children with higher BMI can be debated. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00338689; Registered: June 19, 2006. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00338689?term=NCT00338689&rank=1 .

2.
Br J Nutr ; 122(s1): S31-S39, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638496

RESUMO

Although the impact of diet on physical health is an important public health issue, less attention has been devoted to the relationship between nutrition and children's mental development. The views of parents and teachers about the extent to which diet affects physical and mental development of children were compared in four European countries. An online questionnaire (developed in English and translated) was circulated through a market research agency. Participants were parents or teachers of children aged 4-10 years without learning or behavioural issues. Questionnaires were returned by 1606 parents (401 in England, Germany and Hungary; 403 in Spain) and 403 teachers (100 in each country, except for 103 in Hungary). Teachers were older than parents (35·3 % v. 18·3 % over 45 years; P<0·001) and less likely to smoke (15·9 % v. 26·3 %, P<0·001). There was no difference between the proportions of parents and teachers who felt that a child's physical development depended very much/extremely (v. moderately/slightly/not at all) on diet (overall 79·8 %). Lower proportions of both groups thought that mental development was very much/extremely influenced by diet (67·4 %). In the regression modelling, believing that physical and mental performance was greatly influenced by diet was significantly and positively associated with living in Hungary, scoring higher on a measure of General Health Interest and (parents only) level of education attained. Differences existed among countries in most views. Lower levels of awareness of the importance of diet for brain development and cognition (compared with physical health outcomes) indicate the potential for educating consumers, especially parents with lower educational attainment.

3.
Br J Nutr ; 122(s1): S68-S79, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638497

RESUMO

Variants in the human genes of fatty acid (FA) desaturase 1 (FADS1), 2 (FADS2) and 3 (FADS3) are associated with PUFA blood levels. We explored if maternal prenatal supplementation and children's genetic variation in seventeen SNP of the FADS1, FADS2 and FADS3 gene cluster influence twenty-one of the most relevant cheek cells' derived FA in glycerophospholipids (GPL-FA). The study was conducted in 147 Spanish and German mother-children pairs participating in the Nutraceuticals for a Healthier Life (NUHEAL) study at 8, 9 and 9·5 years. Linear and mixed model longitudinal regression analyses were performed. Maternal fish-oil (FO) or FO+5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) supplementation during pregnancy was associated with a significant decrease of arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in cheek cell GPL in the offspring, from 8 to 9·5 years; furthermore, maternal FO+5-MTHF supplementation was associated with higher n-6 docosapentaenoic acid concentrations in their children at age 8 years. FADS1 rs174556 polymorphism and different FADS2 genotypes were associated with higher concentrations of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in children; moreover, some FADS2 genotypes determined lower AA concentrations in children's cheek cells. It is suggested an interaction between type of prenatal supplementation and the offspring genetic background driving GPL-FA levels at school age. Prenatal FO supplementation, and/or with 5-MTHF, seems to stimulate n-3 and n-6 FA desaturation in the offspring, increasing long-chain PUFA concentrations at school age, but depending on children's FADS1 and FADS2 genotypes. These findings suggest potential early nutrition programming of FA metabolic pathways, but interacting with children's FADS polymorphisms.

4.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665201

RESUMO

Recently adopted regulatory standards on infant and follow-on formula for the European Union stipulate that from February 2020 onwards, all such products marketed in the European Union must contain 20-50 mg omega-3 DHA (22:6n-3) per 100 kcal, which is equivalent to about 0.5-1% of fatty acids (FAs) and thus higher than typically found in human milk and current infant formula products, without the need to also include ω-6 arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6). This novel concept of infant formula composition has given rise to concern and controversy because there is no accountable evidence on its suitability and safety in healthy infants. Therefore, international experts in the field of infant nutrition were invited to review the state of scientific research on DHA and AA, and to discuss the questions arising from the new European regulatory standards. Based on the available information, we recommend that infant and follow-on formula should provide both DHA and AA. The DHA should equal at least the mean content in human milk globally (0.3% of FAs) but preferably reach 0.5% of FAs. Although optimal AA intake amounts remain to be defined, we strongly recommend that AA should be provided along with DHA. At amounts of DHA in infant formula up to ∼0.64%, AA contents should at least equal the DHA contents. Further well-designed clinical studies should evaluate the optimal intakes of DHA and AA in infants at different ages based on relevant outcomes.

5.
Eur J Public Health ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preschool children spend a significant proportion of their waking hours being sedentary. Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children's lifestyle behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. This study aims to assess parental perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of their preschool children's sedentary behaviours and the association with children's television (TV)/video/DVDs viewing and total screen time. METHODS: Data were obtained from a sample of 4836 children (3.5-5.5 years), participating in the multi-centre ToyBox-study at baseline (T0) and at 1-year follow-up (T1) periods. Data on children's sedentary behaviours were collected via a standardized proxy-administered primary caregiver's questionnaire. RESULTS: Regarding total screen time, 66.6% of the children at T0 and 71.8% at T1 in the control group exceeded the recommendations, whereas the proportion in the intervention group varied from 69.7% at T0 to 72.5% at T1. The odds of exceeding total screen time recommendations were significantly higher when parental perceptions towards limiting the total screen time were negative [(both T0 and T1 and in the intervention and control groups (P < 0.05)]. Similarly, the odds of exceeding TV/video/DVDs viewing recommendations were significantly higher (both T0 and T1 is observed in both groups) when parental knowledge of recommendation were absent. CONCLUSIONS: Preschool children whose caregivers stated rules limiting their sedentary screen time were less likely to spend a high amount of time watching TV/video/DVDs. Interventions to increase parental practices may be a promising approach to decrease total screen time of preschool children but studies are needed to confirm this.

6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids ; 1864(12): 158516, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473345

RESUMO

In the metabolism of pulmonary surfactant, the ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 3 (ABCA3) is a crucial protein in the formation of the storage compartment for surfactant, the lamellar body (LB), and the transport of phospholipids in it. Mutations in ABCA3 not only disturb surfactant metabolism but also cause chronic interstitial lung diseases. Assays for ABCA3 transport function are needed to investigate pathophysiology of the mutations and treatment options for the patients. We metabolically labeled choline (Cho) head phospholipids with the Cho analogue, propargyl-Cho. The universal incorporation of propargyl-Cho was confirmed by mass spectrometry and labeled lipids were visualized in confocal microscopy by click reaction with an azide fluorophore. After pulse-labeling propargyl-Cho labeled lipids accumulated in ABCA3+ vesicles in a time and concentration dependent manner. When treated with the choline kinase inhibitor MN58b during the first 12 h, the lipids intensity inside ABCA3+ vesicles decreased, whereas intensity was unchanged when treated after 12 h. Miltefosine, a substrate of ABCA3, decreased the incorporation of labeled lipids in ABCA3+ vesicles at all time points. The lipids intensity inside the mutated (p.N568D or p.L1580P) ABCA3+ vesicles was decreased compared to wild type, while the intensity outside of vesicles showed no difference. Propargyl-Cho can metabolically pulse-label Cho phospholipids. Visualization and quantification of fluorescence intensity of the labeled lipids inside ABCA3+ vesicles at equilibrium can specifically assess the transport function of ABCA3.

7.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480373

RESUMO

Human milk composition is variable. The identification of influencing factors and interdependencies of components may help to understand the physiology of lactation. In this study, we analyzed linear trends in human milk composition over time, the variation across different European countries and the influence of maternal celiac disease. Within a multicenter European study exploring potential prevention of celiac disease in a high-risk population (PreventCD), 569 human milk samples were donated by women from five European countries between 16 and 163 days postpartum. Some 202 mothers provided two samples at different time points. Protein, carbohydrates, fat and fatty acids, insulin, adiponectin, and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) were analyzed. Milk protein and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased during the first three months of lactation. Fatty acid composition was significantly influenced by the country of residence. IGF-II and adiponectin concentrations correlated with protein content (r = 0.24 and r = 0.35), and IGF-II also correlated with fat content (r = 0.36), suggesting a possible regulatory role of IGF in milk macronutrient synthesis. Regarding the impact of celiac disease, only the level in palmitic acid was influenced by this disease, suggesting that breastfeeding by celiac disease mothers should not be discouraged.

8.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the introduction of complementary food, long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) supply usually decreases during the second 6 months of life. However, the need for LC-PUFA is still high for infant's rapid development. The aim of this randomized, controlled intervention trial was to examine the effects of an increased n-3 (LC-)PUFA supply using alternative complementary foods on infants' visual and cognitive development. METHODS: Mother-child dyads of term infants were recruited in maternity hospitals and randomly assigned to one of three study groups, which all were fed according to the German dietary schedule for infant nutrition. Intervention group IG-R (n = 54) received jars of complementary food with rapeseed oil, IG-F (n = 48) jars with oily fish twice a week and the control group (CG, n = 58) the same jars as IG-R with corn oil instead of rapeseed oil during the intervention period (5th-10th month of age). The outcome measures were latencies of FVEP, Bayley's mental developmental index (MDI), and psychomotor developmental index (PDI). RESULTS: At 10 months of age, there were no significant differences in latencies of FVEP, Bayley's MDI, or in PDI index between the intervention and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Fish and rapeseed oil used as (LC-)PUFA sources provided with complementary feeding embedded in a structured infant diet did not affect visual or cognitive development of term infants.

9.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(10): 1605-1612, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468108

RESUMO

Social media use has become an integral part of children's and adolescents' lives. It has become a novel way of interaction among people and influences people's social lives and public opinion as well as people's purchasing decisions and businesses. Any website or platform that allows social interaction is considered to be a social media site. Social media use among children in 25 European countries has been reported to be 38% among 9-12 year olds and 77% among those aged 13-16 years. All these children report having their own profile on at least one social network site. While social networking provides children and adolescents with many opportunities and benefits, it also carries many risks. Among the benefits are socialization and communication enhancement, improving learning skills, positive impact on education and getting health information. Potential risks of social media use include falsifying age and identity, cyberbullying, sexting, Facebook depression, gamification, glamourization, cyberostracism and sleep disturbances.Conclusion: Paediatricians play a vital role in promoting the physical, mental and social welfare of all children. There is a critical need for paediatricians to play an active role, guiding children and families appropriately through the impact of social networking, in order to become a real driver of children's development.

10.
Semin Perinatol ; 43(7): 151153, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466703

RESUMO

Breastfeeding is associated with a reduced later obesity risk, relative to feeding convention infant formula. Breastfeeding induces less weight gain during the first two years of life, which predicts less obesity up to adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that a high infant protein supply promotes weight gain and obesity risk, mediated by increased plasma amino acids and growth factors, insulin and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). A large multi-centre double blind trial randomized formula-fed infants to conventional bottle milk with a high protein content, or an intervention formula with a reduced protein content more similar to levels provided with human milk. Protein-reduced formula normalized weight, body mass index and body fatness up to 6 years, relative to a breastfed reference group, and reduced the adjusted odds for obesity 2.6-fold. Available data indicate potential underlying mechanisms. We conclude that infant feeding has very marked long-term programming effects on later BMI, obesity and adiposity, with major public health implications. Breastfeeding lowers the risk for later obesity and adiposity. This provides additional motivation for proactively and enthusiastically promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding. A high milk protein intake in infancy increases the long-term risk for obesity and adiposity. Infants not or not fully breastfed should receive infant formula delivering protein in amounts more similar to human milk contents, with high protein quality. Other sources of very high infant protein intakes, particular drinking unmodified cows' milk, should be avoided in infancy.

11.
Annu Rev Nutr ; 39: 21-44, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433740

RESUMO

Variants in the FADS gene cluster modify the activity of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) desaturation and the lipid composition in human blood and tissue. FADS variants have been associated with plasma lipid concentrations, risk of cardiovascular diseases, overweight, eczema, pregnancy outcomes, and cognitive function. Studies on variations in the FADS genecluster provided some of the first examples for marked gene-diet interactions in modulating complex phenotypes, such as eczema, asthma, and cognition. Genotype distribution differs markedly among ethnicities, apparently reflecting an evolutionary advantage of genotypes enabling active long-chain PUFA synthesis when the introduction of agriculture provided diets rich in linoleic acid but with little arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids. Discovering differential effects of PUFA supply that depend on variation of FADS genotypes could open new opportunities for developing precision nutrition strategies based either on an individual's genotype or on genotype distributions in specific populations.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0216790, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425504

RESUMO

L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate is the predominant folate form in human milk but is currently not approved as a folate source for infant and follow-on formula. We aimed to assess the suitability of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate as a folate source for infants. Growth and tolerance in healthy term infants fed formulae containing equimolar doses of L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate (10.4 µg/ 100 ml, n = 120, intervention group) or folic acid (10.0 µg/ 100 ml, n = 120, control group) was assessed in a randomized, double-blind, parallel, controlled trial. A reference group of breastfed infants was followed. Both formulae were well accepted without differences in tolerance or occurrence of adverse events. The most common adverse events were common cold, poor weight gain or growth, rash, eczema, or dry skin and respiratory tract infection. Weight gain (the primary outcome) was equivalent in the two groups (95% CI -2.11; 1.68 g/d). In line with this, there was only a small difference in absolute body weight adjusted for birth weight and sex at visit 4 (95% CI -235; 135 g). Equivalence was also shown for gain in head circumference but not for recumbent length gain and increase in calorie intake. Given the nature of the test, this does not indicate an actual difference, and adjusted means at visit 4 were not significantly different for any of these parameters. Infants receiving formula containing L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate had lower mean plasma levels of unmetabolized folic acid (intervention: 0.73 nmol/L, control: 1.15 nmol/L, p<0.0001) and higher levels of red cell folate (intervention: 907.0 ±192.8 nmol/L, control: 839.4 ±142.4 nmol/L, p = 0.0095). We conclude that L-5-methyltetrahydrofolate is suitable for use in infant and follow-on formula, and there are no indications of untoward effects. Trial registration: This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02437721).

14.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is a growing number of early childhood obesity prevention programs, only a few of them are effective in the long run. Even fewer reports exist on lifetime cost-effectiveness of early prevention strategies. This paper aimed to assess the lifetime cost-effectiveness of infant feeding modification aiming at reducing risk of later obesity. METHODS: The simulation model consists of two parts: (a) Model I used data from the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP) trial (up to 6 years) and the German Interview and Examination Survey for Children (KiGGS) (6-17 years) to evaluate BMI trajectories of infants receiving either lower protein (LP) or higher protein (HP) content formula; and (b) Model II estimated lifetime cost-effectiveness based on Model I BMI trajectories. Compared to HP formula, LP formula feeding would incur lower costs that are attributable to childhood obesity across all decades of life. RESULTS: Our analysis showed that LP formula would be cost-effective in terms of a positive net monetary benefit (discounted 3%) as an obesity prevention strategy. For the 19% of infants fed with formula in Germany, the LP strategy would result in cost savings of € 2.5 billion. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is one of the first efforts to provide much-needed cost-effectiveness evidence of infant feeding modification, thereby potentially motivating interventionists to reassess their resource allocation.

15.
J Physiol ; 597(19): 4959-4973, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287560

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Placental structure and function can be modified as a result of maternal obesity affecting materno-fetal fatty acids (FA) transport. We report for the first time, in humans and in vivo, the kinetics of placental FA transfer in normo-weight and in normolipemic obese pregnant women using stable isotopes. The administration of different tracer FA with similar behaviour to the mother at different time points allows the collection of kinetic information on materno-fetal transfer of FA despite only one sample of placenta and cord can be collected per subject. Computational modelling showed a good fit to the data when considering all maternal plasma lipid classes but not when based only on non-esterified FA. The novel approach using multiple tracer FA administration combined with computational modelling shows a consistent time course of placental tracer FA and predicted total FA accumulation. ABSTRACT: We analyse for the first time the in vivo materno-fetal kinetic transfer of fatty acids (FA) labelled with stable isotopes in control and obese (OB) pregnant women. Labelled FA with a similar metabolism (stearic acid: 13 C-SA; palmitic acid: 13 C-PA; oleic acid: 13 C-OA) were orally administered at -4 h, -8 h and -12 h, respectively prior to elective caesarean section to 10 pregnant women with a body mass index >30 (OB) and 10 with a body mass index in the range 20-25 (NW). Placenta, venous and arterial cord blood were collected obtaining a wide range of FA enrichments. A combined experimental and computational modelling analysis was applied. FA fractional synthesis rate (FSR) in placenta was 11-12% h-1 . No differences were observed between NW and normo-lipidemic OB. It was not possible to estimate FA FSR in cord blood with this oral bolus dose approach. Computational modelling demonstrated a good fit to the data when all maternal plasma lipid classes were included but not with modelling based only on the non-esterified FA fraction. The estimated materno-fetal 13 C-FA transfer was ∼1%. In conclusion, our approach using multiple 13 C-FA tracers allowed us to estimated FSR in placental/maternal plasma but not in fetal/maternal compartments. Computational modelling showed a consistent time course of placental 13 C-FA transfer and predicted total fetal FA accumulation during the experiment. We conclude that, in addition to non-esterified FA fraction in the maternal circulation, maternal plasma very low-density lipoprotein and other lipoproteins are important contributors to placental FA transfer to the fetus.

16.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A high dairy protein intake in infancy, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and delivery mode are documented early programming factors that modulate the later risk of obesity and other health outcomes, but the mechanisms of action are not understood. METHODS: The Childhood Obesity Project is a European multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial that enrolled healthy infants. Participating infants were either breastfed (BF) or randomized to receive higher (HP) or lower protein (LP) content formula in the first year of life. At the ages 5.5 years (n = 276) and 8 years (n = 232), we determined plasma metabolites by liquid chromatography tandem-mass-spectrometry of which 226 and 185 passed quality control at 5.5 years and 8 years, respectively. We assessed the effects of infant feeding, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking in pregnancy, delivery mode, parity, birth weight and length, and weight gain (0-24 months) on the metabolome at 5.5 and 8 years. RESULTS: At 5.5 years, plasma alpha-ketoglutarate and the acylcarnitine/BCAA ratios tended to be higher in the HP than in the LP group, but no metabolite reached statistical significance (Pbonferroni>0.09). There were no group differences at 8 years. Quantification of the impact of early programming factors revealed that the intervention group explained 0.6% of metabolome variance at both time points. Except for country of residence that explained 16% and 12% at 5.5 years and 8 years, respectively, none of the other factors explained considerably more variance than expected by chance. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma metabolome was largely unaffected by feeding choice and other early programming factors and we could not prove the existence of a long term programming effect of the plasma metabolome.

17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263982

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this secondary analysis is to describe the types of commercial complementary foods (CCF) consumed by infants and young children enrolled in the European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP), to describe the contribution of CCF to dietary energy intakes and to determine factors associated with CCF use over the first 2 years of life. METHODS: The CHOP trial is a multicenter intervention trial in Germany, Belgium, Italy, Poland and Spain that tested the effect of varying levels of protein in infant formula on the risk for childhood obesity. Infants were recruited from October 2002 to June 2004. Dietary data on CCF use for this secondary analysis were taken from weighted, 3-day dietary records from 1088 infants at 9 time points over the first 2 years of life. RESULTS: Reported energy intakes from CCF during infancy (4-9 months) was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.002) amongst formula-fed children compared to breastfed children. Sweetened CCF intakes were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.009) amongst formula-fed infants. Female infants were fed significantly less CCF and infant age was strongly associated with daily CCF intakes, peaking at 9 months of age. Infants from families with middle- and high-level of education were fed significantly less quantities of CCF compared to infants with parents with lower education. Sweetened CCF were very common in Spain, Italy and Poland, with over 95% of infants and children fed CCF at 9 and 12 months of age consuming at least one sweetened CCF. At 24 months of age, 68% of the CHOP cohort were still fed CCF. CONCLUSIONS: CCF comprised a substantial part of the diets of this cohort of European infants and young children. The proportion of infants being fed sweetened CCF is concerning. More studies on the quality of commercial complementary foods in Europe are warranted, including market surveys on the saturation of the Western European market with sweetened CCF products.

18.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 300(3): 589-600, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201538

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Elective cesarean section (CS) was related to long-term adverse health effects in the offspring, but little is known about underlying mechanisms. Our study investigates the metabolic changes in both maternal and cord blood associated with CS in comparison to vaginal delivery (VD) to explore potential causal pathways. METHODS: Samples obtained from PREOBE study participants were subjected to LC-MS/MS-targeted metabolomics comprising > 200 metabolites. RESULTS: Elective CS showed an impact on both maternal and cord blood metabolomes. In maternal blood, the CS group showed lower levels of phospholipids (PL), principally ether-linked phosphatidylcholines (aaPC), pyruvic acid, branched chain keto-acids (BCKA), and other gluconeogenic substrates, but since the CS group showed different HDL levels in comparison to the VD group, we could not exclude contribution of the latter in the findings. In cord blood, the most remarkable finding in the CS group was the high levels of Cys; conversely, the lower levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), some tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites, gluconeogenic substrates, markers of ß-oxidation, and the sum of hexoses were lower in CS-born babies in addition to tendentially lower levels of PL. CONCLUSIONS: We speculate that lower levels of maternal and fetal corticosteroids in CS, due to less stressful condition, cause metabolic perturbations at birth initiating future negative health outcomes. This further supports the early programming hypothesis.

19.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(4): 443-448, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219933

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Coeliac disease (CD) is a systemic autoimmune disorder affecting about 1% of the population. Many patients remain undiagnosed or are diagnosed with substantial delay. We assessed diagnostic delays in symptomatic CD children in Central Europe (CE). METHODS: Paediatric gastroenterologists in 5 CE countries retrospectively reported data of their patients diagnosed in 2016. Age at first CD-related symptom(s), first visit to paediatric gastroenterologist and confirmed diagnosis were used to determine diagnostic delays. RESULTS: Data from 393 children (65% girls, median age 7 years, range 7 months to 18.5 years) from Croatia, Hungary, Germany, Italy, and Slovenia were analysed. Median duration from first symptom(s) to visit to paediatric gastroenterologist was 5 months (range 0-10 years; preschool 4 months, school-aged 5 months), and further duration until final diagnosis was 1 month (range 0-5 years) with significant regional differences (P < 0.001). Median diagnostic delay was 6 months (range 0-10 years; preschool 5 months, school-aged 7 months). Type of clinical presentation had little, however, significant effect on delays. Reduced body mass in delays longer than 3 years compared with delays shorter than 1 year was found (z score -0.93 vs -0.39, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Time from first symptoms to CD diagnosis in children in 5 CE countries is slightly shorter compared with few other small paediatric studies, and significantly shorter than reported for adults. Nevertheless, delays of more than 3 years in 6.6% of children are worrisome. Raising awareness about the variable symptoms and implementation of reliable diagnostic tools will further reduce diagnostic delays.

20.
Acta Diabetol ; 56(9): 1073-1082, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062097

RESUMO

AIMS: Offspring of mothers suffering from obesity and/or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were reported to be at risk of higher birth weight (BW), later obesity and diabetes. We hypothesize that infant anthropometry changes related to maternal pathological status are due to dysregulated infant metabolism. METHODS: First, we inspected differences in BMI z-scores (z-BMI) between three infant groups: born to normal weight (NW; n = 49), overweight/obese (OV/OB; n = 40) and GDM mothers (n = 27) at birth and 1 year. Then, we inspected associations between cord blood metabolites and 1-year Δ z-BMI in the three infant groups at birth and 1 year. RESULTS: No statistically significant difference was detected in z-BMI between the study groups at birth; however, GDM was associated with heavier infants at 1 year. Regarding the associations between the metabolites and z-BMI, phospholipids, especially those containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, were the species most impacted by the maternal metabolic status, since numerous phosphatidylcholines-PUFA were positively associated with z-BMI in NW but negatively in OV/OB and GDM groups at birth. Conversely, the sum of lysophosphatidylcholines was only positively associated with z-BMI in NW at birth but of no relation in the other two groups. At 1 year, most of the associations seen at birth were reversed in NW and lost in OV/OB and GDM groups. In the NW group, PC-PUFA were found to be negatively associated with Δ z-BMI at 1 year in addition to some medium-chain acylcarnitines, tricarboxylic acid metabolites, Asp and Asn-to-Asp ratio. In OV/OB and GDM groups, the non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA26:0) and His correlated with Δ z-BMI at 1 year in negative and positive directions, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: GDM was associated with overweight in offspring at 1 year, independent of the BW with lack of evidence on existing correlation of this finding with metabolic alterations detected in cord blood metabolome. Associations were found between cord blood metabolites and infant anthropometry at birth and were influenced by maternal OB and GDM. However, an extension of the findings monitored at birth among the three groups was not detected longitudinally showing a lack of predictive power of cord blood metabolome for later development at least 1 year.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas , Filho de Pais Incapacitados , Diabetes Gestacional , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Obesidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Adulto , Crianças Adultas/estatística & dados numéricos , Peso ao Nascer/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeito de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Características da Família , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/química , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Metabolômica/instrumentação , Metabolômica/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/complicações , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico
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