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1.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: γ-Tocopherol has unique properties that protect against nitrogen oxide-mediated cellular damage. To elucidate the potential role of γ-tocopherol in the aging process, we examined the associations of serum γ-tocopherol levels with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Among participants in the biorepository subcohort of the Multiethnic Cohort Study, pre-cancer diagnostic serum γ-tocopherol levels were measured in a subset of 3904 men and 4461 women. Of these, 22.7% of men and 13.5% of women died during a mean follow-up time of 9.6 ± 2.6 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for mortality associated with γ-tocopherol were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Positive associations of serum γ-tocopherol with all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease mortality (CVD) (Ptrend < 0.05) were detected after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and serum cholesterol levels. The respective HRs (95% CIs) for the highest versus the lowest sex-specific γ-tocopherol quartile were 1.43 (1.17-1.74), 1.79 (1.22-2.64), and 1.52 (1.10-2.11) for men and 1.58 (1.25-2.00), 1.59 (1.05-2.41), and 1.59 (1.07-2.37) for women. Associations remained significant for all-cause mortality among women after further adjusting for smoking variables and history of cancer, CVD, diabetes, and hypertension at cohort entry (highest vs. lowest γ-tocopherol quartile: HR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.08-1.75; Ptrend = 0.005). Overall, associations with all-cause mortality were consistent across race/ethnicity and were significant in three of ten sex-specific racial/ethnic groups in the fully adjusted models, with no interactions between ethnicity and γ-tocopherol. CONCLUSIONS: The positive association between γ-tocopherol and mortality suggests a potential physiological role for γ-tocopherol in response to pathological conditions.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248054

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine whether using gender specific-portion size (GS-PS) improves the accuracy of nutrient intake assessment by a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ). For GS-PS quantification, a gram amount was assigned to each PS category for each food item for men and women separately using data from three 24 h dietary recalls (24HDRs) in a calibration study of the Multiethnic Cohort (men = 1141, women = 1150). Nutrient intakes were calculated from the QFFQ using the original-PS and the GS-PS, and were compared with 24HDRs. When intakes of energy and 15 nutrients were compared, absolute intakes calculated using the GS-PS were closer to intake levels of 24HDRs in both men and women. Using GS-PS did not affect intakes expressed as nutrient density or correlations between 24HDRs and the QFFQ. The current findings indicate that considering gender in PS determination can increase the accuracy of intake assessment by QFFQ for absolute nutrient intakes, but not for nutrient densities.

3.
Neurology ; 92(18): e2089-e2100, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify prediagnostic plasma metabolomic biomarkers associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We conducted a global metabolomic study using a nested case-control study design within 5 prospective cohorts and identified 275 individuals who developed ALS during follow-up. We profiled plasma metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and identified 404 known metabolites. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the associations between metabolites and ALS risk. Further, we used machine learning analyses to determine whether the prediagnostic metabolomic profile could discriminate ALS cases from controls. RESULTS: A total of 31 out of 404 identified metabolites were associated with ALS risk (p < 0.05). We observed inverse associations (n = 27) with plasma levels of diacylglycerides and triacylglycerides, urate, purine nucleosides, and some organic acids and derivatives, while we found positive associations for a cholesteryl ester, 2 phosphatidylcholines, and a sphingomyelin. The number of significant associations increased to 67 (63 inverse) in analyses restricted to cases with blood samples collected within 5 years of onset. None of these associations remained significant after multiple comparison adjustment. Further, we were not able to reliably distinguish individuals who became cases from controls based on their metabolomic profile using partial least squares discriminant analysis, elastic net regression, random forest, support vector machine, or weighted correlation network analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Although the metabolomic profile in blood samples collected years before ALS diagnosis did not reliably separate presymptomatic ALS cases from controls, our results suggest that ALS is preceded by a broad, but poorly defined, metabolic dysregulation years before the disease onset.

4.
Neurology ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether prediagnostic levels of plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk. METHODS: We included participants from 5 large cohort studies-The Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the Women's Health Initiative-and identified 275 individuals who developed ALS during follow-up. Two controls were randomly selected for each case, matched on cohort, age, sex, fasting status, and time of blood draw. We measured metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and used conditional logistic regression to estimate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of individual BCAAs with ALS risk. RESULTS: None of the 3 BCAAs was associated with a higher ALS risk. The risk estimates were similar for leucine (RR top vs bottom quartile: 0.87, 95% CI 0.57-1.33), isoleucine (RR top vs bottom quartile: 0.81, 95% CI 0.52-1.24), and valine (RR top vs bottom quartile: 0.80, 95% CI 0.52-1.23) in a multivariable analysis adjusted for body mass index, smoking, level of education, and physical activity. The estimates did not vary significantly by sex, fasting status, or time interval between blood draw and disease onset. CONCLUSION: The results from this study do not support the hypothesis that BCAAs are risk factors for ALS.

5.
Epigenetics ; 13(8): 858-865, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277114

RESUMO

Excess body fat, especially intra-abdominal fat, is a leading risk factor for metabolic diseases. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of two imprinted genes, insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19, have been associated with obesity due to their important roles in regulating body composition, but have not been examined in relation to intra-abdominal fat depots. Total body fat from whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and visceral and liver fat contents from abdominal magnetic resonance imaging in 48 healthy women aged 60-65 years (of White or Japanese ancestry) were each regressed on circulating leukocyte DNA methylation levels of IGF2 (at DMR0, DMR2a, and DMR2b) and H19 (at CTCF3) as assessed by pyrosequencing, while adjusting for age and race/ethnicity. Total fat mass was inversely associated with methylation levels of IGF2 DMR2b (P = 0.016). Total fat-adjusted visceral fat area (P = 0.062) and percent visceral fat measured at L4-L5 (P = 0.045) were associated with higher methylation levels of IGF2 DMR2b. Both total fat-adjusted percent liver fat (P = 0.039) and the presence of fatty liver (P = 0.015) were positively associated with IGF2 DMR2a methylation. Methylation levels of H19 CTCF3 were not associated with overall or intra/abdominal adiposity. The findings indicate that methylation levels of IGF2 DMR regions in leukocytes are associated with total body fat and with fat distribution in the viscera and liver independently of total adiposity.

6.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study examined the long-term relation of lipid-soluble micronutrients with diet quality as assessed by four a priori-defined dietary patterns. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a prospective design, nutritional biomarkers (carotenoids, tocopherols, retinol, and coenzyme Q10) were measured using a validated HPLC-based assay. General linear models were applied to obtain covariate-adjusted means of biomarkers for tertiles of four a priori diet quality indices: Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, Alternative HEI (AHEI) 2010, Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). For a subcohort of 8367 participants within the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), diet was assessed by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1993-96 and serum was collected in 2001-06. RESULTS: Participants with the highest diet-quality scores had significantly higher serum concentrations of all carotenoids, total tocopherols, and α-tocopherol, whereas γ-tocopherol was inversely associated with diet quality. Adjusted means for the lowest vs. highest tertile of HEI 2010 were 1.2 vs. 1.5 mg/L for total carotenoids, 11.4 vs. 12.3 mg/L for total tocopherols, and 1.9 vs. 1.6 mg/L for γ-tocopherol (ptrend < 0.0001). The associations for the other dietary indices were similar; no indication for sex and ethnic differences was detected. Vegetable and fruit components were major predictors of most circulating micronutrients, but most other components were also associated. CONCLUSIONS: Higher diet-quality scores measured by four a priori diet quality indices were significantly associated higher serum concentrations of carotenoids and α-tocopherol, whereas γ-tocopherol was inversely associated with diet quality.

7.
Eur Urol ; 74(5): 585-594, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical evidence implicates testosterone in the aetiology of prostate cancer. Variation across the normal range of circulating free testosterone concentrations may not lead to changes in prostate biology, unless circulating concentrations are low. This may also apply to prostate cancer risk, but this has not been investigated in an epidemiological setting. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether men with low concentrations of circulating free testosterone have a reduced risk of prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of individual participant data from 20 prospective studies including 6933 prostate cancer cases, diagnosed on average 6.8 yr after blood collection, and 12 088 controls in the Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Odds ratios (ORs) of incident overall prostate cancer and subtypes by stage and grade, using conditional logistic regression, based on study-specific tenths of calculated free testosterone concentration. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Men in the lowest tenth of free testosterone concentration had a lower risk of overall prostate cancer (OR=0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69-0.86; p<0.001) compared with men with higher concentrations (2nd-10th tenths of the distribution). Heterogeneity was present by tumour grade (phet=0.01), with a lower risk of low-grade disease (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.88) and a nonsignificantly higher risk of high-grade disease (OR=1.56, 95% CI 0.95-2.57). There was no evidence of heterogeneity by tumour stage. The observational design is a limitation. CONCLUSIONS: Men with low circulating free testosterone may have a lower risk of overall prostate cancer; this may be due to a direct biological effect, or detection bias. Further research is needed to explore the apparent differential association by tumour grade. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study, we looked at circulating testosterone levels and risk of developing prostate cancer, finding that men with low testosterone had a lower risk of prostate cancer.

8.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: As cocoa products may be protective against chronic disease due to their polyphenol content, the current study determined the association of chocolate consumption and flavanol intake with type-2 diabetes (T2D) incidence in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) Study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The analysis included 151,691 participants of Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino, African American, and white ancestry with 8487 incident T2D cases after 7.8 ± 3.5 years of follow-up. T2D status was based on three self-reports and confirmed by at least one of three administrative data sources. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and flavanols from cocoa products were estimated from self-reported consumption of chocolate candy and drinks. Cox hazard regression, adjusted for potential confounders was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: For chocolate candy, both the highest vs. lowest (≥10 vs. <1 g/day) consumption (HR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83-0.97; ptrend = 0.01) and the frequency (≥4/week vs. <1/month) of intake (HR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.72-0.91; ptrend = 0.0002) were inversely associated with T2D. The estimated flavanol intake from cocoa products (≥3 vs. <1 mg/day) also showed an inverse association with T2D risk (HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99; ptrend = 0.02). Significant interaction terms indicated that the inverse relation was limited to Japanese Americans, normal-weight individuals, and to those without comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirms previous reports that participants with high intake of chocolate products and cocoa-derived flavanols experience a reduced risk of developing T2D even after controlling for sugar intake, diet quality, and other aspects of the diet.

9.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 118(9): 1711-1718, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29752189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accounting for sex differences in food portions may improve dietary measurement; however, this factor has not been well examined. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in reported food portions from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) among those who selected the same portion size category on a quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ). DESIGN: This study was conducted with a cross-sectional design. PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Participants (n=319) were members of the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort who completed three 24HDRs and a QFFQ in a calibration study conducted in 2010 and 2011. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Portions of individual foods reported from 24HDRs served as the outcome measures. STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Mean food portions from 24HDRs were compared between men and women who reported the same portion size on the QFFQ, after adjustment for race/ethnicity using a linear regression model. Actual amount and the assigned amount of the selected portion size in the QFFQ were compared using one-sample t test for men and women separately. RESULTS: Of 163 food items with portion size options listed in the QFFQ, 32 were reported in 24HDRs by ≥20 men and ≥20 women who selected the same portion size in the QFFQ. Although they chose the same portion size on the QFFQ, mean intake amounts from 24HDRs were significantly higher for men than for women for "beef/lamb/veal," "white rice," "brown/wild rice," "lettuce/tossed salad," "eggs cooked/raw," "whole wheat/rye bread," "buns/rolls," and "mayonnaise in sandwiches." For men, mean portions of 14 items from the 24HDRs were significantly different from the assigned amounts for QFFQ items (seven higher and seven lower), whereas for women, mean portions of 14 items were significantly lower from the assigned amounts (with five significantly higher). CONCLUSIONS: These sex differences in reported 24HDR food portions-even among participants who selected the same portion size on the QFFQ-suggest that the use of methods that account for differences in the portions consumed by men and women when QFFQs are quantified may provide more accurate absolute dietary intakes.

10.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(6): 601-607, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29671182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine if dietary intake of foods rich in flavonoids, which have been shown to be inversely associated with chronic diseases, is associated with inflammatory processes. METHODS: This analysis includes controls of case-control studies nested within the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at cohort entry. Biomarkers were assessed in blood donated during follow-up (mean = 9.6 years). We used multivariate linear regression adjusted for potential confounders to estimate associations between intake of flavanones, flavonols, and isoflavones and levels of adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α. RESULTS: Among the 1,287 participants, the respective median intakes of flavanones, flavonols, and isoflavones were 26.5, 12.4, and 1.3 mg/day at cohort entry. With the exception of flavanone intake, which was statistically significantly inversely associated with adiponectin (p = 0.01) and IL-6 concentrations (p = 0.01), none of the examined flavonoids was related with levels of adipokines or inflammatory markers. Heterogeneity by ethnicity was only observed for flavonol intake and IL-10 (pinteraction = 0.04) and may be the result of multiple testing. These null findings were confirmed in a subset of participants who completed a second dietary history within 2.6 years of blood draw. CONCLUSION: The current results do not support a consistent association between dietary intake of flavonoids and markers of inflammatory processes.

11.
Sleep Health ; 4(1): 27-32, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: As an emerging risk factor for the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes, we examined sleep duration in relation to type 2 diabetes and several biomarkers. DESIGN: Prospective cohort recruited 1993-1996. SETTING: The Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and California. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 151,691 White, African American, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, and Latino participants; 9695 cohort members had biomarker measurements. MEASUREMENTS: Sleep duration was self-reported at cohort entry. Diabetes status was obtained from 3 questionnaires and confirmed by 3 administrative data sources. Biomarkers were measured by standard assays 9.6±2.1 years after cohort entry. We estimated diabetes risk as a time-varying outcome using Cox regression adjusted for body mass index assessed at 3 time points and other known confounders and computed adjusted means of biomarkers by sleep hours. RESULTS: During 7.9±3.5 years of follow-up, 8487 new diabetes cases were diagnosed. Long sleep duration (≥9 hours), as compared with 7-8 hours, was significantly associated with higher incidence (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.21), but the 4% elevated incidence for short sleep duration (≤6 hours) did not reach significance (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.09). After stratification, the associations appeared stronger in Japanese American than other ethnic groups and in participants without comorbidity. Hours of sleep were positively associated with C-reactive protein and triglycerides and inversely related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin but not with leptin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. CONCLUSION: In this multiethnic population, the 12% higher diabetes risk for long sleep hours may be mediated through inflammation, a poor lipid profile, and lower adiponectin levels.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sono , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29277115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine for the first time the association between plasma urate levels measured in healthy participants and future amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk. METHODS: A pooled case-control study nested in five US prospective cohorts comprising 319,617 participants who provided blood, of which 275 had ALS during follow-up. Pre-diagnostic plasma urate was determined for all participants using a clinical colorimetric enzyme assay. Gender-specific multivariable-adjusted rate ratios (RR) of ALS incidence or death estimated by conditional logistic regression and pooled using inverse-variance weighting. RESULTS: In age- and matching factor-adjusted analyses, a 1 mg/dL increase in urate concentration was associated with RR = 0.88 (95% CI: [0.78, 0.997] p = 0.044). After adjustment for BMI, a strong predictor of ALS and urate levels, and other potential covariates, the RR = 0.89 (95% CI: [0.78, 1.02]; p = 0.08 for 1mg/dL increase in urate). CONCLUSION: Elevation of plasma urate was modestly inversely associated with the risk of ALS and warrants further study for a potential role in this disease.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Colorimetria , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(1): 167-183, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29222610

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We characterized the neighborhood obesogenic environment in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) by examining the associations of obesity with attributes of the social and built environment, establishing a multi-level infrastructure for future cancer research. METHODS: For 102,906 African American, Japanese American, Latino, and white MEC participants residing predominately in Los Angeles County, baseline residential addresses (1993-1996) were linked to census and geospatial data, capturing neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), population density, commuting, food outlets, amenities, walkability, and traffic density. We examined neighborhood attributes and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) associations using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for individual-level (e.g., demographics, physical activity, and diet) and neighborhood-level factors. RESULTS: NSES was associated with obesity among African Americans, Latinos, and whites (p-trend ≤ 0.02), with twofold higher odds (adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals) for living in the lowest versus highest quintile among African American women (2.07, 1.62-2.65), white men (2.11, 1.29-3.44), and white women (2.50, 1.73-3.61). Lower density of businesses among African American and white women and lower traffic density among white men were also associated with obesity (p-trends ≤ 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights differential impacts of neighborhood factors across racial/ethnic groups and establishes the foundation for multi-level studies of the neighborhood context and obesity-related cancers.

14.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0187741, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sex hormones have been implicated in the etiology of a number of diseases. To better understand disease etiology and the mechanisms of disease-risk factor associations, this analysis aimed to investigate the associations of anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors with a range of circulating sex hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin. METHODS: Statistical analyses of individual participant data from 12,330 male controls aged 25-85 years from 25 studies involved in the Endogenous Hormones Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group. Analysis of variance was used to estimate geometric means adjusted for study and relevant covariates. RESULTS: Older age was associated with higher concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and dihydrotestosterone and lower concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free testosterone, androstenedione, androstanediol glucuronide and free estradiol. Higher body mass index was associated with higher concentrations of free estradiol, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol and estrone and lower concentrations of dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, free testosterone, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Taller height was associated with lower concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin and higher concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide. Current smoking was associated with higher concentrations of androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin and testosterone. Alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and androstanediol glucuronide. East Asians had lower concentrations of androstanediol glucuronide and African Americans had higher concentrations of estrogens. Education and marital status were modestly associated with a small number of hormones. CONCLUSION: Circulating sex hormones in men are strongly associated with age and body mass index, and to a lesser extent with smoking status and alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Comportamento , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Classe Social , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
15.
Br J Nutr ; 118(4): 312-320, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28875870

RESUMO

Dietary indices have been related to risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) predominantly in white populations. The present study evaluated this association in the ethnically diverse Multiethnic Cohort and examined four diet quality indices in relation to T2D risk, homoeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and biomarkers of dyslipidaemia, inflammation and adipokines. The T2D analysis included 166 550 white, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American and Latino participants (9200 incident T2D cases). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a quantitative FFQ and T2D status was based on three self-reports and confirmed by administrative data. Biomarkers were assessed about 10 years later in a biomarker subcohort (n 10 060). Sex- and ethnicity-specific hazard ratios were calculated for the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the alternative HEI-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). Multivariable-adjusted means of biomarkers were compared across dietary index tertiles in the biomarker subcohort. The AHEI-2010, aMED (in men only) and DASH scores were related to a 10-20 % lower T2D risk, with the strongest associations in whites and the direction of the relationships mostly consistent across ethnic groups. Higher scores on the four indices were related to lower HOMA-IR, TAG and C-reactive protein concentrations, not related to leptin, and the DASH score was directly associated with adiponectin. The AHEI-2010 and DASH were directly related to HDL-cholesterol in women. Potential underlying biological mechanisms linking diet quality and T2D risk are an improved lipid profile and reduced systemic inflammation and, with regards to DASH alone, an improved adiponectin profile.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Hispano-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Adiponectina/sangue , Idoso , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Dieta/normas , Dieta Mediterrânea , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/prevenção & controle , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Resistência à Insulina , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
16.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 36(5): 378-385, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28628401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The potential influence of dietary factors on inflammation is important for cancer prevention. Utilizing data from control participants (312 men, 911 women) in 2 nested case-control studies of cancer within the Multiethnic Cohort, we examined the associations of red and processed meat intake with serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 and the mediator effect of body mass index (BMI) on the above associations (if present). METHODS: Multivariable linear models were applied to assess the association between red and processed meat intake at cohort entry and serum biomarker levels measured 9.1 years later after adjusting for covariates and to determine the mediator effect of BMI. RESULTS: Overall red and processed meat intake was positively associated with serum leptin levels in men (ß = 0.180, p = 0.0004) and women (ß = 0.167, p < 0.0001). In women, higher red and processed meat consumption was significantly associated with higher CRP (ß = 0.069, p = 0.03) and lower adiponectin levels (ß = -0.082, p = 0.005). In mediation analyses with red and processed meat intake and BMI as predictors, the associations of red and processed meat with biomarkers decreased substantially (as indicated by percentage change in effect: leptin in men, 13.4%; leptin in women, 13.7%; adiponectin in women, -4.7%; CRP in women, 7.4%) and were no longer significant (p > 0.05), whereas BMI remained significantly associated with serum leptin (men: ß = 3.209, p < 0.0001; women: ß = 2.891, p < 0.0001), adiponectin (women: ß = -1.085, p < 0.0001), and CRP (women: ß = 1.581, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The current data suggest that the amount of excess body weight or the degree of adiposity may mediate the relations between dietary red and processed meat intake and serum biomarkers associated with obesity and inflammation.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Inflamação , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Adiposidade/etnologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(5): 787-794, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28420652

RESUMO

Background: Alcohol is a recognized risk factor for invasive breast cancer, but few studies involve African American women.Methods: The current analysis included 22,338 women (5,108 cases of invasive breast cancer) from the African American Breast Cancer Epidemiology and Risk (AMBER) Consortium. The association between number of alcoholic drinks per week (dpw) and breast cancer was estimated using logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders, and stratifying by breast cancer subtype.Results: Approximately 35% of controls were current drinkers at interview. Women who reported current drinking of ≥14 dpw had an elevated risk of breast cancer compared with light drinkers (>0-<4 dpw) [adjusted OR (ORadj), 1.33; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.64]. We observed elevated risk among women drinking ≥7 dpw for ER - [ORadj, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.72], PR - [ORadj, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00-1.63], HER2 - [ORadj, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09-1.70], and triple-negative [ORadj, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.98-2.00] molecular subtype. Among receptor-positive cases, ORs remained elevated but attenuated relative to receptor-negative cases. Sensitivity analysis of age-defined windows of exposure (<30 years, 30-49, 50+ years of age) did not reveal variation in patterns of association. Risk associated with alcohol intake did not vary significantly by oral contraceptive use, smoking status, or menopausal status.Conclusions: Among African American women, similar to women of European descent, drinking ≥7 alcoholic dpw was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer regardless of subtype.Impact: Alcohol intake is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer, and reduced intake among African American women should be encouraged. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(5); 787-94. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(8): 1276-1287, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28446545

RESUMO

Background: Relationships between fruit, vegetable, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk are unclear.Methods: We examined associations between fruit and vegetable groups, specific fruits and vegetables, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk overall, by stage and grade, and for prostate cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohorts, including 52,680 total cases and 3,205 prostate cancer-related deaths among 842,149 men. Diet was measured by a food frequency questionnaire or similar instrument at baseline. We calculated study-specific relative risks using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then pooled these estimates using a random effects model.Results: We did not observe any statistically significant associations for advanced prostate cancer or prostate cancer mortality with any food group (including total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, total vegetables, fruit and vegetable juice, cruciferous vegetables, and tomato products), nor specific fruit and vegetables. In addition, we observed few statistically significant results for other prostate cancer outcomes. Pooled multivariable relative risks comparing the highest versus lowest quantiles across all fruit and vegetable exposures and prostate cancer outcomes ranged from 0.89 to 1.09. There was no evidence of effect modification for any association by age or body mass index.Conclusions: Results from this large, international, pooled analysis do not support a strong role of collective groupings of fruits, vegetables, or mature beans in prostate cancer.Impact: Further investigation of other dietary exposures, especially indicators of bioavailable nutrient intake or specific phytochemicals, should be considered for prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(8); 1276-87. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Phaseolus/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Verduras/química , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(7): 1016-1026, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28377418

RESUMO

Background: Genome-wide association studies have identified approximately 100 common genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk, the majority of which were discovered in women of European ancestry. Because of different patterns of linkage disequilibrium, many of these genetic markers may not represent signals in populations of African ancestry.Methods: We tested 74 breast cancer risk variants and conducted fine-mapping of these susceptibility regions in 6,522 breast cancer cases and 7,643 controls of African ancestry from three genetic consortia (AABC, AMBER, and ROOT).Results: Fifty-four of the 74 variants (73%) were found to have ORs that were directionally consistent with those previously reported, of which 12 were nominally statistically significant (P < 0.05). Through fine-mapping, in six regions (3p24, 12p11, 14q13, 16q12/FTO, 16q23, 19p13), we observed seven markers that better represent the underlying risk variant for overall breast cancer or breast cancer subtypes, whereas in another two regions (11q13, 16q12/TOX3), we identified suggestive evidence of signals that are independent of the reported index variant. Overlapping chromatin features and regulatory elements suggest that many of the risk alleles lie in regions with biological functionality.Conclusions: Through fine-mapping of known susceptibility regions, we have revealed alleles that better characterize breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry.Impact: The risk alleles identified represent genetic markers for modeling and stratifying breast cancer risk in women of African ancestry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(7); 1016-26. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 26(4): 480-489, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28143808

RESUMO

Background: While obesity is well-understood to increase breast cancer risk, the role of the neighborhood obesogenic environment, encompassing social and built environment attributes that influence body size, is poorly understood.Methods: Using principal components factor analysis, five composite factors [neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), urban, mixed-land development, unhealthy food environment, parks] on the basis of geospatial data were developed to characterize the obesogenic environment for 48,247 postmenopausal women in the Multiethnic Cohort, residing predominately in Los Angeles County. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the association between neighborhood obesogenic factors and breast cancer risk (n = 2,341 cases after 17 years of follow-up), adjusting for body mass index (BMI), weight gain since age 21, education, established risk factors, other neighborhood factors, and clustering by block group.Results: Lower nSES was associated with lower breast cancer risk [quintile 1 vs. 5: HR, 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.95], with a more pronounced association observed in Latinos (quintile 1 vs. 5: HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.43-0.85). More urban environments were associated with lower breast cancer risk in Japanese Americans (quintile 5 vs. 1: HR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.90), and lower mixed-land development was associated with higher breast cancer risk in Latinos (quintile 1 vs. 5: HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.10-1.93).Conclusions: Obesogenic neighborhood environment factors, especially nSES, urbanicity, and mixed-land development, were differentially and independently associated with breast cancer risk in this multiethnic population.Impact: These findings highlight the need for additional studies of the driving contextual aspects of nSES that influence breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 480-9. ©2017 AACRSee all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Geospatial Approaches to Cancer Control and Population Sciences."


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Características de Residência , Ganho de Peso , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , California/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etnologia , Pós-Menopausa , Análise de Componente Principal , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
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